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CV0001 Civil Engineering and

Sustainable Built Environment

Sustainability and
Geotechnical Engineering
Prof Chu Jian
School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, NTU
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Outline
Geotechnical Eng & Sustainability
(1 hr)
Geotechnics for sustainability
(3 hrs)
Geo-hazards
(1 hr)

Part 1

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING &


SUSTAINABILITY
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What is geotechnical engineering

Impact of Geot Eng on Environment

Geotechnical Engineering is related to

Providing livable space


Providing infrastructure
Providing safe and clean environment
Preventing or mitigating natural disasters

Tekong>
2000ha

Singapore
Changi East
2 container
port
nd

Tuas
>3000 ha

Jurong
Island
~3000 ha

>2000ha

Marina
1960s: 600 km2
bay
2000s: 710 km2
Population: 5.4M

Garden by the Bay

Marina Bay Sands

Courtesy of Dr Ho

In 19th Century: Singapore City as seen from Fort Canning.


Raffle landed in Singapore in 1819.

Courtesy of Dr Ho

In 1823, Raffles declaration that: .the Port of Singapore is a Free Port and Trade
thereof is open to ships and vessels of every nation free of duty equally and alike to all.

Land reclamation in Singapore

1950: 582 km2


1999: 633 km2
(~10%)
2030: 733 km2
(~25%)

Reclaimed land in Singapore (2002)

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Current and future land use plan

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Changi International Airport,


Singapore

Changi
East Land
Reclamatio
n Project

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Pasir Panjang Container Terminal

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Mega-Container Terminals at Tuas South, Singapore


Finger 1

Finger 2

Source: 24. 4.15, Lianhe Zaobao

Geological Map of
Singapore

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Going underground

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SAF Underground ammunition facility

Jurong Rock cavern

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Jurong
Rock
cavern
(source:
ST online)

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Underground shopping - Ion

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Singapores Underground Science Park

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How to make best use of the


limited underground space?

Underwater Reservoir
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Earthscaper, Mexico,
a 300-m-deep inverted
pyramid containing a museum,
retail, offices and even
residential space. (Credit:
Bunker Arquitectura)
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Underground shopping malls

Underground shopping mall, Beijing

Tenjin Underground City, Fukuoka

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Kish, Iran

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Burlington, North Ireland


covered 240 acres (1km2), could accommodate up to 4,000 government officials.

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Typical Geotechnical Problems


Foundations

Tunnel
s

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Excavation
& retaining
structures

Slopes

Soil conditions:

sandy or clayey soils

Drainage conditions:

drained or undrained conditions

Singapore River after Cleaning

Singapore River before Cleaning (from 1977 to 1986)

Sustainable Urban Living @ CEE


Integrated Urban Systems

Environment and Water

Sustainable Development

Resilient Systems

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Cement mixing columns

Punggol waterway
Resorts World Sentosa

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Retaining wall for deep excavation with anchors


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Shallow Slope Failure due to seepage

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Failure of deep
excavation

Nicoll Highway
failure in
Singapore
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Reconstruction of Nicoll Highway Station

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Excavation

Excessive excavation movements can


damage nearby structures & services
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(1) An underground garage was being dug on the south side, to a depth of 4.6 meters
(2) The excavated dirt was being piled up on the north side, to a height of 10 meters
(3) The building experienced uneven lateral pressure from south and north
(4) This resulted in a lateral pressure of 3,000 tonnes, which was greater than why the
pilings could tolerate. Thus the building toppled over in the southerly direction.

Geo-Environmental problems

Contamination of the
Old Kallang gas work
site

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Urban dumping ground in Singapore

Palau Semakau Landfill Site

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http://www.langecontainment.com/profile_32
.htm

A typical Landfill Design

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Summary
Geotechnical engineering is an important
component for
providing solutions for sustainability
providing infrastructure
providing safe and clean environment
preventing or mitigating natural disasters

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