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 In this project we planned to analyze the maximum demand

for the industries under load conditions and if it exceeds the
allotted maximum demand then EB will insist penalty for that
consumer. So, we took this project into account and monitor
the demand and controlling same by using micro controller. In
addition to this, we have planned to analyze the fault in the
industry such as open circuit ,short circuit and earth fault.
 In this system we have two sections:


This section consists of potential transformer, current transformer, signal
conditioning circuits, ADC, micro controller, lcd modules buzzer unit ,comparator
circuit and fuse failure circuit. The lcd displays the current rate of current flow of
the entire load. Incase, anyone insists extra load into the system, the controller is
sent data to lcd unit, which is load added and off anyone load among these.

This section consists of buffer circuit, driver circuit, relay

module, light loads, motor loads, etc., the buffer circuit is used
for isolation and driver circuit, for increasing the current
capability, required for the relay operation. here, the
microcontroller gets digital data from ADC chip. The
substation side setup max wattage and distributed to customers
and load. The controller will check current and voltage, fault
occurrence, earth failure of yard side of substation. If anything
is happened, then buzzer will remain sound and one more
transformer is ON when load is demeaned. This process is

 An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A

to D) is a device which converts continuous signals to discrete
digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a
digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
 Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an
input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number
proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current.
However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic
devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered
ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes,
such as binary, Gray code or two's complement binary.

 Current transformer
 In electrical engineering, a current transformer (CT) is used
for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers,
together with potential transformers (PT), are known as
instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too
high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current
transformer produces a reduced current accurately
proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be
conveniently connected to measuring and recording
instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring
instruments from what may be very high voltage in the
monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in
metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.

 Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and

monitoring the operation of the power grid. Along with voltage leads,
revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually
every building with three-phase service, and every residence with greater
than 200 amp service.
 The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to
secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses.
For example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate
CTs; stacking them provides severability while consolidating the high
voltage interface. Similarly, potential transformers such as the CVT are
used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

 Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers

(PT) are another type of instrument transformer, used
for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits.
They are designed to present negligible load to the
supply being measured and to have a precise voltage
ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that
metering and protective relay equipment can be
operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary
of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at
rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of
protection relays.

 A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat panel used for electronically
displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Its uses
include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other
devices ranging from aircraft cockpit displays, to every-day consumer
devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches,
calculators, and telephones. Among its major features are its lightweight
construction, its portability, and its ability to be produced in much larger
screen sizes than are practical for the construction of cathode ray tube
(CRT) display technology. Its low electrical power consumption enables it
to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an
electronically-modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels
filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight)
or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome.

 A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling

device, which may be mechanical,
electromechanical, or electronic. Typical uses
of buzzers and beepers include alarms, timers
and confirmation of user input such as a
mouse click or keystrok
 Mechanical
 A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer.
 Electromechanical
 Early devices were based on an electromechanical system
identical to an electric bell without the metal gong. Similarly,
a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current
, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored
to a wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The word
"buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical
buzzers made
 Electronic

 Piezoelectric disk beeper

 A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other
audio signal source. Sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed
are a click, a ring or a beep.
 Uses
 Annunciator panels
 Electronic metronomes
 Game shows :In game shows it is also known as a "lockout system" because when one
person signals ("buzzes in"), all others are locked out from signalling. Several game
shows have large buzzer buttons which are identified as "plungers". The buzzer is also
used to signal wrong answers and when time expires on many game shows.
 Microwave ovens and other household appliances
 Sporting events such as basketball games

 In a computer or data transmission system, to reset

means to clear any pending errors or events and bring
a system to normal condition or initial state usually in
a controlled manner. It is usually done in response to
an error condition when it is impossible or
undesirable for a processing activity to proceed and
all error recovery mechanisms fail. A
computer storage program would normally perform a
"reset" if a command times out and error recovery
schemes like retry or abort also fail.
Clock generator

 A clock generator is a circuit that produces a timing signal

(known as a clock signal and behaves as such) for use in
synchronizing a circuit's operation. The signal can range from
a simple symmetrical square wave to more complex
arrangements. The basic parts that all clock generators share
are a resonant circuit and an amplifier.
8051 MICRO

 A micro controller is defined as a semi

conductor device, that has got everything on a
single chip.
 This is the heart of our project.
 The microcontroller, we use here is 8051

 Internal RAM size of 128bytes
 Internal ROM size of 4kbytes
 4 IO ports
 32 IO port pins
 Two timers/counters
 4 16-bit registers  2 16-bit registers
 64kb stack size  128kb stack size
 Zero internal ROM size  4kb of internal ROM size
 Zero internal RAM size  128bytes internal RAM size
 64kb external memory  128kb external memory
 6 flags  4 flags
 Zero timers  2 timers
 The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available
operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051:
Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often
available in DIP form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different
form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called
8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language,
and they all share certain features (although the different models all have
their own special features).
 Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are:
 8-bit data bus
 16-bit address bus
 32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits
 16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have more, or less).
 3 internal and 2 external interrupts.
 Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes.
 Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit ports).
 16-bit program counter and data pointer
 8051 models may also have a number of special, model-
specific features, such as UARTs, ADC, OpAmps, etc...
 8051 chips are used in a wide variety of control systems,
telecom applications, robotics as well as in the automotive
industry. By some estimations, 8051 family chips make
up over 50% of the embedded chip market.
 Pin diagram of the 8051 DIP
 Basic Pins

 PIN 9: PIN 9 is the reset pin which is used reset the microcontroller’s
internal registers and ports upon starting up.2 machine cycle should be
high at this pin.
 PINS 18 & 19: The 8051 has a built-in oscillator amplifier hence we need
to only connect a crystal at these pins to provide clock pulses to the circuit.
 PIN 40 and 20: Pins 40 and 20 are VCC and ground respectively. The
8051 chip needs +5V 500mA to function properly.
 PINS 29, 30 & 31: As described in the features of the 8051, this chip
contains a built-in flash memory. In order to program this we need to
supply a voltage of +12V at pin 31. If external memory is connected then
PIN 31, also called EA/VPP, should be connected to ground to indicate the
presence of external memory. PIN 30 is called ALE (address latch enable),
which is used when multiple memory chips are connected to the controller
and only one of them needs to be selected. PIN 29 is called PSEN. This is
"program select enable". In order to use the external memory it is required
to provide the low voltage (0) on both PSEN and EA pins

 There are 4 8-bit ports: P0, P1, P2 and P3.

 PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): The port P1 is a general purpose input/output port which can be used
for a variety of interfacing tasks. The other ports P0, P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional
functions associated with them based upon the context of their usage.
 PORT P3 (Pins 10 to 17): PORT P3 acts as a normal IO port, but Port P3 has additional
functions such as, serial transmit and receive pins, 2 external interrupt pins, 2 external counter
inputs, read and write pins for memory access.
 PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): PORT P2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no
external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P2 will act
as an address bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access external memory. PORT P2 acts as
A8-A15, as can be seen from fig 1.1
 PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39) PORT P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no
external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P0 acts as a
multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in conjunction
with PORT P2. P0 acts as AD0-AD7, as can be seen from fig 1.1
 The 8051 requires the existence of an external oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit usually
runs around 12MHz, although the 8051 (depending on which specific model) is capable of
running at a maximum of 40MHz. Each machine cycle in the 8051 is 12 clock cycles, giving
an effective cycle rate at 1MHz (for a 12MHz clock) to 3.33MHz (for the maximum 40MHz

 The 8051 has 256 bytes of internal addressable RAM, although only the
first 128 bytes are available for general use by the programmer. The first
128 bytes of RAM (from 0x00 to 0x7F) are called the Direct Memory,
and can be used to store data.
 Special Function Register
 The Special Function Register (SFR) is the upper area of addressable
memory, from address 0x80 to 0xFF. This area of memory cannot be used
for data or program storage, but is instead a series of memory-mapped
ports and registers. All port input and output can therefore be performed by
memory mov operations on specified addresses in the SFR. Also, different
status registers are mapped into the SFR, for use in checking the status of
the 8051, and changing some operational parameters of the 8051.
 General Purpose Registers
 The 8051 has 4 selectable banks of 8 addressable 8-bit registers, R0 to R7.
This means that there are essentially 32 available general purpose registers,
although only 8 (one bank) can be directly accessed at a time. To access
the other banks, we need to change the current bank number in the flag
status register.

• Program counter is used, Whenever external RAM of 16-bits

is used.

• Data pointer is used, to get the external address.


• Whenever there is an interrupt, the controller will execute the

present instruction and store the address of next instruction on
the top of stack and it goes to the interrupt, executes the
interrupt and will come back to the next instruction.
Driver circuit

 In electronics, a driver is an electrical circuit or other

electronic component used to control another circuit
or other component, such as a high-power transistor.
The term is used, for example, for a specialized
computer chip that controls the high-power
transistors in DC-to-DC voltage converters. An
amplifier can also be considered the driver for
loudspeakers, or a constant voltage circuit that keeps
an attached component operating within a broad
range of input voltages.
 A sensor is a device that measures a physical
quantity and converts it into a signal which can be
read by an observer or by an instrument. For
example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts
the measured temperature into expansion and
contraction of a liquid which can be read on a
calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts
temperature to an output voltage which can be read
by a voltmeter. For accuracy, all sensors need to be
calibrated against known standards.
Ac to dc
 A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to
direct current (DC), a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have
many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of
radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube
diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components.
 A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is
known as an inverter.
 When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or
positive portion of the waveform), the difference between the term diode
and the term rectifier is merely one of usage, i.e., the term rectifier
describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC. Almost all
rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more
efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode.
Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube
diodes and copper(I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used.