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ARDS

Acute Respiratory
Distress Syndrome
By: Kristine Charisse V.
Tanedo
BSN III MSU-IIT
What is ARDS?
• -  is a serious reaction to various
forms of injuries to the lung

• -  severe lung disease caused by
a variety of direct and indirect
issues

• - There is 30% increase in fluid
content

ARDS
• Other names: stiff lung
• White lung
• Wet lung
• Shock lung
• Acute lung injury
• Increase permeability pulmonary
edema
• Noncardiac pulmonary edema

ARDS
• Major site: alveolar capillary wall

• Hallmark: hypoxemia

• ABG level: Respiratory acidosis

Causes:
• Fluid Overload
• Supine position
• Shock
• Trauma
• Neurological injury
• Burns
• Drug congestion
• Aspiration
• Inhalation of toxic substance
• Disseminated intravascular coagulation
– Increase blood viscosity
– End effect: hemorrhage

Other causes:
• Direct lung injury
• -conditions directly injure lungs
include:
• Pneumonia
• Aspiration
• Breathe harmful fumes/smoke
• Ventilator
• Near-drowning

Other causes:
• Indirect lung injury
• Sepsis
• Severe bleeding due to injury
• Many blood transfusions
• Chest and head injury
• Pancreatitis (increase amylase)
• Fat embolus
• Drug overdose

Pathophysiology:
Assessment:
• Tachypnea

• Dyspnea

• Decrease breathe sounds

• Deteriorating ABG levels

Interventions:

• Identify and treat cause


• Oxygenate
• High-Fowlers position
• Restrict fluid intake as prescribe
• Provide respirator y treatment as
prescribed
• Administer diuretics, anticoagulants or
corticosteroid as prescribed (risk for
infection, immunosuppressant)
• Prepare for intubation and mechanical
ventilation using PEEP

Positive end - expiratory
pressure ( PEEP )

• Main article: Positive end-expiratory


pressure

• PEEP is an adjuvant to the mode of
ventilation used to help maintain 
functional residual capacity (FRC). At the
end of expiration, the PEEP exerts
pressure to oppose passive emptying of
the lung and to keep the airway pressure
above the atmospheric pressure. The
presence of PEEP opens up collapsed or
unstable alveoli and increases the FRC
Importance of PEEP
• Helps increase functional residual capacity
and reverse alveolar collapse by keeping
alveolar open

• Prevents atelectasis
– lack of gas exchange within alveoli, due to
alveolar collapse or fluid consolidation. 
• (normal: 21-35 seconds)

• Reduction in severity of alveolo ventilation –


perfusion imbalance