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Reservoir

Characteristics, Rock &


Fluid Properties and
Drive Mechanism

Reservoir Characteristics

Every hydrocarbon bearing reservoir is a


valuable asset.

To ensure the best possible return, it is


important to understand as much as
possible about the reservoir.

This always presents a conceptual problem


as we cannot physically see the reservoir in
question.

Techniques,
such
as;
Seismic
Data
Acquisition, Electric Line Logging, Core
Analysis, PVT Analysis, and Well Testing etc
produce valuable data which help build the
simulated reservoir model and thus help in
developing the most cost effective strategy
to manage the asset.

ROCKS CLASSIFICATION

Rock-forming Source of
process
material

IGNEOU
S

SEDIMENTARY

METAMORPHIC

Molten materials in
deep crust and
upper mantle

Weathering and
erosion of rocks
exposed at surface

Rocks under high


temperatures
and pressures in
deep crust

Crystallization
(Solidification of melt)

Sedimentation, burial
and lithification

Recrystallization due to
heat, pressure, or
chemically active fluids

Rock Properties
To
form
a
commercial
reservoir
of
hydrocarbons, a geological formation must
possess three essential characteristics;

Sufficient
void
space
to
contain
hydrocarbons (porosity).
Adequate connectivity of these pore spaces
to allow
transportation over large distances
(permeability).
A capacity to trap sufficient quantities of
hydrocarbon to prevent upward migration
from the source beds.

Porosity
The void spaces in the reservoir rocks are the
inter
granular
spaces
between
the
sedimentary particles. Porosity is defined as a
percentage or fraction of void to the bulk
volume of the rock.

Porosity = 48%

Porosity
Measurements of porosity are either done in
the laboratory on core samples whereby
actual conditions are simulated as closely as
possible prior to measurement, or in-situ via
suites of electric logs such as Neutron,
Density and Sonic Logs.

Permeabil
ity
Permeability
is a measure of the ease with
which fluid flows through a porous rock, and is
a function of the degree of interconnection
between the pores.

A&B
have
same
porosity

Permeability
Permeability is measured in darcy units or
more
commonly
millidarcy
(md
one
thousandth of a darcy) after Henry Darcy who
carried out some pioneering work on water
flow through
unconsolidated sand stones.
A practical definition of a darcy is as follows;
A rock has a permeability (k) of 1 Darcy if a
pressure gradient of 1 atm/cm induces a flow
rate of 1 cc/sec/cm2 of cross sectional area
with a liquid viscosity 1 cp

Permeability
The grain size has a negligible effect on the
porosity of a rock, but this has a predominant
effect on permeability.
More frictional forces are encountered while
passing the same fluid through a fine granular
pack than through a coarse granular pack of
equal porosity.

Permeability
The apparent permeability is dependent on
the type of fluid flowing through the rock and
this
plays
an
important
part
in
the
interpretation
of
different
hydrocarbon
bearing reservoirs.
Permeability is denoted in three different
ways.
1.Absolute permeability ka is derived in the
laboratory by flowing a known quantity of fluid
through a core while its pore spaces are 100%
saturated with the same fluid. Absolute
permeability will not change with varying
fluids as long as the pore space configuration
remains constant.
2.Effective permeability is the permeability of
a flowing phase which does not saturate 100%

Wettin
g adhesive force determines which fluid will
The
preferentially wet a solid.
As an example, water will spread out on the
surface of a sheet of glass whereas mercury
will bead up and not adhere to the glass.
For water the adhesive forces between liquid
and solid are greater than the cohesive forces
holding the liquid molecules together, the
opposite is true for the mercury.
The tendency of one fluid to displace another
from a solid surface is determined by the
relative wettability of the fluids to the solid.

Capillarity
When liquid wets the surface of a fine bore
glass capillary tube, surface tension around
the circumference of the contact pulls the
liquid interface up the tube until an
equilibrium is reached with the downward
force due to the liquid column height.
In the reservoir, although the pore spaces do
not form the uniform capillary tubes, they do
interconnect to form a complex capillary
systems which in turn gives rise to capillary
forces.
These
forces
can
be
measured
under
laboratory conditions for a given rock fluid(s)

Capillarity

Irreducible Water Saturation


The minimum saturation that can be induced
by displacement is one in which the wetting
phase becomes discontinuous.
Since
the
wetting
phase
will
become
discontinuous at some finite capillary pressure
there will always be some irreducible water
saturation, a saturation which cannot be
reduced by displacement by a non-wetting
phase no matter how great a pressure is
applied to the system.

Residual Oil (Water Displacement)


Water tends to displace oil in a piston like
fashion, moving first close to the rock surface
where it is aided by capillary forces in
squeezing oil from the smaller channels.
Residual oil is left in the smaller channels
when interfacial tension causes the thread of
oil to break leaving behind small globules of
oil.

Relations between Permeability and Fluid


Saturation
The effective permeability of a fluid is a
function of the saturation.

Coring
One way to get more detailed samples of
a formation is by coring, where
formation sample is drilled out by means
of special bit.
This sample can provide:
Detailed lithological decscription.
Porosity, permeability, fluid
saturation and grain density.

These

parameters are measured in the


laboratory and serve as a basis for
calibrating the response of the porosity
logging tools and to establish a
porosity/permeability relationship.

CORING ASSEMBLY AND CORE BIT


Drill collar
connection
PDC Cutters
Thrust bearing
Outer barrel
Inner barrel
Core retaining
ring
Core bit

Fluid
vent

COMING OUT OF HOLE WITH CORE BARREL

Core Analysis
Core analysis can be divided into
two categories:

Conventional Core Analysis.


Special Core Analysis.
Conventional Core Analysis.
The core is usually slabbed, cut
lengthwise to make the structure
visible.
Provides information on lithology, residual
fluid saturation, ambient porosity, ambient
gas permeability and grain density.

Core Analysis

Gas Permeameter

Liquid Permeameter

Core Analysis

Porosimeter

Core Analysis
Special Core Analysis :
Provides the following information:

Porosity and permeability at elevated

confining stress.
Electrical properties such as formation factor
and resistivity index.
Capillary pressure.
Wettability and relative permeability.
Mechanical rock properties such as
compressibility.
Waterflood sensitivity for injectivity and well
performance.

Fluid Properties

Fluid Properties
Naturally occurring petroleum accumulations
are made up of
large number of organic
compounds, primarily hydrocarbons.
Seldom are two crude oil samples identical
and seldom are two crude oils made up of the
same proportions of the various compounds.
Reasons to examine the Reservoir fluids
a)A chemical engineer may be interested in a
crude oils composition as to the amount of
commercial products the oil will yield after
refining.
b)An exploration might have an interest in an
oil or waters composition as it sheds light on
the origin, maturation and degradation of the
oil for geological interpretation.
c)The petroleum engineer is particularly

Chemical composition of petroleum deposits


Petroleum deposits obtained from different
reservoirs will vary widely in chemical
composition and may have entirely different
physical and Chemical Properties
They may be present in the reservoir in liquid
and/or gas form depending upon the pressure,
temperature and composition
In spite of this diversity, the bulk of the
chemical compounds found in Petroleum are
hydrocarbons:
1.Paraffin hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2)
2.Naphthalene hydrocarbons

Petroleum oil
Petroleum oil or crude oil is a complex mixture
consisting largely of hydrocarbons belonging
to various series
In addition, crude usually contain small
amounts of combined oxygen, nitrogen and
sulfur
No crude oil has ever been entirely separated
into its individual components.
Crude oils obtained from various reservoir
have different properties because of the
presence
of
different
proportions
of
hydrocarbons constituents
Element

carbon

hydrogen

sulfur

nitrogen

Oxygen

Nearly all crude oils will give ultimate analysis


% Weight the 84-87
11-14
0.1-2.0
0.1-2.0
within
following
limits 0.6-2.0

Natural Gas
Natural gas can occur by itself
combination with liquid petroleum oils

or

in

It consists mainly of the more volatile


members of the paraffin series containing
from one to four carbon atoms
Small amount of higher molecular
hydrocarbons can also be present

weight

In addition, natural gases may contain varying


amount of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen
sulfide, helium and water vapor
Natural gas can be classified as sweet or sour
and as wet or dry

Tars and Asphalts


These solid and semi solid substances are
also known as bitumen, waxes and resins
They are very complex substances and
relatively little is known regarding their
chemical composition
These materials are formed in nature
from petroleum oils by evaporation of the
more volatile constituents and oxidation
and polymerization of residue

Products from Petroleum


The distillation of crude oil results in various fractions
which boils at different temperatures
If the residue which remains after distillation is a wax
like solid consisting of largely of paraffin hydrocarbons
the crude is designated as paraffin base
If the residue is a black pitch like solid the crude is called
asphalt base
Various fractions of petroleum

Fractions obtained from distillation

Temperature Range

Petroleum Ether

Upto 160 0f

Gasoline

160-400 0f

Kerosene

400-575 0f

Fuel oil

Above 575 0f

Requirements to Study the Reservoir Fluid Behavior


Reservoir fluids are generally complex mixtures of
hydrocarbons existing as liquid-gas systems under
high pressures & temperatures
An important aspect of petroleum engineering is
predicting the future behavior of a petroleum reservoir
when it is put on production
Therefore, it is necessary to know the behavior of
reservoir fluids as a function of temperature and
pressure
To understand the behavior of complex systems
existing in petroleum reservoir, the derivations from
ideal behavior are used.

Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbon Systems


A phase is a definite portion of a system which
is homogeneous throughout and can be
separated from other phases by distinct
boundaries.
Solids, liquids and gases are phases of matter
which can occur, depending on pressure and
temperature.
Commonly,
two
or
three
different fluid phases exist together in a
reservoir.
Any analysis of reservoir fluids depends on the
relationships between pressure, volume and
temperature of the fluids commonly referred
to as the PVT relationship.
It is customary to represent the phase
behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids on
the P-T plane showing the limits over which

Single Component Systems


Single component hydrocarbons are not found
in nature, however it is beneficial to observe
the behaviour of a pure hydrocarbon under
varying pressures and temperatures to gain
insight into more complex systems.
As an example, the PVT cell is charged with
ethane at 60 F and 1000 psia. Under these
conditions, ethane is in a liquid state. If the
cell volume is increased while holding the
temperature constant, the pressure will fall
rapidly and first bubble of gas appears. This is
called the bubble point.
Further increases of cylinder volume at
constant temperature does not reduce the
pressure. The gas volume increases until the
point is reached where all the liquid is

Single Component P-V

Phase
Behaviour
Component System

of

Multi-

Consider the phase behavior of a 50:50


mixture of two pure hydrocarbon components
on the P-T plane.
The vapor pressure and bubble point lines do
not coincide but form an envelope enclosing a
broad range of temperatures and pressures at
which two phases (gas and oil) exist in
equilibrium.
The dew and bubble point curves terminate at
that temperature and pressure at which liquid
and vapour (gas) phases have identical
intensive properties, density, specific volume,
Etc.

Phase
Behaviour
Component System

of

Multi-

Reservoir Fluid Types


Black oil
Volatile oil

Wet gas
Dry gas

Pressure

Retrograde Condensate
(gas condensate)

Pres , Tres
Dry
Gas
Gas
Condensate
Volatile
Oil

Black
Oil

Temperature

P-T Diagram for a Blabk Oil

P-T Diagram for a Volatile Oil

P-T Diagram for gas condensate

P-Tdiagram for a wet Gas

P-T Diagram for a Dry Gas

Reservoir Fluid Properties

Oil Compressibility
Saturation Pressure
Relative Total Volume
Live Oil Viscosity
Live Oil Density
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Gas-Oil Ratio
Liberated Gas Formation Volume
factor
Incremental Liberated Gas-Gravity
Cumulative liberated Gas-Gravity

Sampling of Reservoir Fluids


The purpose of sampling is to obtain a
representative sample of reservoir fluid
identical to the initial reservoir fluid.
For this reason, sampling operations
should ideally be conducted on virgin
reservoirs (having not yet produced) or in
new wells completed in no depleted zones,
containing fluids identical to the initial
reservoir fluids.
If the production fluids are still identical to
the initial fluids, the sampling procedure
will be very similar to that of new wells.
If the produced fluid is not identical to the
fluid initially in place in the reservoir, one

Well Conditioning for Sampling


The objective of well conditioning is to
replace the non-representative reservoir
fluid located around the wellbore with
original reservoir fluid by displacing it into
and up the wellbore.
A flowing oil well is conditioned by
producing it at successively lower rates until
the non representative oil has been
produced.
The well is considered to be conditioned
when further reductions in flow rate have no
effect on the stabilized gas-oil ratio.
Stable well conditions: Pressure, Rate, GOR,
WGR, Temperature

Types of Sampling
Downhole
DST strings
Wireline sample
Surface
Wellhead samples
Separator samples

Sub-surface sampling for Oil Reservoirs


Subsurface samples are generally taken with
the well shut-in.
The sample should be taken under singlephase conditions, Pres > Pb
The well should be fully cleaned up
A static pressure gradient survey should be
performed either prior to or during sampling
to check for the presence of water at the
bottom of the well

Sub-surface sampling for Oil Reservoirs

Sub-surface Sampler

Sample
transfer unit

Surface sampling for Oil/gas Reservoirs


Sampling at the wellhead
Valid fluid samples are only likely to be
obtained if the fluid is single-phase at the
wellhead
Poses
safety
fluid...)

hazards

(high-pressure

Sampling at the separator


Easier, safer, cheaper
Only reliable surface method if fluid is
two-phase at the wellhead

Wellhead sampling
Sample point should be as near wellhead
as possible, and upstream of choke
manifold
It is possible to obtain mono phasic
wellhead samples for very high pressure
gas condensates
Pres = 15,000 psia
Pwh = 11,000 psia
Pdew = 5500 psia
But beware
sample point

of

flashing

occurring

at

Separator sampling
The most important factor in separator
sampling is stability of conditions
Stabilised gas and oil flow rates (and
therefore GOR)
Stabilised temperature
Stabilised wellhead pressure
Gas and liquid samples should be taken
simultaneously, as they are a matched
pair
Oil and gas rates must be measured
carefully
Sample points must be as close to the
separator as possible

Horizontal Separator

Inlet

Sight
Glass

momentum
absorber

Gauge

Gas
Outlet

Liquid
Outlet

Sample Transfer
Single-phase sub-surface samples become
two-phase as they are brought to surface
as a result of a large reduction in
pressure due to cooling
The sample chamber must be repressured to single-phase conditions prior
to transfer to sample bottles
Single-phase
positive
displacement
samplers are now common place, and
maintain single-phase conditions in the
chamber as it is brought to surface

Gas-Condensate Sampling
Sub-surface sampling is generally not the
preferred method in condensate reservoirs
Well-head
phase

sampling

preferred

if

Separator
cases

sampling

preferred

for

singleother

If Pwf < Pdew, the choice of flow-rate during


sampling
is
a
balance
between
the
following:

High rates cause excessive liquid dropout in the reservoir

Low rates prevent liquids formed in the

Recombination of surface Sample


Separator samples are recombined using the
ratio calculated from measured gas and
liquid flow-rates
Care must also be taken to preserve
consistency between field and laboratory
values of separator liquid shrinkage
In what ratio should the oil and gas samples
be recombined?

Bubble-Point Determination
Bubble-point identified by change in fluid
compressibility

Pb

Pressure

Volatile
Oil

Volume

Volume

Black
Oil

Pb

Pressure

The PVT Cell


Used for examining the behaviour of fluids
at reservoir pressures and temperatures
Temperature thermostatically controlled
The volume of the cell can be changed by
using a positive displacement pump
Sampling points are provided
Most cells are fitted with an observation
window

Basic PVT Experiments


Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)
Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)
Differential Vaporisation (Liberation) (DV)
Multi-stage Separator Tests

Isothermal Flash
The Isothermal Flash is the basis for most laboratory
PVT experiments
Single-phase fluid is loaded into the PVT cell at
temperature T and pressure P1
The temperature is kept constant throughout the
experiment (PVT cell is placed in a heat bath)
The fluid is expanded to a new pressure P2 (P2<P1)
The flash results in a change in total volume and may
result in phase changes

Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)


A series of isothermal flash expansions at constant
temperature (normally Tres).
No fluid is removed from the

cell

Vapour
Vapour
Volume
@ Psat

Single
Phase

P > Psat

Single
Phase

P = Psat

Liquid

P < Psat

Liquid

P <<
Psat

Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)


A series of flash expansions at T
At each pressure, vapour is withdrawn to
restore original cell volume at Psat

Vapour

Vapour

Vapour

Vapour
Vapour

Psat

Vapour

Vapour

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

P1

P1

P2

P2

Differential Vaporisation (DV)


A series of flash expansions at T
At each pressure stage, all of the vapour
in the cell is removed

Vapour
Vapour

Vapour
Vapour

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Psat

P1

P1

P2

P2

The liquid remaining at the last pressure step is cooled to ambient


temperature to give the residual oil

DV Reported Data

Oil volume
Oil density
Oil formation volume factor, Bo
Gas specific gravity
Gas Z-factor
Gas formation volume factor, Bg
Evolved gas volumes
Solution GOR, Rs

Drive mechanism

Reservoir Drive Mechanisms


What causes oil to flow from reservoirs?
Pressure difference between reservoir fluids and the
wellbore pressure
If reservoir pressure declines quickly, recovery by
natural flow will be small
There are several ways in which oil can be displaced
and produced from a reservoir, and these may be
termed mechanisms or drives.
Where one replacement mechanism is dominant, the
reservoir may be said to be operating under a
particular drive.

Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

For the proper understanding of reservoir behavior


and predicting future performance, it is necessary to
have knowledge of the driving mechanism that
controls the behavior of fluids within reservoirs.

Overall performance of the oil reservoir is largely


determined by the nature of the energy ( driving
mechanism) available for moving the oil to the
wellbore

Where does this energy come from???

Reservoir Drive Mechanisms


Possible sources of replacement for produced fluids are:
a)Expansion of under saturated oil above the bubble
point.
b)Expansion of rock and of connate water.
c)Expansion of gas released from solution in the oil
below the bubble point.
d)Invasion of the original oil bearing reservoir by the
expansion of the gas from a free gas cap.
e)Invasion of the original oil bearing reservoir by the
expansion of the water from an adjacent or underlying
aquifer.

Understanding the Reservoir Drive Mechanism


The recovery of oil by any of the natural drive
mechanisms is called primary recovery. During primary
recovery, hydrocarbons are produced from reservoir
without the use of any process (such as fluid injection)
to supplement the natural energy of the reservoir.
Each drive mechanism has certain typical performance
in terms of:
Pressure-decline rate
Gas-oil ratio
Water production
Ultimate recovery factor

SOURCES OF RESERVOIR ENERGY


GAS DISSOLVED IN OIL
OIL OVERLAIN BY FREE GAS
OIL UNDERLAIN BY COMPRESSED WATER
GRAVITY FORCE, &
COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE

RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISM- Types


In oil reservoirs, there are basically six drive
mechanisms that provide the natural energy
necessary for recovery:

Depletion drive
Gas cap drive
Water drive
Gravity drainage drive
Combination drive
Liquid expansion and rock compaction drive

DEPLETION DRIVE MECHANISM


In this type of reservoir, the principal source of
energy is a result of gas liberation from the crude oil
and the subsequent expansion of the solution gas as
the reservoir pressure is reduced.
If a reservoir at its bubble point is put on production,
the pressure will fall below the bubble point pressure
and gas will come out of solution. Initially, this gas
may be dispersed, discontinuous phase, but, in any
case, gas will be essentially immobile until some
minimum saturation or critical gas saturation, is
attained.

DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES OF SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

NO OWC OR GOC ON WELL LOGS


PRESSURE
DECLINE
ROUGHLY
PROPORTIONAL
TO
GAS
PRODUCTION

FAST PRESSURE AND PRODUCTION


DECLINE

ULTIMATE RECOVERIES IN 5-30 %


RANGE

LEAST EFFICIENT DRIVE MECHANISM


AND HIGHLY UNDESIRABLE

EVERY ATTEMPT IS MADE TO CHANGE


THE DRIVE MECHANISM ( BY GAS
AND/OR WATER INJECTION, THE
PROCESS
BEING
CALLED
AS
PRESSURE MAINTENEANCE)

DEPLETION DRIVE MECHANISM

DUE TO RAPID PRESSURE


DECLINE RESERVOIR PRESSURE GOES BELOW
SATURATION PRESSURE, RESULTING IN PHASE
SEPARATION WITHIN THE RESERVOIR

FORMATION OF SECONDORY GAS CAP, SIZE KEEPS ON


INCREASING WITH PRODUCTION
STRUCTURALLY HIGHER WELLS SHOW INCREASING GOR
AND SOME WELLS START PRODUCING GAS ONLY

Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoir

Time years

Typical Production Characteristics

Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs

Reservoir pressure, psig

Typical Production Characteristics


Initial reservoir
pressure

Bubblepoint
pressure

5
10
Oil recovery, % of OOIP

Reservoir pressure behavior

GAS-CAP GAS DRIVE MECHANISM


Gas cap drive reservoirs
are identified by the
presence of a gas cap
with little or no water
drive. The gas cap can be
present
under
initial
reservoir conditions, or it
may be a secondary gas
cap formed from gas that
evolved from solution as
reservoir declined below
bubble point due to
production of fluids.

GAS-CAP GAS DRIVE; DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES


SLOW DECLINE OF RESERVOIR PRESSURE
STABLE GOR OF WELLS AWAY FROM GOC FOR
FAIRLY LONG TIME
HIGH GOR OF THE WELLS CLOSE TO GOC
ULTIMATE RECOVERIES BETWEEN 30-50 %
PREFERENTIAL FLOW OF GAS DUE TO ITS LOWER
VISCOSITY
IF PRODUCED TOO RAPIDLY, BY-PASSING OF OIL
OCCURS, AND HENCE
LIMITATIONS OF PRODUCTION RATES OTHERWISE
LOW RECOVERIES

GAS-CAP GAS DRIVE; DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES

WATER DRIVE MECHANISM


POSSIBLE WHEN OIL ZONE UNDERLAIN BY WATER
TWO TYPES- EDGE WATER AND BOTTOM WATER DRIVE
PRESSURE TRANSMITTED FROM THE SURROUNDING AQUIFER OR
WATER AT THE EDGE AND BOTTOM OF THE OIL POOL
ENERGY COMES FROM OUTSIDE THE POOL, WATER MOVES IN,
REPLACES PRODUCED OIL OR GAS, AND PRESSURE IS MAINTAINED
IF PRESSURE REMAINS ALMOST CONSTANT WITH PRODUCTION DUE
TO ENTERANCE OF NEW WATER- ACTIVE WATER DRIVE
POSSIBILITY OF ACTIVE WATER DRIVE IF EXTENDING TO RECHARGE
AREA SUPPLYING ENOUGH WATER
IF LENTICULAR RESERVOIR, OR IF IN A FAULT BLOCK, OR SHARP
FACIES VARIATION, CHANCES OF ACTIVE WATER DRIVE HIGHLY
REDUCED.

Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Oil producing well
Oil producing well

Oil Zone
Water
Water
Cross Section
Edge Water Drive

Oil Zone
Water
Cross Section
Bottom Water Drive

WATER DRIVE MECHANISM


An efficient water driven
reservoir requires a large
aquifer body with a high
degree of transmissibility
allowing large volumes of
water to move across the
oil-water
response

contact
to

pressure drop.

in
small

WATER DRIVE MECHANISM DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES


OCCURRENCE OF OWC
ON LOGS
NO APPRICIABLE
PRESSURE REDUCTION
WITH PRODUCTION
ULTIMATE RECOVERIES
REASONABLY HIGH (>50
%)
WATER CUTTING IN
STRUCTURALLY LOWER
WELLS WITH
PRODUCTION DUE TO
UPWARD MOVEMENT OF
OWC
STABLE GOR VALUES
FOR A LONG TIME
DECLINE IN OIL RATE
ONLY DUE TO
INCREASING WATER CUT

Gravity Drainage in Oil Reservoirs


Gravitational forces:
Gravitational segregation is tendency of fluids in
reservoir to segregate, under inference of gravity, to position in
reservoir based on fluids' density (gas to move above oil, water
below oil).

Reservoir type
Gravity drainage may occur in any type of reservoir.
Gravity drainage is particularly important in solution-gas and
gas-cap drive oil reservoirs.

Gravity Drainage in Oil Reservoirs

Gravity Drive Mechanism

GRAVITY ACTS AS A DRIVE MECHANISM THROUGHOUT


THE PRODUCING LIFE OF ALL THE POOLS

SIGNIFICANT IN HIGH RELIEF TRAPS

SEPARATION OF WATER, OIL AND GAS IS AIDED BY


GRAVITY ONLY

IN SOLUTION GAS DRIVE RESERVOIRS, GRAVITY DRIVE


BECOMES IMPORTANT IN LATER STAGES

IT PROLONGS THE LIFE OF MANY WELLS

COMBINATION DRIVE MECHANISM


Two combinations of driving forces can be present in
combination drive reservoirs:
Depletion drive and a weak water drive
Depletion drive with small gas cap and a weak drive
Gravity segregation plays an important role in any of
the above mentioned drives

COMBINATION DRIVE MECHANISM

OPERATIVE WHEN BOTH FREE GAS ABOVE


THE OIL ZONE AND WATER BELOW ARE
PRESENT.
GOC
OWC

GAS
OIL
WATER

COMBINATION DRIVE MECHANISM


BOTH OWC AND GOC ARE
SEEN ON LOGS.
WITH PRODUCTION GOC
MOVES DOWNWARD AND
OWC MOVES UPWARD
WITH
PRODUCTION
HIGHER
GOR
IN
STRUCTURALLY HIGHER
WELLS AND INCRESED
WATER
CUT
IN
STRUCTURALLY
LOWER
WELLS
REASONABLY
HIGH
RECOVERY FACTORS ( 5075 %)

Thank You

COMPACTION DRIVE MECHANISM


The production of fluids from a reservoir will increase
the difference between overburden pressure and
pore pressure, thereby causing a reduction of pore
volume
of the reservoir and possible causing
subsidence of the surface.
Oil recovery by compaction drive is significant only if
formation compressibility is high. Most reservoirs
that
have a significant compaction drive are
shallow and
poorly consolidated.

GAS-CAP GAS DRIVE MECHANISM


The general behavior of gas drive reservoirs is similar to
that of solution gas drives reservoirs, except that the
presence of free gas retards the decline in pressure. The
characteristics trends of such reservoirs are:
Reservoir pressure:
The reservoir pressure falls slowly and continuously. As
compared to depletion drive, pressure tends to be
maintained at a higher level. The gas cap gas volume
compared to oil volume determines the degree of
pressure maintenance.
Water production:
Nil or negligible water production

GAS-CAP GAS DRIVE MECHANISM


Gas Oil ratio
With the advancement of gas cap in the producing
intervals of up-structure wells, the gas oil ratio
will increase to high values.
Ultimate recovery:
Since gas cap expansion is basically a frontal drive
displacing mechanism, oil recovery is more efficient
as compared to depletion drive reservoirs. The
expected oil recoveries range from 20 to 40%.

WATER DRIVE MECHANISM


The replacement mechanism has two particular
characteristics
1.there must be pressure drops in order to have
expansion,
2.the aquifer response may lag substantially,
particularly
if transmissibility deteriorates in the
aquifer.
A water drive reservoir is then particularly rate
sensitive, and so the reservoir behave almost as a
depletion reservoir for a long period if off-take rates
are very high, or as an almost complete pressure
maintained water drive reservoir if off-take rates are
low, for the given aquifer.

WATER DRIVE MECHANISM


The following characteristics can be used for identification of
the water-drive mechanism:
Reservoir pressure: The reservoir pressure decline is usually
very gradual.
Water production: Early water production occurs in
structurally low wells.
Gas - Oil Ratio: There is normally little change in the
producing gas oil ratio during the life of reservoir.
Ultimate oil recovery: Ultimate recovery from water-drive
reservoirs is usually much larger than recovery under any other
mechanism. Recovery is dependent upon the efficiency of the
flushing action of the water as it displaces the oil.

DEPLETION DRIVE MECHANISM


In brief, the characteristic trends occurring during the
production life of depletion drive reservoirs can be
summarized as :
Reservoir pressure: Declines rapidly and continuously
Gas-Oil ratio :

Increases to maximum and then declines

Water production:

None

Well behavior :

Requires pumping at early stage

Oil recovery :

5 to 30%