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# Unit 04 : Advanced Hydrogeology

Hydraulic Testing

Well Hydraulics
A water well is a hydraulic structure that is
designed and constructed to permit economic
withdrawal of water from an aquifer
Water well construction includes:
Selection of appropriate drilling methods
Selection of appropriate completion materials
Analysis and interpretation of well and aquifer
performance

Q

ho
h

## Static Water Level [SWL]

(ho) is the equilibrium water
level before pumping
commences
Pumping Water Level
[PWL] (h) is the water level
during pumping
Drawdown (s = ho - h) is the
difference between SWL and
PWL
Well Yield (Q) is the volume
of water pumped per unit
time
Specific Capacity (Q/s) is
the yield per unit drawdown

Cone of Depression
High Kh aquifer
Low Kh aquifer

Kh Kv

## A zone of low pressure is created centred on the pumping well

Drawdown is a maximum at the well and reduces radially
resembles an inverted cone called the cone of depression
The cone expands over time until the inflows (from various
boundaries) match the well extraction
The shape of the equilibrium cone is controlled by hydraulic
conductivity

Aquifer Characteristics
Pump tests allow estimation of transmission and
storage characteristics of aquifers
Transmissivity (T = Kb) is the rate of flow through a
vertical strip of aquifer (thickness b) of unit width
Storage Coefficient (S = Sy + Ssb) is storage change
per unit volume of aquifer per unit change in head
Radius of Influence (R) for a well is the maximum
horizontal extent of the cone of depression when the
well is in equilibrium with inflows

Q
r

s
h

ho

Assumptions
Isotropic, homogeneous,
Initial Conditions
h(r,0) = ho for all r
Boundary Conditions
h(R,t) = ho for all t

## Darcys Law Q = -2rbKh/r Using BC ho = - Q ln(R) + c

2Kb
Rearranging h = - Q r
2Kb r
Eliminating constant (c) gives
Integrating h = - Q ln(r) + c
s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)
2Kb
2Kb
BC specifies h = ho at r = R
This is the Thiem Equation

Q
r

s
h

ho

Assumptions
Isotropic, homogeneous,
Initial Conditions
h(r,0) = ho for all r
Boundary Conditions
h(R,t) = ho for all t

## Darcys Law Q = -2rhKh/r Using BC ho2 = - Q ln(R) + c

K
Rearranging hh = - Q r
2K r
Eliminating constant (c) gives
Integrating h2 = - Q ln(r) + c
ho2 h2 = Q ln(r/R)
2
2K
K
BC specifies h = ho at r = R
This is the Thiem Equation

## Thiem Equation Assumptions

The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged to give:
s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)
2K (ho+ h)/2
Compare this with the confined equation:
s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)
2Kb
It is clear than the only difference is that the aquifer thickness b
is replaced by (ho + h)/2
The implicit assumption in the derivation (2-D flow) implies that
s is small compared with ho and that the (ho + h)/2 does not
deviate significantly from ho
This assumption may not be valid in the immediate vicinity of a
pumping well in an unconfined aquifer

## Thiem Equation Applications

The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged to give:
K = Q ln(r/R)
(ho2 - h2)
Similarly with the confined equation:
K = Q ln(r/R)
2b (ho h)
The radius of influence R is hard to estimate but any two wells at
different radial distance can be used in the equations
K = Q ln(r2/r1)
and
K = Q ln(r2/r1)
(h22 h12)
2b (h2 h1)
This means that for a well producing at a steady rate (Q) with a
distances can be used to estimate K

Specific Capacity

For a confined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the specific capacity is
given by:
Q = 2Kb
sw ln(rw/R)
This means that for a confined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the
specific capacity is constant.
The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged:
Q = K (ho + hw)
sw ln(rw/R)
Writing hw = ho - sw gives:
Q = - K (sw + 2ho)
sw
ln(rw/R)
For an unconfined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the specific capacity
reduces with increasing drawdown. The maximum specific capacity for an
unconfined well is given by:
Q = 2Kho
sw ln(rw/R)

Q
r

s
h

ho

PDE 1 (rh ) = S h
r r r
T t
Solution is more complex than
Change the dependent
variable by letting u = r2S
4Tt

Assumptions
Isotropic, homogeneous,
Initial Conditions
h(r,0) = ho for all r

Boundary Conditions
h(,t) = ho for all t

## The ultimate solution is:

ho- h = Q exp(-u) du
4T u u
where the integral is called the
exponential integral written as
the well function W(u)
This is the Theis Equation

## Let = S/T (to simplify notation

where is called the hydraulic
diffusivity)
PDE 1 (rh ) = h
r r r
t
u = r2S = r2
4Tt 4t
So u = r = 2u
r 2t
r
And u = -r2 = -u
t
4t2
t
Rewriting the PDE in terms of u:
1 d (r u dh ) u = u dh
r du r du r
t du

## Rewriting partial derivatives in

terms of u:
1 d (r 2u dh ) 2u = - u dh
r du r du r
t du
Rearranging and cancelling:
d (u dh ) = -r2 dh = -u dh
du du
4t du
du
Expanding the LHS derivative:
u d (dh ) + dh = -u dh
du du
du
du
d (dh ) = -(u + 1) dh
du du
u du
Writing dh/du as h gives an ODE:
dh = -(u + 1) h or dh = -(1 + 1) du
du
u
h
u

Theis Integration

## The resulting ODE is:

dh = -(1 + 1) du
h
u
Integrating: ln(h) = -u ln(u) + c
Simplifying: ln(hu) = c u
Inverting: hu = exp(c).exp(-u)
To eliminate exp(c), use Darcys
Law:
lim rh = -Q = lim 2hu
r 0 r 2Kb u 0
Remember
rh = rhu = hr2 = 2hu
r
r
2t
lim hu = -Q = exp(c)
u 0 4Kb
Simplifying: h = -Q exp(-u)
4T u

Recall h = dh/du
dh = -Q exp(-u).du
4T u
Integrating:
h = -Q exp(-u) du + C
4Tu u
Finally, using h(,t) = ho to
eliminate C:
ho - h = Q exp(-u) du
4Tu u
The integral is called the
exponential integral but is often
written as the Theis well function
W(u)
s = ho - h = Q W(u)
4T

10.0

W(u)

1.0

0.1

0.0
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1/u

1.E+02

1.E+03

Drawdown (m)

10.0

1.0

0.1

0.0
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

Drawdown (m)

10.0

s=0.17m

1.0

0.1

0.0
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

[1,1]
Type
Curve

t=51s

1.E+04

1.E+05

Theis Analysis
1.
2.
3.

## Overlay type-curve on data-curve keeping axes parallel

Select a point on the type-curve (any will do but [1,1] is
simplest)
Read off the corresponding co-ordinates on the data-curve
[td,sd]

4.

## For [1,1] on the type curve corresponding to [td,sd], T = Q/4sd

and S = 4Ttd/r2 = Qtd/r2sd

5.

## For the example, Q = 32 L/s or 0.032 m3/s; r = 120 m; td = 51

s and sd = 0.17 m

6.
7.

## T = (0.032)/(12.56 x 0.17) = 0.015 m2/s = 1300 m2/d

S = (0.032 x 51)/(3.14 x 120 x 120 x 0.17) = 2.1 x 10-4

Cooper-Jacob
Cooper and Jacob (1946) pointed out that the series expansion
of the exponential integral or W(u) is:
W(u) = - ln(u) + u - u2 + u3 - u4 + ..
1.1! 2.2! 3.3! 4.4!
where is Eulers constant (0.5772)
For u<< 1 , say u < 0.05 the series can be truncated:
W(u) ln(e - ln(u) = - ln(eu) = -ln(1.78u)
Thus: s = ho - h = - Q ln(1.78u) = - Q ln(1.78r2S) = Q ln( 4Tt )
4T
4T
4Tt
4T 1.78r2S
s = ho - h = Q ln( 2.25Tt ) = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt )
4T
r 2S
4T
r 2S
The Cooper-Jacob simplification expresses drawdown (s) as a
linear function of ln(t) or log(t).

0.0
0.1
0.2

Drawdown (m)

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

to = 84s

0.0
0.1
0.2

Drawdown (m)

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

s =0.39 m

0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

## Time since pump started (s)

1.E+04

1.E+05

Cooper-Jacob Analysis
1.

## Fit straight-line to data (excluding early and late times if

necessary):
at early times the Cooper-Jacob approximation may not be valid
at late times boundaries may significantly influence drawdown

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Determine intercept on the time axis for s=0

Determine drawdown increment (s) for one log-cycle
For straight-line fit, T = 2.3Q/4s and S = 2.25Tto/r2 =
2.3Qto/1.78r2s
For the example, Q = 32 L/s or 0.032 m 3/s; r = 120 m; to = 84 s
and s = 0.39 m
T = (2.3 x 0.032)/(12.56 x 0.39) = 0.015 m 2/s = 1300 m2/d
S = (2.3 x 0.032 x 84)/(1.78 x 3.14 x 120 x 120 x 0.39)
= 1.9 x 10-4

Theis-Cooper-Jacob Assumptions
Real aquifers rarely conform to the assumptions made for
Theis-Cooper-Jacob non-equilibrium analysis

## Isotropic, homogeneous, uniform thickness

Fully penetrating well
Laminar flow
Flat potentiometric surface
Infinite areal extent
No recharge

The failure of some or all of these assumptions leads to nonideal behaviour and deviations from the Theis and CooperJacob analytical solutions for radial unsteady flow

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

## Time since pump started (s)

Recharge causes the slope of the log(time) vs drawdown curve to flatten as the
recharge in the zone of influence of the well matches the discharge. The gradient
and intercept can still be used to estimate the aquifer characteristics (T,S).

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

## If the recharge is insufficient to match the discharge, the log(time) vs drawdown

curve flattens but does not become horizontal and drawdown continues to increase
at a reduced rate. T and S can be estimated from the first leg of the curve.

Sources of Recharge

## Various sources of recharge may cause deviation

from the ideal Theis behaviour.
Surface water: river, stream or lake boundaries may
provide a source of recharge, halting the expansion
of the cone of depression.
Vertical seepage from an overlying aquifer, through
an intervening aquitard, as a result of vertical
gradients created by pumping, can also provide a
source of recharge.
Where the cone of depression extends over large
areas, leakage from aquitards may provide sufficient
recharge.

15

Drawdown (m)

20

High Leakage
25

Low Leakage
30

35
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

## Recharge by vertical leakage from overlying (or underlying beds)

can be quantified using analytical solutions developed by Jacob
(1946). The analysis assumes a single uniform leaky bed.

## Hantush Type Curves

r/B
0.0
0.05
0.1
0.2

10.0

0.5

Theis Curve
1.0

W(u,r/B)

1.0

2.0

0.1

0.0
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1/u

Data are fitted in a manner similar to the Theis curve. The parameter
r/B = r( {Kv / b} / {Khb} ) increases with the amount of leakage.

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35
1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

## Steepening of the log(time) vs. drawdown curve indicates an

aquifer limited by a barrier boundary of some kind. Aquifer
characteristics (T,S) can be estimated from the first leg.

## Various flow barriers may cause deviation from the

ideal Theis behaviour.
Fault truncations against low permeability
aquitards.
Lenticular pinchouts and lateral facies changes
associated with reduced permeability.
Groundwater divides associated with scarp slopes.
Spring lines with discharge captured by wells.
Artificial barriers such as grout curtains and slurry
walls.

Casing Storage
It has been known for many decades that early time data
can give erroneous results because of removal of water
stored in the well casing.
When pumping begins, this water is removed and the
amount drawn from the aquifer is consequently reduced.
The true aquifer response is masked until the casing
storage is exhausted.
Analytical solutions accounting for casing storage were
developed by Papadopulos and Cooper (1967) and
Ramey et al (1973)
Unfortunately, these solutions require prior knowledge of
well efficiencies and aquifer characteristics

Casing Storage
Q

s
dp
dc

## Schafer (1978) suggests that an estimate of the critical

time to exhaust casing storage can be made more
easily:
tc = 3.75(dc2 dp2) / (Q/s) = 15 Va /Q
where tc is the critical time (d);
dc is the inside casing diameter (m);
dp is the outside diameter of the rising main (m);
Q/s is the specific capacity of the well (m3/d/m)
Va is the volume of water removed from the
annulus between casing and rising main.
Note: It is safest to ignore data from pumped wells
earlier than time tc in wells in low-K HSUs

Distance-Drawdown
Simultaneous drawdown data from at least three
observation wells, each at different radial distances,
can be used to plot a log(distance)-drawdown graph.
The Cooper-Jacob equation, for fixed t, has the form:
s = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt ) = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt ) 4.6Q log(r)
4T
r 2S
4T
S
4T
So the log(distance)-drawdown curve can be used to
estimate aquifer characteristics by measuring s for
one log-cycle and the ro intercept on the distance-axis.
T = 4.6Q and S = 2.25Tt
4s
r o2

Distance-Drawdown Graph
ro = 126 m

Drawdown (m)

s = 3.8 m
3

5
1

10

Distance (m)

100

1000

Aquifer Characteristics
For the example: t = 0.35 days and Q = 1100 m 3/d
T = 0.366 x 1100 / 3.8 = 106 m 2/d
S = 2.25 x 106 x 0.35 / (126 x 126) = 5.3 x 10-3
The estimates of T and S from log(time)-drawdown
and log(distance)-drawdown plots are independent of
one another and so are recommended as a check for
consistency in data derived from pump tests.
Ideally 4 or 5 observation wells are needed for the
distance-drawdown graph and it is recommended
that T and S are computed for several different times.

Well Efficiency
The efficiency of a pumped well can be evaluated using
distance-drawdown graphs.
The distance-drawdown graph is extended to the outer
radius of the pumped well (including any filter pack) to
estimate the theoretical drawdown for a 100% efficient well.
This analysis assumes the well is fully-penetrating and the
entire saturated thickness is screened.
The theoretical drawdown (estimated) divided by the actual
well drawdown (observed) is a measure of well efficiency.
A correction is necessary for unconfined wells to allow for
the reduction in saturated thickness as a result of
drawdown.

## Theoretical Pumped Well Drawdown

0

dw = 100 mm
dw = 150 mm
dw = 300 mm

6
8

10

Drawdown (m)

Drawdown (m)

12
14
16

4
6
8
10
12
14

18

16
0

20
0.01

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance (m)

0.1

1 Distance (m) 10

100

1000

## Unconfined Well Correction

The adjusted drawdown for an unconfined well is given
by:
sc = (1 - sa ) sa
2b
where b is the initial saturated thickness;
sa is the measured drawdown; and
sc is the corrected drawdown
For example, if b = 20 m; sa = 6 m; then the corrected
drawdown sc = 0.85sa = 5.1 m
If the drawdown is not corrected, the Jacob and Theis
analysis underestimates the true transmissivity under
saturated conditions by a factor of s c/ sa.

## Causes of Well Inefficiency

Factors contributing to well inefficiency
(excess head loss) fall into two groups:
Design factors

## Insufficient open area of screen

Poor distribution of open area
Insufficient length of screen
Improperly designed filter pack

Construction factors
Improper placement of screen relative to aquifer interval

The radius of influence of a well can be determined from a
distance-drawdown plot.
For all practical purposes, a useful comparative index is the
intercept of the distance-drawdown graph on the distance axis.
Radius of influence can be used as a guide for well spacing to
avoid interference.
Since radius of influence depends on the balance between
aquifer recharge and well discharge, the radius may vary from
year to year.
For unconfined wells in productive aquifers, the radius of
influence is typically a few hundred metres.
For confined wells may have a radius of influence extending
several kilometres.

Determining ro
ro = 126 m

ro = 4.1 km

Unconfined Well

Confined Well

4
5

Drawdown (m)

Drawdown (m)

7
8

6
8
10
12
14

16
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance (m)

10
1

10

100

Distance (m)

1000

10000

Unconfined Aquifers
Most analytical solutions assume isotropic,
homogeneous, confined aquifers or assume
drawdowns are small for the unconfined case.
There are three distinct parts to the time drawdown
curve in an unconfined aquifer:
early time response follows Theis equation with the confined
elastic storage corresponding to storativity (bS s)
intermediate times respond as a leaky aquifer with vertical
flow in the vicinity of the pumped well with storage release
controlled by the aquifer K h/Kv ratio
late time response follows Theis equation with gravity
drainage providing storage corresponding to the specific yield
(Sy)

Delayed-Yield Response

uB

uA

Unconfined response
is complex with theory
developed by
Boulton, Dagan,
Steltsova, Rushton
and Neuman.

## Neuman (1975) defines a well function W(u A,uB,) where each

parameter corresponds to a different time phase:
early-time response is controlled by u A = r2S/4Tt
intermediate-times are controlled by = r2Kv/Khb2
late-time response is controlled by u B = r2Sy/4Tt
The Hantush leakage parameter (r/B) is closely related to
(r/B)2 = r2Kv/Khbb where the Kv and b parameters refer to the leaky
bed. If these leaky-bed parameters become aquifer parameters
(r/B)2 =

## Neuman Type Curves

10.0

0.002
0.01
0.04
0.25

1.0

W(uA,uB,)

1.0

4.0

0.1

0.0
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1/u

The Neuman type curves are fitted to data in a manner similar to that for
Theis curves. Higher values of indicate more rapid gravity drainage.

Partial Penetration

## Partial penetration effects occur when the intake of

the well is less than the full thickness of the aquifer

## Effects of Partial Penetration

The flow is not strictly horizontal and radial.
Flow-lines curve upwards and downwards as they
approach the intake and flow-paths are consequently
longer.
The convergence of flow-lines and the longer flowpaths result in greater head-loss than predicted by the
analytical equations.
For a given yield (Q), the drawdown of a partially
penetrating well is more than that for a fully
penetrating well.
The analysis of the partially penetrating case is
difficult but Kozeny (1933) provides a practical method
to estimate the change in specific capacity (Q/s).

## Q/s Reduction Factors

Kozeny (1933) gives the following approximate reduction factor to
correct specific capacity (Q/s) for partial penetration effects:
F = L {1 + 7 cos(L) ( r )}
b
2b 2L
where b is the total aquifer thickness (m);
r is the well radius (m); and
L is screen length (m).
The equation is valid for L/b < 0.5 and L/r > 30
For a 300 mm dia. well with an aquifer thickness of 30 m and a
screen length of 15 m, L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 200 the reduction factor
is:
F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x 0.707 (1/200)} = 0.67
Other factor are provided by Muskat (1937), Hantush (1964),
Huisman (1964), Neuman (1974) but they are harder to use.

## Multiple screened sections distributed over the entire

saturated thickness functions more efficiently for the
same open area.

Screen Design
300 mm dia.
well with single
screened
interval of 15 m
in aquifer of
thickness 30 m.
L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 200
F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x cos(0.5/2)
(1/200)} = 0.67

300 mm dia.
well with 5 x 3 m
solid sections
alternating with
5 x 3m
screened
sections, in an
aquifer of thickness 30 m.
There effectively are five
aquifers.
L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 40
F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x cos(0.5/2)
(1/40)} = 0.89
This is clearly a much more
efficient well completion.

Recovery Data
When pumping is halted, water levels rise towards their
pre-pumping levels.
The rate of recovery provides a second method for
calculating aquifer characteristics.
Monitoring recovery heads is an important part of the welltesting process.
Observation well data (from multiple wells) is preferable to
that gathered from pumped wells.
Pumped well recovery records are less useful but can be
used in a more limited way to provide information on
aquifer properties.

Recovery Curve
0

Drawdown (m)

2
4

Drawdown 10 m
6

Recovery 10 m
Pumping
Stopped

8
10
12
-6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

72

Time (hrs)

## The recovery curve on a linear scale appears as an inverted image of

the drawdown curve. The dotted line represent the continuation of the
drawdown curve.

Superposition
The drawdown (s) for a well pumping at a constant rate (Q) for a
period (t) is given by:
s = ho - h = Q W(u) where u = r2S
4T
4Tt
The effects of well recovery can be calculated by adding the
effects of a pumping well to those of a recharge well using the
superposition theorem.
The drawdown (sr) for a well recharged at a constant rate (-Q) for
a period (t = t - tr) starting at time tr is given by:
sr = - Q W(u) where u = r2S
4T
The total drawdown for t > tr is:

4Tt

s = s + sr = Q (W(u) - W(u))
4T

## Residual Drawdown and Recovery

The total drawdown for t > tr is:
s = s + sr = Q (W(u) - W(u))
4T
The Cooper-Jacob approximation can be applied giving:
s = s + sr = Q (ln(2.25Tt) - ln(2.25Tt))
4T
r2 S
r 2S
Simplification gives the residual drawdown equation:
s = s + sr = Q ln(t)
4T t
The equation predicting the recovery is:
sr = - Q ln(2.25Tt)
4T
r 2S
For t > tr, the recovery sr is the difference between the observed
drawdown s and the extrapolated pumping drawdown (s).

Time-Recovery Graph
Est. recovery, s - s' (m)

0.00
2.00
4.00

to = 0.12 hrs

6.00

sr = 4.6 m

8.00
10.00
12.00
1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

## Time after pumping stopped, t' (hrs)

Aquifer characteristics can be calculated from a log(time)-recovery plot but the drawdown
(s) curve for the pumping phase must be extrapolated to estimate recovery (s - s)

Time-Recovery Analysis
For a constant rate of pumping (Q), the recovery any time (t) after
pumping stops:
T=
Q
= -Q = Q
4(s - s)
- 4sr 4sr
For the example, sr = 4.6 m and Q = 1100 m 3/d so:
T = 1100 / (12.56 x 4.6) = 19 m 2/d
The storage coefficient can be estimated for an observation well (r = 30
m) using:
S = 4Tto
r2
For the example, to = 0.12 and Q = 1100 m 3/d so:
S = 4 x 19 x 0.12 / (24 x 30 x 30) = 4.3 x 10 -4
It is necessary to use an observation well for this calculation because well
bore storage effects render any calculation based on r w potentially subject
to huge errors.

## Time-Residual Drawdown Graph

Residual Drawdown, s' (m)

0
2
4
6

s = 5.2 m
8
10
12
1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

## Time ratio, t/t'

Transmissivity can be calculated from a log(time ratio)-residual drawdown (s) graph
by determining the gradient. For such cases, the x-axis is log(t/t) and thus is a ratio.

## Time-Residual Drawdown Analysis

For a constant rate of pumping (Q), the recovery any time (t)
after pumping stops:
T= Q
4s
For the example, sr = 5.2 m and Q = 1100 m3/d so:
T = 1100 / (12.56 x 5.2) = 17 m2/d
Notice that the graph plots t/t so the points on the LHS represent
long recovery times and those on the RHS short recovery times.
The storage coefficient cannot be estimated for the residual
drawdown plot because the intercept t / t 1 as t .
This more obvious, remembering t = t - tr where tr is the elapsed
pumping time before recovery starts.

0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

## Time ratio, t/t'

Theoretical intercept is 1
>> 1 indicates a recharge effect
>1 may indicate greater S for pumping than recovery ?consolidation
< 1 indicates incomplete recovery of initial head - finite aquifer volume
<< 1 indicates incomplete recovery of initial head - small aquifer volume

DST

Drill
Stem

Valve
Packer
Perforated
Section
Packer
Gauge

## The drill stem test, used widely in petroleum

engineering, is a recovery test.
Packers are used to isolate the HSU of
interest which has been flowing for some
time.
Initially the bypass valve is open allowing free
circulation.
When the bypass valve is closed, the
formation pressure is shut-in and begins to
recover towards the static value.
The Horner plot is a direct analogue of the
residual drawdown plot.

DST Analysis
Recall that the final form of the recovery equation is:
ho - h = s = 2.3Q log(t)
4T
t
For a DST, the pressure (rather than head) is measured
po - p = 2.3Q log(t)
4kb
t
Remembering that p = h,T = Kb and K = k/
po

p (kPa)
100
1

10

t / t

## The Horner-plot has an

intercept po when t / t = 1
This intercept is taken to be
the static formation pressure.
K can be estimated from the
k = 2.3Q
4bp

Slug Test

Displacer
Displaced

Initial

## The recovery test in a borehole after withdrawal or

injection (or displacement) of a known volume of
water is called a slug test.
The slug test is a rapid field method for estimation
of moderate to low K-values in a single well.
The procedure is:
the slug is removed, added or displaced
instantaneously (displacement is best in this respect)
head recovery is monitored (usually with a
submerged pressure logging device)
typical head changes are 2-3 m in 25-50 mm dia.
piezometers so the volume of the slug is typically
only 1-10 litres

Slug Analysis

Tube or
Casing
2ra

ra
rw is perforated section external radius
L
is length of perforated section
ho is initial head, t = to
h(t) is head after recovery time t
A
is the tube or casing csa = ra2
F
is a shape factor = 2L / ln(L/rw)
Analysis methods include:
Hvorslev (1951)
Cooper et al (1967)

2rw

## The Cooper analysis considers storage but

the Hvorslev analysis is more widely used.
K = A ln (h) = ra2 ln(L) ln(h)
F(t - to) ho 2L(t - to) rw ho

Hvorslev Analysis

Tube or
Casing

2ra

K=

## ra2 ln(L) ln(h)

1.0
2L(t - to) rw ho
0.9
0.8
Plot time against log (h/h o)
0.7
Measure basic time lag T o
0.6
when ln(h0/h) = 1
0.5
K = ra2 ln (L)
h 0.4
2LTo rw
ho
Time lag To occurs when:
0.3
h = e-1ho = 0.37ho
If To = 1000 secs for a 50
0.2
mm dia. x 1 m length
Casagrande piezometer
with 38 mm dia access
tube K = 2 x 10-6 m/s
0.1

2rw

To

Time, t - to

Bounded Aquifers
Superposition was used to calculate well recovery by
adding the effects of a pumping and recharge well
starting at different times.
Superposition can also be used to simulate the effects of
aquifer boundaries by adding wells at different
positions.
For boundaries, the wells that create the same effect as
a boundary are called image wells.
This relatively simple application of superposition for
analysis of aquifer boundaries was for described by
Ferris (1959)

Image Wells

Recharge boundaries at
distance (r) are simulated by
a recharge image well at an
equal distance (r) across the
boundary.

Barrier boundaries at
distance (r) are simulated by
a pumping image well at an
equal distance (r) across the
boundary.

General Solution
ri

rp

## The general solution for

adding image wells to a real
pumping well can be written:
s = sp si = Q [W(u) W(ui)]
4T
where up = rp2S and ui = ri2S
4Tt
4Tt
and rp,ri are the distances from
the pumping and image wells
respectively.

## For a barrier boundary, for all points on the boundary rp = ri and

the drawdown is doubled.
For a recharge boundary, for all points on the boundary rp = ri
and the drawdown is zero.

Specific Solutions

Using the Cooper-Jacob approximation is only possible for large values of to ensure that u < 0.05 for all r so the
Theis well function is used: s = Q [W(u) W(ri2u)] = Q [W(u) W(u)]
4T
r p2
4T

## For the barrier boundary case:

s = Q [W(u) + W(u)]
4T
where = (ri/rp)2 and 0<<1

## For the recharge boundary case:

s = Q [W(u) - W(u)]
4T
where = (ri/rp)2 and 0<<1

Multiple Boundaries

## A recharge boundary and a

barrier boundary at right
angles can be generated by
two pairs of pumping and
recharge wells.

## Two barrier boundaries at

right angles can be
generated by superposition
of an array of four pumping
wells.

r2
r1

r2
r1

Parallel Boundaries
A parallel recharge boundary and a barrier boundary (or any pattern with
parallel boundaries) requires an infinite array of image wells.

r1

r2

Boundary Location

s
t1
s
t2

## For an observation well at distance r1,

measure off the same drawdown (s),
before and after the dog leg on a
log(time) vs. drawdown plot.
Find the times t1 and t2.
Assuming that the dog leg is created
by an image well at distance r2 , if the
drawdowns are identical then W(u1) =
W(u2) so u1 = u2.
Thus: r12S/4Tt1 = r22S/4Tt2
So r12t2 = r22t1 and r2 = r1(t2 / t1)

## The distance r2 the radial distance from

the observation point to the boundary.
wells may help locate the boundary.

Pumping Wells
The drawdown observed in a pumping well has two
component parts:
aquifer loss
drawdown due to laminar flow in the aquifer
well loss
drawdown due to turbulent flow in the immediate
vicinity of the well through the screen and/or gravel
pack
Well loss is usually assumed to be proportional to the
square of the pumping rate:
sw = CQ2

Well Efficiency
The total drawdown at a pumping well is given by:
st = s + sw = Q W(u) + CQ2 = BQ + CQ2
4T
The ratio of the aquifer loss and total drawdown (s/s t) is known
as the well efficiency.
s=
W(u)
=
B .
st W(u) + 4TCQ B + CQ
Mogg (1968) defines well efficiency at a fixed time (t = 24 hrs).
Thus, writing W(u) as the Cooper-Jacob approximation gives:
s=
1
=
1
.
st 1 + 4TCQ / [ln (2.25Tt /S) - 2 ln(rw)]
1 + CQ/B(rw)
Written in this form it is clear that well efficiency reduces with
pumping rate (Q) and increases with well radius (r w), where B is
The specific capacity is given by: Q =
1 .
st B + CQ

Step-Drawdown Test

s1

Drawdown, s

s2

s3
s4

s5
Time, t

## Step-drawdown tests are tests at

different pumping rates (Q) designed
to determine well efficiency.
Normally pumping at each
successively greater rate Q1 < Q2 <
Q3 < Q4 < Q5 takes place for 1-2
hours (t) and for 5 to 8 steps. The
entire test usually takes place in one
day.
Equal pumping times (t) simplifies
the analysis.
At the end of each step, the pumping
rate (Q) and drawdown (s) is
recorded.

s/Q (m/m3/d)

## Step-drawdown tests are

analysed by plotting the
reciprocal of specific
capacity (s/Q) against the
pumping rate (Q).

C
B
Q (L/s)

## The intercept of the graph at

Q=0 is B = W(u)/4T and the
slope is the well loss coefficient,
C.
B can also be obtained
independently from a Theis or
Cooper-Jacob analysis of a
pump test.
For Q = 2700 m3/d and s = 33.3
m the B = 0.012 m/m3/d
If C = 4 x 10-5, then CQ2 = 18.2 m
The well efficiency is 33.3/
(33.3+18.2) = 65%

Well Yield
Well yield
US gpm
< 100
< 170
< 350
< 700
< 1000
< 1800
< 3000
< 3800
< 6000

L/s
<6.4
<11
<22
<44
<64
<110
<190
<240
<380

## Nom. pump dia. Opt. casing dia. Min. casing dia.

m3/d
550
950
1900
3800
5500
9800
16000
21000
33000

in
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
20

mm
100
130
150
200
250
300
360
410
510

in
6
8
10
12
14
16
20
24
30

mm
150
200
250
300
360
410
510
610
760

in
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
20
24

mm
130
150
200
250
300
360
410
510
610

The chart is used to select casing sizes for a particular yield. The main constraint is
pumping equipment.
For example, if the well is designed to deliver 4,000 m3/d, the optimum casing dia. is 360
mm (2 nom. sizes > pump dia.) and the minimum 300 mm.
The drilled well diameter would have to be 410 to 510 mm to provide at least a 50 mm
grout/cement annulus.

## Pump Test Planning

Pump tests will not produce satisfactory estimates of either
aquifer properties or well performance unless the data collection
system is carefully and QA/QC is addressed in the design.
Several preliminary estimates are needed to design a
successful test:

## Estimate the maximum drawdown at the pumped well

Estimate the maximum pumping rate
Evaluate the best method to measure the pumped volumes
Plan discharge of pumped volumes distant from the well
Estimate drawdowns at observation wells
Simulate the test before it is conducted
Survey elevations of all well measurement reference points

## Number of Observation Wells

Number depends on test objectives and
available resources for test program.
Single well can give aquifer characteristics (T and
S). Reliability of estimates increases with
Three wells at different distances are needed for
time-distance analysis
No maximum number because anisotropy,
homogeneity, and boundaries can be deduced
from response

## Pump Test Measurements

The accuracy of drawdown data and the results of subsequent
analysis depends on:
maintaining a constant pumping rate
measuring drawdown at several (>2) observation wells at different
taking drawdowns at appropriate time intervals at least every min
(1-15 mins); (every 5 mins) 15-60 mins; (every 30 mins) 1-5 hrs;
(every 60 mins) 5-12 hrs; (every 8 hrs) >12 hrs
measuring barometric pressure, stream levels, tidal oscillations as
necessary over the test period
measuring both pumping and recovery data
continuing tests for no less than 24 hours for a confined aquifers
and 72 hours for unconfined aquifers in constant rate tests
collecting data over a 24 hour period for 5 or 6 pumping rates for
step-drawdown tests

## Measuring Pumping Rates

Control of pumping is normally required as head and
pump rpm changes. Frequent flow rate
measurements are needed to maintain constant rate.
Lower rates
periodic measurements of time to fill a container of known
volume
v notch weir - measure head (sensitive at low flows)

Higher rates

## impellor driven water meter - measure velocity (insensitive)

circular orifice weir - measure head v=(2gh)
rectangular notch weir - measure head
free-flow Parshall flume (drop in floor) - measure head
cutthroat flume (flat floor) measure head

Measuring Drawdown
Pumped wells
heads are hard to measure due to turbulence and pulsing.
data cannot reliably estimate storage.

Observation wells
smallest possible diameter involves least time lag
screens usually 1-2 m; longer is better but not critical should
be at same depth as centre of production section
if too close (< 3 to 5 x aquifer thickness) can be strongly
influenced by anisotropy (stratification)
if too far away (>200 m unconfined) h(t) increases with time
so a longer test is required boundary and other effects can
swamp aquifer response

Drawdown Instrumentation
Dipmeters
let cable hang to remove kinks
rely on light or buzzer, have spare batteries

Steel tapes
read wetted part for water level (chalking helps)
hard to use where high-frequency readings are needed

Pressure gauges