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Overloading:

Transformer Efficiency:
P
Transformer= =
100%
P
efficiency
out
in

All losses contribution in


heating up the transformers.

Where

Pin= Pout + PLoss


And

This heating effect depends on the


magnitude of current flowing in
transformer (windings + Core).

PLoss= PCu + PCore


Copper Losses are accounted for by the
series resistance in transformer equivalent
circuit.
Core Losses are accounted for by
the resistor RC.

RESULT:
More current flow more
losses more chances of
transformer overheating.

Overloading:
A transformer is loaded beyond its Full load rating Overloading issue
In overloading condition
Transformer tries to supply current which is more than full load current to meet
the load requirements.
Overloading condition losses inside the transformer increases causing
overheating of transformer with the passage of time.
Overloading condition excessive current flow in transformer windings + Core
excessive heat production due to high Eddy current losses in core and high
Copper losses in transformer windings.
May result in thermal damage to transformer due to excessively high
energy losses in transformer.

Overloading protection:
Thermal capacity:
Thermal capacity maximum heat accumulation capacity.
Any material when forced to accumulate more heat than its thermal capacity
thermal damage occurrence.
In transformers, major sources of heat
Thermal sensing element in
accumulation are
overloading relays is the most
1. Current Unbalances.
crucial part and cannot be shut off
2. Transformer
at any condition.
losses.
3.
Ambient temperature.
In overloading relays, Thermal sensing element is used to
determine transformers thermal capacity.
Thermal sensing element sensing a rise or decay in transformer thermal
capacity level under all conditions by taking into account all the sources of heat
accumulation as well as previous loading history.
3

Overloading protection: (Cont)


Thermal limit curve:
Every transformer possesses its own thermal limit curve, Which describes
thermal capacity of that transformer.
It follows Inverse time characteristics and definite time characteristics.
Below is the thermal damage curve of a typical 500kVA distribution transformer.

Thermal damage curve

Danger zone

Overloading protection: (Cont)


Transformer thermal capacity concept:
Under
Overloaded
Normal
Operation:
Operation:

Ambient Temperature

Inrush Current

Transformer
Losses

Current unbalances

LOAD

100
80
60
40

Thermal
Capacity

20

Transformer
cooling system

If
Increase
in current
demand
of
Transformer
overloading
increased
Transformer
After
some
time
normal
operation:
Thermal
capacity
(Simulated
byload
a vessel)
maximum
heat accumulation
Overloading
transformercondition
losses occurs again Vessel starts filling up from the
Ambient
removal
of
temperature
overloading
Losses accumulated
Vessel
Vesselfilling
stops
filling up anymore
Vessel
level thermal+condition
energy
in transformer
level
it left.
Ambient temperature + Losses + Current unbalance Vessel filling
Transformer
With
passage
s cooling
of time,
system
transformer
Cooling
cooling
vessel
system
Vessel
maintaining
decreasing a
Morethe
than
100%
level

Chances
of thermal
damage.
When
Thermal
capacity
vessel
starts
filling
and it depends
on %age overloading and
value considered
Vessel
level
safe
respective time for overloading
More than 100% level Chances of thermal damage of transformer

Overloading protection:
Instantaneous tripping Undesirable for Overloading condition.
As system may get overloaded momentary due to some momentary
disturbance.
Momentary system disturbances borne safely + within a very short
specific time system restores its normal conditions.
Transformer overheating function dependence= Percentage overloading of
transformer + overloading time.
For each transformer there exists a thermal limit Curve.
Transformer thermal limit curve describes overheating/overloading
characteristics of a particular transformer.
Overloading protection relay coordination with transformers thermal limit curve.

Overloading protection: (Cont)


Ambient Temperature

ALARM
TRIP

Transformer
Current unbalances

Losses

LOAD

100
80
60
40

Thermal
Capacity

Overloading

20

Transformer
cooling system

Overloading Protection relay settings

Alarm= 70%
Trip= 100%

Over loading
Protection
Thermal

70%
90%
0%
80%
100%
40%
60%
50%
20%
30%

Capacity=