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# 1.

Engineering Drawing
1.1 Introduction to Engineering Drawing
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.1.6
1.1.7

Introduction
Sheet Sizes
Layout and Drawing Sheets
Drawing Zones
Drawing Scales
Line Types or Styles
Lettering

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Introduction
Orthographic Projection
Isometric Projection
Oblique Projection
Auxiliary Projection

Sections
Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Conventional Representations
Surface Roughness
Fasteners
Drawing Tips
Missing Views

Drawing
1.1.1

Introduction

## Drawing is the universal language of engineering

Engineering drawing is a formal and precise way of communicating information about the Shape,
Size, Features and Precision of physical objects
Engineering drawings communicate product design and manufacturing information in a reliable
and unambiguous manner regardless of language

Drawing Standards

Engineering drawings and other technical drawings have to be done in ways that all engineers
can recognize.
These ways are called drawing standards or conventions
Drawings are made to standard so that they : Use same symbols, lines, dimension techniques
etc., can be understood internationally

## ANSI - American National Standards Institute

ISO - International Standards Organization
DIN - Deutsches Institut fur Normung
BSI
- British Standards Institute
JIS
- Japanese Industry Standard

Drawing
1.1.2

## Drawing Sheet Sizes

The following table defines the ISO A series standard drawing sizes, and their letter designations

Designatio
n

Dimensions

A0

841 mm x 1189 mm

A1

594 mm x 841 mm

A2

420 mm x 594 mm

A3

297 mm x 420 mm

A4

210 mm x 297 mm

A5

149 mm x 210 mm

Multi-sheet drawings

## Multi-sheet drawings are permitted in all sheet sizes

The first sheet of a multi-sheet drawing shall always contain the complete Title block, List of
Material, Revision Block, and general notes
All sheets of multi-sheet drawings shall be of the same letter size. Use of multi-sheet drawings
shall be found to be advantageous for certain types of schematics and diagrams
Sheet numbering for all first sheets shall include the total number of sheets, as SHEET 1 OF 1,
SHEET 1 OF 2, etc.

Drawing
1.1.3

## Drawing Sheet Layout

Paper space is a sheet layout environment where you can specify the size of your sheet, add a title block,
display multiple views of your model, and create dimensions and notes for your drawing

This is the layout of a typical sheet, showing the drawing layout, a typical title block, BOM
(parts list) and revision table

Revision
Block

Drawing
Layout

BOM (Parts
list)
Title Block

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
Sheet Frame/Border

It is standard practice for a drawing frame to be printed on each sheet, defining a margin around the
outside of drawing area.
Drawing frames are standardized for each size of paper

Drawing
Frame

Drawing
Layout

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
Title Block
The title block is normally placed in the bottom right of the drawing frame, and it should contain the
following information:
1. Name of the company or organization
2. Title of the drawing - Description of the part or assembly
3. Drawing number - Which is generally a unique filing identifier of part or assembly for archiving or
cross referencing
4. The scale Identifies the main scale that the drawings is drawn e.g., 1:1 or 1:2
5. Sheet Size Size of the drawing sheet used for the drawing
6. Projection system symbol - Either first or third angle projection, generally shown symbolically
7. Drawn by - the signature or initials of the draftsman, checker, approving officer, and issuing officer,
with the respective dates
8. Date - The date the drawing was created or amended on
9. Material - What the item is made of, e.g. Mild steel, Aluminum, if critical include particular grade
Title Block
for Part
10. Surface Finish - The general componentExample
surface :roughness
tolerance
Drawing
11. Sheet Number Sheet number is indicated on the
drawing including total number of sheets used
for the drawing
12. other information as required

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
Revision Block

A revision table is normally located in the upper right of the drawing frame, or at the bottom on the left side
of the title block.

## All modifications to the drawing should be documented here

The revision table contains a row for every stage of revisions made to the drawing

Zone

Revision Letter

Date of revision

## Signature/initials of the reviser

The revision table expands by one row each time the drawing changes, often requiring that its size be
restricted to the most previous revisions in order to leave space for the actual drawing!
ZON
E

REVISION
REF

DATE

DESCRIPTION

SIG

A3

01/02/
09

XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

XX

B5

15/06/
09

XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

XX

C7

05/01/
10

XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

XX

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
BOM (Bill of Material or Parts List)
If the drawing contains a number of parts, or if it is an assembly drawing, a tabulated parts list is attached to
the bottom right of the drawing frame, just above the title block
The Parts List should give the following information :

Part Number

Part Name/Description

## Drawing Number of each individual part

Material Specifications

Quantity required

## Other applicable information

The revision table expands by one row each time the drawing changes, often requiring that its size be
restricted to the most previous revisions in order to leave space for the actual drawing!

Drawing
1.1.4

Zones

## A drawing may be divided up into a grid using letters and numbers

Zoning allows easy references to various parts of the drawing by referring a zone for example A1

## When zoning is used it is located inside the drawing frame

Vertical Zone
identification
Alphabetically
lettered from Top
edge

Zone A1

Horizontal Zone
identification
Numbered from Left-hand
edge

## 3.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
1.1.5

Scales

All engineering drawings can be classified as either drawings with scale or those not drawn to scale

Drawings without scale are intended to present only functional information about the component and the
system

Scaled drawing used to obtain information such as physical dimensions, tolerances and materials that
allows the fabrication or construction of the component or system

Components or systems can be drawn to full scale in a more convenient and easy to read the different
parameters. Also a small component can be scaled up or enlarged , so that its details can be seen clearly
when drawn on paper

Actual/Full Size

1:1

Reduction

Enlargement

## 2:1; 5:1; 10:1

Decimal multiples of these base scales are also used e.g., 1:20, 1:50, 20:1, 50:1
The scale should normally be noted in the title block of a drawing
When more than one scale is used they should be shown close to the views to which they refer

Drawing
1.1.6

## Line Styles or Types

When a designer works with an engineering drawing they must be familiar with the precise meaning of
the various line styles, abbreviations, drawing simplifications and terminology as specified in the relevant
standards
Each line on a drawing represents specific precise information regarding the components design

Line
Type/Style

Example

Application
Center lines shall be composed of

Center Line

## long and short dashes, alternately and

evenly spaced, with a long dash at
each end
Center lines drawn through the
center of a feature and is used to
indicate the travel of a center

Dimension
Line

## Dimension lines shall terminate in

They shall be unbroken except where
space is required for the dimension

## Leader shall be used to indicate a

part or portion to which a number,
note, or other reference applies

Phantom Line

## Phantom lines shall be used to

indicate the alternate position of parts
of the item delineated, repeated detail,
or the relative position of an absent
part
Composed of alternating one long
and two short dashes, evenly spaced,

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
Line
Type/Style
Hidden Lines

Break Line
(Short or
Long)

Example

Application
Hidden lines shall consist of short
dashes, evenly spaced
These lines are used to show the
hidden features of a part
Short breaks shall be indicated by
solid freehand lines.
For long breaks, full ruled lines with
freehand zigzags shall be used.
Shafts rods, tubes, etc., which have a
portion of their length broken out, shall
have the ends of the break drawn as
indicated in fig.

Datum Line

## Datum lines shall be used to indicate

the position of a datum plane
It consist of one long dash and two
short dashes

Visible Lines
or Outlines

## The outline or visible line shall be

used for all lines on the drawing
representing visible lines on the object

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Drawing
Line
Type/Style
Cutting
Plane/
Viewing Planes
Lines

Cutting-Plane
for Complex or
Off-set Planes

Example

Application
The cutting-plane lines shall be used
to indicate a plane or planes in which a
section is taken
The viewing-plane lines shall be used
to indicate the plane or planes from
which a surface or surfaces are viewed
On complex views, or when the
cutting planes are bent or offset, the
cutting planes shall be indicated as
shown in Fig.

## 1.1 Introduction to Engineering

Example for Line Conventions
Drawing

Drawing
1.1.7

Lettering

## All characters on drawing must be legible and consistent

No particular style is required, but characters should be consistent on the same drawing
Capital letters are preferred to lower case ones
Preferred Size of lettering is given as a minimum height, relating to drawing size as shown below

Application
Drawing Titles and
Numbers, etc.
Dimensions and Notes

7 mm

A4

5 mm

A0

3.5 mm

2.5 mm

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2.1

Introduction

In order to interpret and communicate the graphical description of the solid objects with engineering
drawings a designer must have a sound understanding of it's use and a clear vision of how the various
projections are created
A view of an object is known technically as a projection
A projection is a view conceived to be drawn or projected on to a plane, known as the plane of projection
The purpose of a drawing is to show the size and shape of the object. A drawing can also provide certain
information on how an object is to be made. Various methods of presentation are available to the designer
or drafter. However, the best way to show every feature of an object in its true size and shape is to use an
arrangement of more than one view known as a multiview drawing.
Multiple views are created using the principles of orthographic projection

projections

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2.2

Orthographic projection

orthographic projection is a system of views of an object formed by projectors from the object
perpendicular to the
desired plane of projection

Orthographic projections on mutually perpendicular projection planes will fully describe the object in its
shape and size.
Six Basic
Hence,Views
all design and manufacturing drawings are made with orthographic projections

You can project in six orthogonal directions. The resulting views are called basic views.

You may imagine that the 3D object is placed inside a transparent box, and views are projected
orthogonally onto the six walls of the box. By unfolding the box, six views of the object are possible

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

Modern orthographic projection is derived from Gaspard Monges descriptive geometry
Monge defined a reference system of two viewing planes, horizontal H ("ground") and vertical V ("backdrop").
These two planes intersect to partition 3D space into 4 quadrants

Above HP
Behind VP

e
nc e
e
r
fe Lin
Re

III
Below HP
Behind VP

Above HP
In front of
VP

IV
Behind HP
In front of

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

Types of Orthographic Projections
There are two predominant orthographic projections used today - First Angle and Third Angle Projections

First-Angle
Projection

Third-Angle
Projection

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

First-Angle Projection

## First Angle Projection is used in Europe and Asia

In First Angle Projection we place our object in the First Quadrant.
This means that the Vertical Plane is behind the object and the Horizontal Plane is underneath the object

## front is in the middle

left is on the right
right is on the left
top is on the bottom
bottom is on the top
rear is on the far right

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

Third-Angle Projection

## Third angle Projection is used in America and Australia

In Third Angle Projection the Object is placed in the Third Quadrant.
This means that the Vertical Plane is in front of the object and the Horizontal Plane is above the object

A view from
on the left.
A view from
A view from
on the top.
A view from

## the left of the front view is drawn

the right is drawn on the right.
the top of the front view is drawn
the bottom is drawn on the bottom.

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

Because the difference between projection methods is so small this presents little or no difficulty for
engineers to
interpret drawings, provided we indicate on the drawing which system we are using
The symbols for First Angle and Third Angle projection are shown below.
Both systems of projection, First and Third angle, are approved internationally and have equal status
The symbols are derived from a cut cone which has been projected in First or Third Angle respectively

## The recommended proportions for the projection symbols are

shown in above fig.

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

Orthographic projection is used as an unambiguous and accurate way of providing information, primarily
for manufacturing and detail design. This form of representation can however make it difficult to visualise
objects.

Pictorial views can be created to give a more three dimensional impression of the object.

## There are three types of pictorial projections commonly used :

Isometric
Oblique
Perspective

1.2.3

Isometric projection

Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions
in technical and engineering drawings

An isometric view of an object can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction in a way that the
angles between the projection of the x, y, and z axes are all the same, or 120

For example when taking a cube, this is done by first looking straight towards one face. Next cube is
rotated 45 about the vertical axis, followed by rotation of 30 about the horizontal axis

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2.4

Oblique projection

An oblique projection is a simple type of graphical projection used for producing pictorial, two-dimensional
images of three-dimensional objects
One way to draw using an oblique view is to draw the side of the object you are looking at in two
dimensions, i.e. flat, and then draw the other sides at an angle of 30 or 45 degrees, but instead of drawing the
sides full size they are only drawn with half the depth creating 'forced depth' - adding an element of realism to
the object
Oblique drawings look very unconvincing to the eye. For this reason oblique is rarely used by professional
designer and engineers

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2.5

Perspective projection

## Perspective is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is perceived by the eye.

The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are drawn:
Smaller as their distance from the observer increases
Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than
dimensions
across the line of sight

Parallel lines appear to converge and meet at what is referred to as the vanishing point. You can have one, two or
three vanishing points (VP)

## Two-point perspective drawing

One-point perspective
drawing

## 1.2 Methods of Projection

1.2. 6

Auxiliary projection

An auxiliary view is an orthographic view that is projected into any plane other than one of the six

principal views

These views are typically used when an object contains some sort of inclined plane

Using the auxiliary view allows for that inclined plane (and any other significant features) to be projected

## in their true size and shape

The true size and shape of any feature in an engineering drawing can only be known when the Line of

## Sight (LOS) is perpendicular to the plane being referenced

Auxiliary projection
principle

Auxiliary view
arrangement

## Auxiliary and side views

compared

1.3 Sections
Projecting views in a drawing will allow us to see the external features of an object. But most of the
times it is necessary to view the internal features of the object also, this is accomplished by slicing
through the object and producing a sectional or section view

## Sectional or Section views are produced to:

clarify details
show internal features clearly
aid dimensioning
show cross-section shape
clarify an assembly

## Views should not be rotated; however, if views

have to be rotated for a legitimate reason, the
angle and direction of rotation must be given

Sectioning

To show the inside details of a component it is imagined to be cut or sectioned along a plane,
called cutting plane.

The location of a section is indicated by a cutting plane with reference letters and arrowheads
showing the direction in which the section is viewed

Section in one
plane

1.3 Sections
Commonly used sectioning types in
drawing

Section in 2 parallel
plane

## Revolved sections are useful when clarifying local

cross-section shapes as shown in Fig.

part or broken-out
section

sections

## Sectioning Objects with Holes,

Ribs, Etc

1.3 Sections
There are some exceptions to the general rules of sectioning ; Webs, Shafts, Rods, and Spindles,
These parts would not be shown as sections, if their center lines lie on the cutting plane

## Shafts, Rods, Spindle

Sections

Web Sections

1.3 Sections
Hatching

Surfaces cut by the cutting plane are usually hatched to show areas of sections.
It is executed by thin lines at an angle of 450 to the axis or to the main outline of the section
The hatching of adjacent components shall be carried out with different directions or spacing

In case of more than 2 adjacent components, hatching is done in such a way to make sections evident,
in different directions and by varying the pitch or spacing of the hatching lines

Spacing between the hatching lines should be chosen in proportion to the area of the section to be
hatched

1.3 Sections
Detail Views :

When there is a great disparity between feature size, or views are overcrowded with dimensions, a
detail view can be used to capture the feature(s) of interest and display them in a view of greater scale

This detail is a partial view which shows a portion of another view in the same plane and will usually
depict greater detail.

## Details should not be rotated

1.3 Sections
Identification of Sections, Views, and Details
Identifying letters for sections, views, and details are assigned in alphabetical sequence as follows:

## After Z, begin: AA, AB, etc

The letters I, O, and Q, either as a single letter or as double-letter entries, shall not be used
A designated letter or combination of letters on a released drawing shall not be used for another section,
view, or detail on the same drawing

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

DIMENSIONS!!!: These are the most important and most complicated part of the drawing. There is more to it
than just the numerical values!
The purpose of dimensioning is to provide a clear and complete description of an object. A complete set of
dimensions will permit only one interpretation needed to construct the part.
Dimensioning should follow these guidelines :

## Dimensions must be placed in appropriate positions.

All required dimensions and tolerances, etc, should be expressed directly on the drawing, and
nothing duplicated.

## Appropriate line quality must be used for legibility.

The drawing must include the minimum number of dimensions required to accurately manufacture
the design

It should not be necessary for the operator manufacturing the component to have to calculate
any dimensions

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Basic Definitions
Dimension line is a thin line, with arrowheads at each end. An arrowhead is approximately 3 mm long and 1
mm wide. That is, the length is roughly three times the width

Extension line extends a line on the object to the dimension line. Extension lines begin 1.5 mm from the
object and extend 3 mm from the last dimension line
Leader is a thin line used to connect a dimension with a particular area. A leader may also be used to indicate
a note or comment about a specific area

## Edges A and B are being

used
as the reference edges

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Types of dimensioning

Parallel Dimensioning :
Parallel dimensioning consists of several dimensions originating from one projection line

## Superimposed Running Dimensions :

Superimposed running dimensioning simplifies parallel dimensions in order to reduce the space used on a
drawing. The common origin for the dimension lines is indicated by a small circle at the intersection of
the first dimension and the projection line

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Chain Dimensioning :
Chains of dimension should only be used if the function of the object won't be affected by the
accumulation of the tolerances

Combined Dimensioning :
A combined dimension uses both chain and parallel dimensioning

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Circles on engineering drawings are usually either spheres, holes or cylinders of some description. The
dimension refers to the diameter, and the diameter symbol is .

Chamfers and
Countersinks :

Counterbore :

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Holes equally spaced on a pitch circle can be dimensioned as shown below

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Location Dimensions :

Due to the nature of manufacturing, actual finished dimensions of manufactured components are never
perfect

This has to be considered when dimensioning features that require accurate Location

In order to enable accurate measurement, such a feature is usually dimensioned from a reliable reference
such as a machined surface This reference is referred to as a Datum

1. A spigot located
from two reference
edges

## 2. Two holes located from

two reference edges

## 3. The large hole located from

two reference edges and the
small hole from the center of the
large hole

## 1.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Example ; showing that Dimensioning should
match intent

Dimensioning matches
intent

## Dimension placement does NOT match

intent

These drawings show bolts holes for mounting a flange onto a plate.

When mounting the flange, the position of the holes with respect to each other is very important, or
else the flange
(or part) wont fit.

It makes sense to dimension the distance between the holes, instead of the distances to the edge

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Ballooning (Part Identification)
Machines and mechanisms consists of numerous parts and a drawing which shows the complete product
with all its components in their correct physical relation ship is known as an assembly drawing. A drawing
which gives a small part of the whole assembly is know as a sub-assembly drawing. The method of
identifying the parts in assembly/sub-assembly drawings must be clear and unambiguous in the drawing.

A parts list is a table that contains information about each of the parts contained in an assembly. The
item numbers correspond with the balloon numbers

A balloon is a circle that contains a single number, which is connected to an assembly component with

Numbers in balloons with leader lines indicate the position of the component on the drawing

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Dimension Tolerances

In order to ensure that assemblies function properly their component parts must fit together in a

predictable way

As we know, no component can be manufactured to an exact size, so the designer has to decide on

## appropriate upper and lower limits for each dimension

A tolerance value shows the manufacturing department the maximum permissible variation from the

dimension

Accurately toleranced dimensioned features usually take much more time to manufacture correctly and
therefore can increase production costs significantly.
Good engineering practice finds the optimum balance between required accuracy for the function of the
component and minimum cost of manufacture
If a dimension is specified, in millimeters, as 10 0.02, the part will be acceptable if the dimension is
manufactured to an actual size between 9.98 and 10.02 mm

Below are some examples of ways of defining such limits for a linear dimension

Exampl
e

Exampl
e

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

General tolerance notes apply tolerances to all unspecified dimensions on a drawing. They can
save time and
help to make a drawing less cluttered.

notes

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Limits and Fits for Shafts and Holes

## Nominal size is the size by which a component is referred to as a

matter of convenience, i.e. 25 mm, 50 mm, 60 mm thread

## Actual size is the measured size of the finished part

Basic size is the size in relation to which all limits of size are fixed,
and will be the same for both the male and female parts of the fit.

## Limits of size These are the maximum and minimum permissible

sizes acceptable for a specific dimension.

Zero Line It is a line along which represents the basic size and zero
(or initial point) for measurement of upper or lower deviations

## Tolerance This is the total permissible variation in the size of a

dimension, and is the difference between the upper and lower
acceptable dimensions.

## Allowance concerns mating parts, and is the difference between the

high limit of size of the shaft and the low limit of size of its mating hole.
An allowance may be positive or negative.

## Grade This is an indication of the tolerance magnitude: the lower

the grade, the finer will be the tolerance

## Deviation This is the difference between the maximum, minimum, or

actual size of a shaft or hole and the basic size.

## Upper Deviation The difference between the maximum limit of size

(of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size

## Lower Deviation The difference between the minimum limit of size

(of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size

## Fundamental Deviation It is one of the two deviations which is

chosen to define the position of the tolerance zone

## Maximum metal condition (MMC) This is the maximum limit of an

external feature; for example, a shaft manufactured to its high limits
would contain the maximum amount of metal. It is also the minimum
limit on an internal feature; for example, a component which has a hole
bored in it to its lower limit of size would have had the minimum of metal
removed and remain in its maximum metal condition

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Limits and Fits for Shafts and Holes

## Basic size and shaft/hole tolerancing systems

The basic size or nominal size is the size of shaft or hole that the designer specifies before applying the
limits to it.
There are two systems used for specifying shaft/hole tolerances

Because holes are usually made with standard tools such as drills and reamers, etc, the basic hole system
tends to be preferred and will therefore be used here

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Fit

The fit represents the tightness or looseness resulting from the application of tolerances to mating parts,
e.g. shafts and holes.

Engineering fits between two mating parts can be divided into three types:
Clearance fit : in which the shaft is always smaller than the hole into which it fits
Clearance fits :
allowance always
positive

Interference fit : in which the shaft is always bigger than the hole into which it fits
Interference fits :
allowance always
negative

Transition fit : in which the shaft may be either bigger or smaller than the hole into
which it fitsit will therefore be possible to get interference or clearance fits
in one group of assemblies
Transition fits :
allowance may be positive or
negative

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

ISO Limits and Fits : Fits have been standardized and can be taken directly from those tabulated in the BS
4500, 'ISO limits and fits.
The BS 4500 refers to tolerance symbols made up with a letter followed by a number
COMMON HOLES : H7, H8, H9, H11
SHAFTS: c11, d10, e9, f7, g6, h6, k6, p6, s6
Remember:
Capital letters always refer to holes, lower case always refer to shafts.
The greater the number the greater or wider the tolerances
The selection of a pair of these tolerances will give you the fit. The number of possible combinations is huge. BS
4500 helps to standardize this and offers a range of fits suitable for most engineering applications

## ISO limits and fits, determining working limits

Consider an example of a shaft and a housing used in a linkage:
Type of fit: 'Normal' clearance fit.
Basic or Nominal size: 40mm
We will determine the actual working limits, the range of allowable sizes, for the shaft and the hole in the
housing.
Look along the bottom of the ISO Fits Data Sheet 4500A and locate 'Normal Fit'. We will use this pair of columns
to extract our tolerances.
The tolerances indicated are: 1st column H8 for the hole (upper case H)
2nd column f7 for the shaft (lower case f)
The actual tolerances depend upon the basic, or nominal, diameter as well as the class of fit. So, locate 40mm
in the left hand Nominal Sizes column. Either the 30 - 40 or 40 - 50 range is acceptable in this case. (see table
in next page)

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Read across and note the tolerance values for the hole and the shaft, as shown below

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

For the hole diameter we have a tolerance of: +0.039mm -0.000mm
For the shaft diameter we have a tolerance of: -0.025mm -0.050mm
These tolerance values are simply added to the nominal size to obtain the actual allowable sizes.
Note that this is a clearance fit. As long as the hole and shaft are manufactured within the specified
tolerances the hole will always be either slightly oversize or spot on the nominal size and the shaft will
always be slightly undersize.
This ensures that there will always be a free clearance fit
These tolerances may be expressed on a drawing in several ways:

## 1) Simply as the nominal size

with the tolerance class. This is
not always preferred as the
machine operator has to
calculate the working limits

## 2) The nominal size

with the tolerance
class as above with
the calculated
working limits
included

only

## 3.4 Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Tabulated guide to types of ISO limits and fits

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Terminology & representations of standard components
Here are some examples of commonly used engineering components and
features of components

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Representations:
through: Usually drilled
and tapped

Usually drilled and
tapped

Springs:

Tensio
n

Compressio
n

Knurling:

Diamond

Straight

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Long Components:
Rectangular bar
Round bar
Round tube
Shaft Ends:
Square:
Frequently used for hand driven
handles, such as those found on
machine tools, etc

Serrations:
Often used for push fit components
such as plastic fans or pulleys, or
levers such as motorcycle gear
shifters

Gears:

Bev
el

Worm &
Wheel
Spur

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Circlip: Internal & External

Pins:

## Split Cotter Pin:

Used to lock components,
prevent fasteners from
coming 'un-fastened'.
e.g. lock-nuts on suspension
systems.

Cotter Pin:
Used to retain components,
transmitted.

## Dowel Pin & Taper

Pin:
Provides location,
alignment

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Conventional representation of different materials in drawing
Type

Convention

Material
Steel, Cast Iron, Copper and its Alloys,
Aluminium and its Alloys, etc.

Metals

Glass

Glass

## Asbestos, fiber, felt, synthetic resin

products, paper, cork, linoleum, rubber,
leather, wax, insulating and filling
material

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Conventional representation of different materials in drawing
Type
Liquids

Wood

Concrete

Convention

Material
Water, oil, petrol, kerosene etc.

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Abbreviations of terms frequently used on drawings

## Abbreviations are used on drawings to save time and space.

Most of these conform to BS 8888

Abbreviation

Meaning

A/C

Across corners

A/F

Across flats

HEX HD

ASSY

Assembly

CRS

Centers

CL
CHAM
CSK
CBORE
CYL

Center line
Chamfer
Countersunk
Counterbore
Cylinder or Cylindrical

Abbreviation
CH HD
DIA
DP

R

Meaning
Diameter (in a note)
Deep (depth of bore)
Diameter (preceding a
dimension)
dimension, capital only)

DRG

Drawing

FIG.

Figure

LH

Left hand

LG

Long

## 3.5 Conventional Representations

Abbreviation

Meaning

Abbreviation

Meaning

MATL

Material

TYP

Typical or typically

NO.

Number

THK

Thick

PATT NO.
PCD

Square (preceding a
dimension)

Pattern number
Pitch circle diameter

STD

Standard

UCUT

Undercut

M/CD

Machined

I/D

Inside diameter

O/D

Outside diameter

RH

Right hand

mm

Millimeter

SCR

Screwed

NTS

Not to scale

SPEC

Specification

RPM

Spherical

SWG

Spotface

TPI

SPHERE
SFACE
SQ

REF ( )

Reference

## 3.6 Surface Roughness

Surface Finish or Surface Roughness

The quality of machined surface is characterized by the accuracy of its manufacture with respect to
the dimensions specified by the designer.

Every machining operation leaves characteristic evidence on the machined surface. This evidence
in the form of finely spaced micro irregularities left by the cutting tool.

Each type of cutting tool leaves its own individual pattern which therefore can be identified.

## This pattern is known as surface finish or surface roughness

It is affected by the choice of tool, speed of the tool, environmental conditions, and definitely by
what material you are working with

## 3.6 Surface Roughness

Surface Finish Terminology

Surface
Characteristics

1. Roughness : Roughness consists of surface irregularities which result from the various machining process.
These irregularities combine to form surface texture

2. Roughness Height : It is the height of the irregularities with respect to a reference line. It is measured in
millimeters or microns or micro inches. It is also known as the height of unevenness

3. Roughness Width : The roughness width is the distance parallel to the nominal surface between
successive peaks or ridges which constitute the predominate pattern of the roughness. It is measured in
millimeters

4. Roughness Width Cut Off : Roughness width cut off is the greatest spacing of respective surface
irregularities to be included in the measurement of the average roughness height. It should always be greater
than the roughness width in order to obtain the total roughness height rating
5. Lay : Lay represents the direction of predominant surface pattern produced and it reflects the machining
operation used to produce it.

6. Waviness : This refers to the irregularities which are outside the roughness width cut off values. Waviness is
the widely spaced component of the surface texture. This may be the result of workpiece or tool deflection during
machining, vibrations or tool runout.

7. Waviness Width :

Waviness height is the peak to valley distance of the surface profile, measured in

## 3.6 Surface Roughness

Methods of indicating Surface Roughness for General Engineering
Drawings
Basic symbol

Material removal
through
mechanical machining

## The Basic Symbol consists of two legs of unequal length inclined at

approximately 60 to the line representing the surface under
consideration

## The removal of material by machining is required, a bar is added to the

basic symbol as shown in the figure

required

Material removal
not
permissible

symbol

## The Value or Values defining the principal criterion of roughness are

shown in the figure

## If it is necessary to impose maximum and minimum limits of the

principal criterion of roughness, both values should be shown as shown
in the figure
If it is required that the final surface roughness be produced by one
particular production process, this method should be indicated on an
extension of the longer leg of the symbol given in the figure

## 3.6 Surface Roughness

Representation of Surface finish symbols in
Drawing

3.7 Fasteners
Fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together

## Bolts, screws & studs: Threaded fasteners, Bolts

have a shank partially threaded whereas screws are

- bolts
- studs
- screws

3.7 Fasteners

## The last three examples here

are called set screws and are
used to position or lock
components

3.7 Fasteners

External (male) thread : A thread cut on the outside of a
cylindrical body

cylindrical body

## Root : The bottom of the thread cut into a

cylindrical body

External

Internal

Root

Crest
Root

Crest

3.7 Fasteners
Pitch : The distance between crests of threads

Pitch

turned
clockwise.

Major dia.

Minor dia.

Major dia.

Minor dia.

Pitch

## Thread that will assemble when

turned
counter-clockwise.

3.7 Fasteners

3.7 Fasteners
P/8
Internal

60o

P/4
External
Pitch, P
Thread assemble occurs if and only if both (internal &
external) thread have an equal nominal size (or diameter)
and pitch.

3.7 Fasteners
Nominal
size

Major
diameter

Pitch

Minor diameter

M6

6.00

1.00

4.92

5.00

M8

8.00

1.25

6.65

6.75

M10

10.00

1.50

8.38

8.50

M12

12.00

1.75

10.11

10.00

## Minor diameter Tap drill size

In thread drawing, the following relationshipMinor
is used.
diameter = Major diameter Pitch

3.7 Fasteners
Nominal
size

Major diameter

M8

8.00

M10

10.00

Pitch

Minor diameter

0.75

7.188

7.25

1.00

6.917

7.00

0.75

9.188

9.25

1.00

8.917

9.00

1.25

8.647

8.75

## Minor diameter Tap drill size

In thread drawing, the following relationship
Minor
is used.
diameter = Major diameter Pitch

3.7 Fasteners
Use local note to specify :- thread form, nominal size, pitch (if it
Use typical method to specify :- thread length.

M 10 1.5
1.0

xx

## 8.50 Drill, 20 Deep,

M10 Tapped, 15 Deep

length

3.7 Fasteners

## This diagram gives approximate

dimensioning methods for drawing
hexagon headed metric bolts, nuts and
plane washers.
(Manufacturers data sheets may give
more accurate measurements.)

## 3.8 Drawing Tips

Tips for Projection of an object (Oblique & isometric)
1. In an oblique method, the front side of the object is drawn to its
true shape and the side and top are drawn at an angle, typically
45.
2. The main advantage of oblique method over isometric is the ease
with which it allows us to draw circular shapes. In any type of
oblique drawing, circles that face the front will appear as full circles.
3. In cavalier oblique drawings, we use the true widths of objects.
4. In cabinet oblique drawings, we use half the true widths of objects.
5. The receding axis of the oblique axes is typically at a 45 angle to
the horizontal.
6. The easiest way to draw an object in oblique is to start with an
oblique box whose shape corresponds to the maximum length,
height and width of the object.
7. Three basic rules that make it easier to draw in oblique are as
follows:
Rule1: Place the object so circular shapes are shown on the front.

## 3.8 DRAWING TIPS

Tips for Projection of an object (Oblique & isometric)
Offset coordinates are parallel lines that are used to locate the
positions of points on slant edges, circles and curves.
Isometric means equal measurement. There are equal angles (120)
between the three isometric axes.
The easiest way to draw an object in isometric is to start with an
isometric box whose shape corresponds to the longest, highest and
widest measurements of the object.
When we draw a circle in isometric it becomes an ellipse

## 3.8 Drawing Tips

Tips for Projection of an object (Orthographic) :
1. Only views that clearly describe the object to be used.
2. Views that show the least hidden lines should be selected.
3. The object should be shown in its functioning position when
possible.
4. The view that best describes the object should be selected as the
front view.

## 3.8 Drawing Tips

Tips for Projection of an object (Orthographic) :
Conventional revolution
Feature rotation is the practice of conceptually revolving features
into positions that allow them to be viewed easily in an opposing
view
1. For internal viewing, features may be rotated into a cutting plane
2. For external viewing, features may be rotated into a principal
projection plane

Internal View

External View
Hole and rib rotated into cutting planeHole and rib rotated into Projection plane

## 3.8 Drawing Tips

Tips for Sectioning :

## 1. Add sectional views to drawings of complex objects with internal

surfaces to improve their clarity. This is preferable to having many
hidden lines.
2. A sectional view represents the part of an object that remains after it
has been cut by a cutting plane and a portion has been removed. The
process of creating sectional views is known as sectioning.
3. Hatching lines are light lines which are normally drawn at a 45 angle to
show that a drawing has been sectioned.
4. Use angles other than 45 for your hatching lines if the shape of the
section is such that 45 lines would be parallel to one or more of its
sides.
5. When sectioning two adjacent parts of an object, draw the hatching
lines in opposite directions.
6. When sectioning more than two parts of an object, you may need to
change the angle or width of some of the hatching lines.

## 3.8 Drawing Tips

Tips for Sectioning :

7. Do not draw hatching lines on assembly features and parts like bolts,
dowels, keys, ribs, rivets, shafts, spokes of wheels, washers, etc, when
they are truncated longitudinally. However, do draw hatching lines
when these parts are cut across by a cutting plane.
8. When sectioning an object, you can bend the cutting plane to align
features of an object that are at an angle to one another. This is called
drawing aligned sections.
9. When sectioning an object, you can offset the cutting plane to show
features that do not lie in a straight line.
10.Use an assembly drawing to show how different components of a
finished product are fitted together. Most assembly drawings are
sectioned.

## 3.9 Missing Views

Incomplete and Missing Views
Sketch in the missing lines in the incomplete
views

object

object

object

multview drawing

## Sketch an isometric pictorial for each of the objects shown in the

multiview drawing

Sketch an isometric pictorial for each of the objects shown in the multiview
drawing