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Interphase, which appears to the eye to be a resting stage between cell

divisions, is actually a period of diverse activities. Those interphase activities
are indispensible in making the next mitosis possible.
Interphase: Interphase generally lasts at least 12 to 24 hours in mammalian
tissue. During this period, the cell is constantly synthesizing RNA, producing
protein and growing in size. By studying molecular events in cells, scientists
have determined that interphase can be divided into 4 steps: Gap 0 (G0),
Gap 1 (G1), S (synthesis) phase, Gap 2 (G2).
Gap 0 (G0): There are times when a cell will leave the cycle and quit
dividing. This may be a temporary resting period or more permanent. An
example of the latter is a cell that has reached an end stage of development
and will no longer divide (e.g. neuron).
Gap 1 (G1): Cells increase in size in Gap 1, produce RNA and synthesize
protein. An important cell cycle control mechanism activated during this
period (G1 Checkpoint) ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis.
(see Checkpoints , above.)

S Phase: To produce two similar daughter cells, the complete DNA instructions in
the cell must be duplicated. DNA replication occurs during this S (synthesis)
Gap 2 (G2): During the gap between DNA synthesis and mitosis, the cell will
continue to grow and produce new proteins. At the end of this gap is another
control checkpoint (G2 Checkpoint) to determine if the cell can now proceed to
enter M (mitosis) and divide.
M Phase: Cell growth and protein production stop at this stage in the cell cycle. All
of the cell's energy is focused on the complex and orderly division into two similar
daughter cells. Mitosis is much shorter than interphase, lasting perhaps only one
to two hours. As in both G1 and G2, there is a Checkpoint in the middle of mitosis
(Metaphase Checkpoint) that ensures the cell is ready to complete cell division

Types of Chemotherapy
effect the agent has on the cell. Chemo therapeutic agents are also
described as cell cycle specific and cell cycle non specific. cycle
CELL CYCLE SPECIFIC: chemo agent works to kill cells in a specific
phase of cell growth. Agents have been developed to target specific
phases. Much research has been done on this.
CELL CYCLE NON-SPECIFIC: Means it does not depend on a specific
cycle but affects the cell at all phases.

Alkylating agent
Alkylating agents are most active in the resting phase of the
cell.These types of drugs are cell-cycle non-specific. There are
several types of alkylating agents used in chemotherapy
1. Mustard gas derivatives: Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide,
Chlorambucil, Melphalan, and Ifosfamide.
2. Ethylenimines: Thiotepa and Hexamethylmelamine.
3. Alkylsulfonates: Busulfan.
4. Hydrazines and Triazines: Altretamine, Procarbazine, Dacarbazine
and Temozolomide.
5. Nitrosureas: Carmustine, Lomustine and Streptozocin.
Nitrosureas are unique because, unlike most types of chemo
treatments, they can cross the blood-brain barrier. They can be
useful in treating brain tumors.
6. Metal salts: Carboplatin, Cisplatin, and Oxaliplatin.

Plant Alkaloids
Plant alkaloids are chemotherapy treatments derived made from
certain types of plants. The vinca alkaloids are made from the
periwinkle plant (catharanthus rosea). The taxanes are made from the
bark of the Pacific Yew tree (taxus). The vinca alkaloids and taxanes
are also known as antimicrotubule agents. The podophyllotoxins are
derived from the May apple plant. Camptothecan analogs are derived
from the Asian "Happy Tree" (Camptotheca acuminata).
Podophyllotoxins and camptothecan analogs are also known as
topoisomerase inhibitors, which are used in certain types of
chemotherapy. The plant alkaloids are cell-cycle specific. This
means they attack the cells during various phases of division.

Vinca alkaloids: Vincristine, Vinblastine and Vinorelbine.

Taxanes: Paclitaxel and Docetaxel.
Podophyllotoxins: Etoposide and Tenisopide.
Camptothecan analogs: Irinotecan and Topotecan.

Antitumor Antibiotics
Antitumor antibiotics are chemo treatments made from natural products
produced by species of the soil fungus Streptomyces. These drugs act
during multiple phases of the cell cycle and are considered cell-cycle
specific. There are several types of antitumor antibiotics:


Anthracyclines: Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin, Epirubicin,

Mitoxantrone, and Idarubicin.
Chromomycins: Dactinomycin and Plicamycin.
Miscellaneous: Mitomycin and Bleomycin.

Antimetabolites are types of chemotherapy treatments that are
very similar to normal substances within the cell. When the cells
incorporate these substances into the cellular metabolism, they
are unable to divide. Antimetabolites are cell-cycle specific.
They attack cells at very specific phases in the cycle.
Antimetabolites are classified according to the substances with
which they interfere
1. Folic acid antagonist: Methotrexate.
2. Pyrimidine antagonist: 5-Fluorouracil, Foxuridine,
Cytarabine, Capecitabine, and Gemcitabine.
3. Purine antagonist: 6-Mercaptopurine and 6-Thioguanine.
4. Adenosine deaminase inhibitor: Cladribine, Fludarabine,
Nelarabine and Pentostatin


S phase specific agents:

Antimetabolites (methotrexate, 5-fluororacil, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine,
cytarabine, gemcitabine), Hydroxyurea, topoisomerase I inhibitors
(irinotecan, topotecan), Topoisomerase II inhibitors (ectoposide,
teniposide, anathracyclines); purine and pyrimidine analogs

G2 and M-phase specific agents:

Vinca alkaloids, (vincristine, vinblastine),
Taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel),

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