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# Engineering Mechanics Dynamics

## 13. Kinetics of a Particle

Force and Acceleration

## 13.02Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Chapter Objectives
To state Newtons Second Law of Motion and to define mass
and weight
To analyze the accelerated motion of a particle using the
equation of motion with different coordinate systems
To investigate central-force motion and apply it to problems in
space mechanics

1. Newtons

## Second Law of Motion

- The branch of dynamics that deals with the relationship
between the change in motion of an object and the forces that
cause this change
- The basis for kinetics is form Newtons 2nd law (1686)
: unbalanced force acts on a particle
: the mass of the particle
: acceleration of the particle
- Mass is the quantity of matter an object has, it is a scalar. The
mass provides the resistance of the object to any change in its
velocity, that is its inertia

## 1. Newtons Second Law of Motion

- The Newtons 2nd law
One of the most important equations in modern physics
A cornerstone of our modern built environment, and engineering
Validity based solely on experimental evidence
- The Newtons second law Disclaimer !
Albert Einstein (1905) showed that time is relative, as a result
Newtons 2nd law fails to accurately describe the motion of
objects traveling near the speed of light
Advances in the Quantum physics have shown that motion of
atoms and subatomic particles do not obey Newtons 2nd law
For most problems in modern engineering however neither of
the above are applicable

1. Newtons

## Second Law of Motion

- Newtons Law of Gravitational Attraction

:
:

## force of attraction between the two particles,

universal constant of gravitation,

:
:

## mass of each of the two particles,

distance between the centers of the two particles,

1. Newtons

## Second Law of Motion

- For an object near the earth surface
the force of attraction the weight () of the object

:
:
:

## the mass of the earth,

mass of the object,
gravitational acceleration,

## 13.07Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

2. The

Equation of Motion
- When more than one force acts on an object, the resultant
force is vector summation of all the forces

## - Consider an object of mass subject to the action of two forces

and . If then , the object will either
remain or rest,
have constant velocity,
Newton's 1st law of motion
- Graphically, the free-body diagram the kinetic diagram
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## 13.08Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

2. The

Equation of Motion
- Inertial reference frame

## The acceleration of the particle should be measured with

respect to a reference frame that is either fixed or translates
with a constant velocity
In this way, the observer will not accelerate and
measurements of the particles acceleration will be the same
from any reference of this type
Such a frame of reference is commonly known as a Newtonian or
inertial reference frame
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

3. Equation

## of Motion for a System of Particles

- The equation of motion fro the particle

## : resultant external force

: resultant internal force
- If all these equations are added together vectorially
: summation of the internal forces
: total mass of all the particles
: center of mass acceleration
- The equation of motion

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

When a particle is moving relative to an
inertial ,, frame of reference, the forces
acting on the particle, as well as its
acceleration, may be expressed in
terms of their , , components

## - The equation of motion

- The scalar equations

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

- Ex.13.1 The crate rests on a horizontal
plane for which the coefficient of kinetic
friction is . If the crate is subjected to a
towing force as shown, determine the velocity
of the crate in starting from rest

Solution
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:
:

(1)
(2)

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

Equation of motion
,
Kinematics
the applied force is constant the acceleration is constant
the initial velocity is zero the velocity of the crate in is

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

Ex.13.2
A projectile is fired vertically upward
from the ground with . Determine the maximum
height
to which it will travel if atmospheric
resistance is (a) neglected; and (b) measured as ,
is the speed at any instant (
Solution
(a) Atmospheric resistance is neglected
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:
Kinematics

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

(b) Atmospheric resistance is measured
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:

Kinematics
The acceleration is not constant since
:

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

Ex.13.3 The baggage truck has
a weight of and tows a cart and a
cart . For a short time the driving
frictional force developed at the
wheels of the truck is . If the truck starts from rest, determine its
speed in . Also, what is the horizontal force acting on the
coupling between the truck and cart at this instant? Neglect the
size of the truck and carts
Solution
Free body diagram
Note: total weight
Equation of motion
:

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

Kinematics
The acceleration is a function of time
:

## Free body diagram

Equation of motion
:

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

Ex.13.4 A smooth collar is attached to a
spring having a stiffness and an unstretched
length of . If the collar is released from rest
at , determine its acceleration and the normal
force of the rod on the collar at

Solution
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:
:

(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
Giving the solution ,
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

4. Equations

## of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates

- Ex.13.6 The block is released from rest. If the
masses of the pulleys and the cord are
neglected, determine the speed of the block in .
Solution
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:
(1)
:
(2)
Kinematic
(3)
,,
:

## 13.19Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.1
The motor winds in the cable with a constant
acceleration, such that the crate moves a distance in , starting
from rest. Determine the tension developed in the cable. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and the plane is

,,
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## 13.20Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.2 If motor exerts a force of on the cable, determine the
velocity of the crate when . The coefficients of static and kinetic
friction between the crate and the plane are and , respectively.
The crate is initially at rest
Solution
Maximum friction force
: the crate starts to move when applying
:

## 13.21Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.3 A spring of stiffness is mounted against the block. If the
block is subjected to the force of , determine its velocity at .
When , the block is at rest and the spring is uncompressed. The
contact surface is smooth
Solution
:

## 13.22Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.4 The car is being towed by a winch. If the winch exerts a
force of on the cable, where is the displacement of the car in
meters, determine the speed of the car when , starting from
rest. Neglect rolling resistance of the car

## 13.23Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.5 The spring has a stiffness and is unstretched when the
block is at . Determine the acceleration of the block when . The
contact surface between the block and the plane is smooth
Solution

## 13.24Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.6 Block rests upon a smooth surface. If the coefficients of
static and kinetic friction between and are and respectively,
determine the acceleration of each block if
Solution
Consider the motion of blocks and
:

:

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

- The equation of motion for the particle may be written in the
tangential, normal, and binormal directions inertial

In scalar
Recal

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Ex.13.6 Determine the banking angle
for the race track so that the wheels of
the racing cars will not have to depend
upon friction to prevent any car from
sliding up or down the track. Assume the
cars have negligible size, a mass , and
travel around the curve of radius with a
constant speed

Solution
Free body diagram
Equation of motion
:

(1)
: (2)

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

- Ex.13.7 The disk is attached to the end of a cord. The other
end of the cord is attached to a ball-and-socket joint located at
the center of a platform. If the platform rotates rapidly, and the
disk is placed on it and released from rest as shown, determine
the time it takes for the disk to reach a speed great enough to
break the cord. The maximum tension the cord can sustain is ,
and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and the
platform is
Solution

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Equation of motion
:
(1)
:
(2)
:
(3)
Setting , solving the above equations
,,
Kinematics
Since is constant, the time needed to break the cord

Thus

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Ex.13.8 Design of the ski jump shown in
the photo requires knowing the type of forces
that will be exerted on the skier and her
approximate trajectory. Determine the
normal force on the skier the instant she
arrives at the end of the jump, point , where
her velocity is . What is her acceleration at
this point

Solution

## Free body diagram

slope at is horizontal
Equations of motion
:
:
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

(1)
(2)
Nguyen Tan Tien

5. Equations

Kinematics

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Ex.13.9 The
skateboarder coasts
down the circular track. If he starts from
rest when , determine the magnitude of
the normal reaction the track exerts on
him when . Neglect his size for the
calculation

Solution
Free body diagram
Equations of motion
:
:

(1)
(2)

5. Equations

## of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Equations of motion
:
(1)
:

Kinematics
Since , using
skateboarder

## 13.33Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.7 The block rests at a distance of from the center of the
platform. If the coefficient of static friction between the block
and the platform is , determine the maximum speed which the
block can attain before it begins to slip. Assume the angular
motion of the disk is slowly increasing

## 13.34Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental Problems
- F13.8 Determine the maximum speed that the jeep can travel
over the crest of the hill and not lose contact with the road

## 13.35Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.9 A pilot weighs and is traveling at a constant speed of .
Determine the normal force he exerts on the seat of the plane
when he is upside down at . The loop has a radius of curvature
of
Solution
:

## 13.36Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.10 The sports car is traveling along a banked road
having a radius of curvature of . If the coefficient of static friction
between the tires and the road is , determine the maximum
safe speed so no slipping occurs. Neglect the size of the car

## 13.37Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.11 If the ball has a velocity of when it is at the position ,
along the vertical path, determine the tension in the cord and
the increase in the speed of the ball at this position

## 13.38Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.12 The motorcycle has a mass of and a negligible size.
It passes point traveling with a speed of , which is increasing at
a constant rate of . Determine the resultant frictional force
exerted by the road on the tires at this instant

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

When all the forces acting on a particle are
resolved into cylindrical components, i.e.,
along the unit vector directions , , , the
equation of motion can be expressed as

In scalar

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

- Tangential and Normal forces
Determination of the resultant force components
,,
causing a particle to move with a known acceleration
If acceleration is not specified at given instant, directions or
magnitudes of the forces acting on the particle must be known
or computed to solve

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Consider the force that causes the particle to move along a
path

## +The normal force which the path exerts on the particle is

always perpendicular to the tangent of the path
+Frictional force always acts along the tangent in the
opposite direction of motion
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

The directions of and can be specified relative to the radial
coordinate by using the angle , which is defined between the
extended radial line and the tangent to the curve

## +If is positive, it is measured from the extended radial line to

the tangent in a CCW sense or in the positive direction
+If it is negative, it is measured in the opposite direction to
positive

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Ex.13.10 The smooth double-collar can
freely slide on arm and the circular guide
rod. If the arm rotates with a constant
angular velocity of , determine the force
the arm exerts on the collar at the instant .
Motion is in the horizontal plane

Solution
Free body diagram
Equations of motion
:
:

(1)
(2)

6. Equations

At

## The acceleration of the particle

Substituting these results into Eq.s (1)-(2) and solving to get
,

## acceleration: radial component , transverse component

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

- Ex.13.11 The smooth cylinder has a pin
through its center which passes through the
slot in arm . If the arm is forced to rotate in the
vertical plane at a constant rate , determine
the force that the arm exerts on the peg at the
instant
Solution
Why is it a good idea to use polar coordinates to
solve this problem?
Free body diagram
Equations of motion
:
(1)
:
(2)

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

The relation between an

At

## The acceleration of the particle

Solve Eq.s (1)-(2): ,

,,,
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Ex.13.12 A can , having a mass of ,
moves along a grooved horizontal slot.
The slot is in the form of a spiral, which
is defined by the equation , where is in
radians. If the arm rotates with a
constant rate in the horizontal plane,
determine the force it
exerts on the can at the instant . Neglect friction and the size of
the can
Solution
Free body diagram

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Equations of motion
:
:

(1)
(2)

6. Equations

## of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Kinematics
The time derivatives of and
At

## The acceleration of the can

Substituting these results into Eq.s (1)-(2) and
solving to get
,

## 13.50Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.13 Determine the constant angular velocity of the
vertical shaft of the amusement ride if . Neglect the mass of the
cables and the size of the passengers
Solution
(1)

(2)
(3)

## acceleration: radial component , transverse component

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## 13.51Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.14 The ball is blown through the smooth vertical circular
tube whose shape is defined by , where is in radians. If rad,
where is in seconds, determine the magnitude of force exerted
by the blower on the ball when
Solution

Fundamental

## 13.52Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Problems

,,
,,

,
acceleration: radial component , transverse component
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## 13.53Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.15 The car is traveling along the curved road described
by , where is in radians. If a camera is located at and it rotates
with an angular velocity of and an angular acceleration of at
the instant , determine the resultant friction force developed
between the tires and the road at this instant
Solution

Fundamental

## 13.54Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Problems

,,
,,

Equations of motion

## acceleration: radial component , transverse component

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## 13.55Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration

Fundamental

Problems
- F13.16 The pin is constrained to move in the smooth
curved slot, which is defined by the lemniscate . Its motion is
controlled by the rotation of the slotted arm , which has a
constant clockwise angular velocity of . Determine the force
arm exerts on the pin when . Motion is in the vertical plane
Solution

## 7. Central-Force Motion and Space Mechanics

Refer to the textbook