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Hydraulic Testing

Well Hydraulics

A water well is a hydraulic structure that is

designed and constructed to permit economic

withdrawal of water from an aquifer

Water well construction includes:

Selection of appropriate drilling methods

Selection of appropriate completion materials

Analysis and interpretation of well and aquifer

performance

Q

ho

h

(ho) is the equilibrium water

level before pumping

commences

Pumping Water Level

[PWL] (h) is the water level

during pumping

Drawdown (s = ho - h) is the

difference between SWL and

PWL

Well Yield (Q) is the volume

of water pumped per unit

time

Specific Capacity (Q/s) is

the yield per unit drawdown

Cone of Depression

High Kh aquifer

Low Kh aquifer

Kh Kv

Drawdown is a maximum at the well and reduces radially

Head gradient decreases away from the well and the pattern

resembles an inverted cone called the cone of depression

The cone expands over time until the inflows (from various

boundaries) match the well extraction

The shape of the equilibrium cone is controlled by hydraulic

conductivity

Aquifer Characteristics

Pump tests allow estimation of transmission and

storage characteristics of aquifers

Transmissivity (T = Kb) is the rate of flow through a

vertical strip of aquifer (thickness b) of unit width

under a unit hydraulic gradient

Storage Coefficient (S = Sy + Ssb) is storage change

per unit volume of aquifer per unit change in head

Radius of Influence (R) for a well is the maximum

horizontal extent of the cone of depression when the

well is in equilibrium with inflows

Q

r

s

h

ho

Assumptions

Isotropic, homogeneous,

infinite aquifer, 2-D radial flow

Initial Conditions

h(r,0) = ho for all r

Boundary Conditions

h(R,t) = ho for all t

2Kb

Rearranging h = - Q r

2Kb r

Eliminating constant (c) gives

Integrating h = - Q ln(r) + c

s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)

2Kb

2Kb

BC specifies h = ho at r = R

This is the Thiem Equation

Q

r

s

h

ho

Assumptions

Isotropic, homogeneous,

infinite aquifer, 2-D radial flow

Initial Conditions

h(r,0) = ho for all r

Boundary Conditions

h(R,t) = ho for all t

K

Rearranging hh = - Q r

2K r

Eliminating constant (c) gives

Integrating h2 = - Q ln(r) + c

ho2 h2 = Q ln(r/R)

2

2K

K

BC specifies h = ho at r = R

This is the Thiem Equation

The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged to give:

s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)

2K (ho+ h)/2

Compare this with the confined equation:

s = ho h = Q ln(r/R)

2Kb

It is clear than the only difference is that the aquifer thickness b

is replaced by (ho + h)/2

The implicit assumption in the derivation (2-D flow) implies that

s is small compared with ho and that the (ho + h)/2 does not

deviate significantly from ho

This assumption may not be valid in the immediate vicinity of a

pumping well in an unconfined aquifer

The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged to give:

K = Q ln(r/R)

(ho2 - h2)

Similarly with the confined equation:

K = Q ln(r/R)

2b (ho h)

The radius of influence R is hard to estimate but any two wells at

different radial distance can be used in the equations

K = Q ln(r2/r1)

and

K = Q ln(r2/r1)

(h22 h12)

2b (h2 h1)

This means that for a well producing at a steady rate (Q) with a

steady drawdown, any pair of observation points at different radial

distances can be used to estimate K

Specific Capacity

For a confined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the specific capacity is

given by:

Q = 2Kb

sw ln(rw/R)

This means that for a confined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the

specific capacity is constant.

The equation for unconfined flow can be rearranged:

Q = K (ho + hw)

sw ln(rw/R)

Writing hw = ho - sw gives:

Q = - K (sw + 2ho)

sw

ln(rw/R)

For an unconfined well producing at a steady rate (Q) the specific capacity

reduces with increasing drawdown. The maximum specific capacity for an

unconfined well is given by:

Q = 2Kho

sw ln(rw/R)

Q

r

s

h

ho

PDE 1 (rh ) = S h

r r r

T t

Solution is more complex than

steady-state

Change the dependent

variable by letting u = r2S

4Tt

Assumptions

Isotropic, homogeneous,

infinite aquifer, 2-D radial flow

Initial Conditions

h(r,0) = ho for all r

Boundary Conditions

h(,t) = ho for all t

ho- h = Q exp(-u) du

4T u u

where the integral is called the

exponential integral written as

the well function W(u)

This is the Theis Equation

where is called the hydraulic

diffusivity)

PDE 1 (rh ) = h

r r r

t

u = r2S = r2

4Tt 4t

So u = r = 2u

r 2t

r

And u = -r2 = -u

t

4t2

t

Rewriting the PDE in terms of u:

1 d (r u dh ) u = u dh

r du r du r

t du

terms of u:

1 d (r 2u dh ) 2u = - u dh

r du r du r

t du

Rearranging and cancelling:

d (u dh ) = -r2 dh = -u dh

du du

4t du

du

Expanding the LHS derivative:

u d (dh ) + dh = -u dh

du du

du

du

d (dh ) = -(u + 1) dh

du du

u du

Writing dh/du as h gives an ODE:

dh = -(u + 1) h or dh = -(1 + 1) du

du

u

h

u

Theis Integration

dh = -(1 + 1) du

h

u

Integrating: ln(h) = -u ln(u) + c

Simplifying: ln(hu) = c u

Inverting: hu = exp(c).exp(-u)

To eliminate exp(c), use Darcys

Law:

lim rh = -Q = lim 2hu

r 0 r 2Kb u 0

Remember

rh = rhu = hr2 = 2hu

r

r

2t

lim hu = -Q = exp(c)

u 0 4Kb

Simplifying: h = -Q exp(-u)

4T u

Recall h = dh/du

dh = -Q exp(-u).du

4T u

Integrating:

h = -Q exp(-u) du + C

4Tu u

Finally, using h(,t) = ho to

eliminate C:

ho - h = Q exp(-u) du

4Tu u

The integral is called the

exponential integral but is often

written as the Theis well function

W(u)

s = ho - h = Q W(u)

4T

10.0

W(u)

1.0

0.1

0.0

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1/u

1.E+02

1.E+03

Drawdown (m)

10.0

1.0

0.1

0.0

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

Drawdown (m)

10.0

s=0.17m

1.0

0.1

0.0

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

[1,1]

Type

Curve

t=51s

1.E+04

1.E+05

Theis Analysis

1.

2.

3.

Select a point on the type-curve (any will do but [1,1] is

simplest)

Read off the corresponding co-ordinates on the data-curve

[td,sd]

4.

and S = 4Ttd/r2 = Qtd/r2sd

5.

s and sd = 0.17 m

6.

7.

S = (0.032 x 51)/(3.14 x 120 x 120 x 0.17) = 2.1 x 10-4

Cooper-Jacob

Cooper and Jacob (1946) pointed out that the series expansion

of the exponential integral or W(u) is:

W(u) = - ln(u) + u - u2 + u3 - u4 + ..

1.1! 2.2! 3.3! 4.4!

where is Eulers constant (0.5772)

For u<< 1 , say u < 0.05 the series can be truncated:

W(u) ln(e - ln(u) = - ln(eu) = -ln(1.78u)

Thus: s = ho - h = - Q ln(1.78u) = - Q ln(1.78r2S) = Q ln( 4Tt )

4T

4T

4Tt

4T 1.78r2S

s = ho - h = Q ln( 2.25Tt ) = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt )

4T

r 2S

4T

r 2S

The Cooper-Jacob simplification expresses drawdown (s) as a

linear function of ln(t) or log(t).

0.0

0.1

0.2

Drawdown (m)

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

to = 84s

0.0

0.1

0.2

Drawdown (m)

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

s =0.39 m

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

Cooper-Jacob Analysis

1.

necessary):

at early times the Cooper-Jacob approximation may not be valid

at late times boundaries may significantly influence drawdown

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Determine drawdown increment (s) for one log-cycle

For straight-line fit, T = 2.3Q/4s and S = 2.25Tto/r2 =

2.3Qto/1.78r2s

For the example, Q = 32 L/s or 0.032 m 3/s; r = 120 m; to = 84 s

and s = 0.39 m

T = (2.3 x 0.032)/(12.56 x 0.39) = 0.015 m 2/s = 1300 m2/d

S = (2.3 x 0.032 x 84)/(1.78 x 3.14 x 120 x 120 x 0.39)

= 1.9 x 10-4

Theis-Cooper-Jacob Assumptions

Real aquifers rarely conform to the assumptions made for

Theis-Cooper-Jacob non-equilibrium analysis

Fully penetrating well

Laminar flow

Flat potentiometric surface

Infinite areal extent

No recharge

The failure of some or all of these assumptions leads to nonideal behaviour and deviations from the Theis and CooperJacob analytical solutions for radial unsteady flow

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

Recharge causes the slope of the log(time) vs drawdown curve to flatten as the

recharge in the zone of influence of the well matches the discharge. The gradient

and intercept can still be used to estimate the aquifer characteristics (T,S).

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

curve flattens but does not become horizontal and drawdown continues to increase

at a reduced rate. T and S can be estimated from the first leg of the curve.

Sources of Recharge

from the ideal Theis behaviour.

Surface water: river, stream or lake boundaries may

provide a source of recharge, halting the expansion

of the cone of depression.

Vertical seepage from an overlying aquifer, through

an intervening aquitard, as a result of vertical

gradients created by pumping, can also provide a

source of recharge.

Where the cone of depression extends over large

areas, leakage from aquitards may provide sufficient

recharge.

15

Drawdown (m)

20

High Leakage

25

Low Leakage

30

35

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

can be quantified using analytical solutions developed by Jacob

(1946). The analysis assumes a single uniform leaky bed.

r/B

0.0

0.05

0.1

0.2

10.0

0.5

Theis Curve

1.0

W(u,r/B)

1.0

2.0

0.1

0.0

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1/u

Data are fitted in a manner similar to the Theis curve. The parameter

r/B = r( {Kv / b} / {Khb} ) increases with the amount of leakage.

15

Drawdown (m)

20

25

30

35

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

aquifer limited by a barrier boundary of some kind. Aquifer

characteristics (T,S) can be estimated from the first leg.

ideal Theis behaviour.

Fault truncations against low permeability

aquitards.

Lenticular pinchouts and lateral facies changes

associated with reduced permeability.

Groundwater divides associated with scarp slopes.

Spring lines with discharge captured by wells.

Artificial barriers such as grout curtains and slurry

walls.

Casing Storage

It has been known for many decades that early time data

can give erroneous results because of removal of water

stored in the well casing.

When pumping begins, this water is removed and the

amount drawn from the aquifer is consequently reduced.

The true aquifer response is masked until the casing

storage is exhausted.

Analytical solutions accounting for casing storage were

developed by Papadopulos and Cooper (1967) and

Ramey et al (1973)

Unfortunately, these solutions require prior knowledge of

well efficiencies and aquifer characteristics

Casing Storage

Q

s

dp

dc

time to exhaust casing storage can be made more

easily:

tc = 3.75(dc2 dp2) / (Q/s) = 15 Va /Q

where tc is the critical time (d);

dc is the inside casing diameter (m);

dp is the outside diameter of the rising main (m);

Q/s is the specific capacity of the well (m3/d/m)

Va is the volume of water removed from the

annulus between casing and rising main.

Note: It is safest to ignore data from pumped wells

earlier than time tc in wells in low-K HSUs

Distance-Drawdown

Simultaneous drawdown data from at least three

observation wells, each at different radial distances,

can be used to plot a log(distance)-drawdown graph.

The Cooper-Jacob equation, for fixed t, has the form:

s = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt ) = 2.3 Q log( 2.25Tt ) 4.6Q log(r)

4T

r 2S

4T

S

4T

So the log(distance)-drawdown curve can be used to

estimate aquifer characteristics by measuring s for

one log-cycle and the ro intercept on the distance-axis.

T = 4.6Q and S = 2.25Tt

4s

r o2

Distance-Drawdown Graph

ro = 126 m

Drawdown (m)

s = 3.8 m

3

5

1

10

Distance (m)

100

1000

Aquifer Characteristics

For the example: t = 0.35 days and Q = 1100 m 3/d

T = 0.366 x 1100 / 3.8 = 106 m 2/d

S = 2.25 x 106 x 0.35 / (126 x 126) = 5.3 x 10-3

The estimates of T and S from log(time)-drawdown

and log(distance)-drawdown plots are independent of

one another and so are recommended as a check for

consistency in data derived from pump tests.

Ideally 4 or 5 observation wells are needed for the

distance-drawdown graph and it is recommended

that T and S are computed for several different times.

Well Efficiency

The efficiency of a pumped well can be evaluated using

distance-drawdown graphs.

The distance-drawdown graph is extended to the outer

radius of the pumped well (including any filter pack) to

estimate the theoretical drawdown for a 100% efficient well.

This analysis assumes the well is fully-penetrating and the

entire saturated thickness is screened.

The theoretical drawdown (estimated) divided by the actual

well drawdown (observed) is a measure of well efficiency.

A correction is necessary for unconfined wells to allow for

the reduction in saturated thickness as a result of

drawdown.

0

dw = 100 mm

dw = 150 mm

dw = 300 mm

6

8

10

Drawdown (m)

Drawdown (m)

12

14

16

4

6

8

10

12

14

18

16

0

20

0.01

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance (m)

0.1

1 Distance (m) 10

100

1000

The adjusted drawdown for an unconfined well is given

by:

sc = (1 - sa ) sa

2b

where b is the initial saturated thickness;

sa is the measured drawdown; and

sc is the corrected drawdown

For example, if b = 20 m; sa = 6 m; then the corrected

drawdown sc = 0.85sa = 5.1 m

If the drawdown is not corrected, the Jacob and Theis

analysis underestimates the true transmissivity under

saturated conditions by a factor of s c/ sa.

Factors contributing to well inefficiency

(excess head loss) fall into two groups:

Design factors

Poor distribution of open area

Insufficient length of screen

Improperly designed filter pack

Construction factors

Inadequate development, residual drilling fluids

Improper placement of screen relative to aquifer interval

Radius of Influence

The radius of influence of a well can be determined from a

distance-drawdown plot.

For all practical purposes, a useful comparative index is the

intercept of the distance-drawdown graph on the distance axis.

Radius of influence can be used as a guide for well spacing to

avoid interference.

Since radius of influence depends on the balance between

aquifer recharge and well discharge, the radius may vary from

year to year.

For unconfined wells in productive aquifers, the radius of

influence is typically a few hundred metres.

For confined wells may have a radius of influence extending

several kilometres.

Determining ro

ro = 126 m

ro = 4.1 km

Unconfined Well

Confined Well

4

5

Drawdown (m)

Drawdown (m)

7

8

6

8

10

12

14

16

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance (m)

10

1

10

100

Distance (m)

1000

10000

Unconfined Aquifers

Most analytical solutions assume isotropic,

homogeneous, confined aquifers or assume

drawdowns are small for the unconfined case.

There are three distinct parts to the time drawdown

curve in an unconfined aquifer:

early time response follows Theis equation with the confined

elastic storage corresponding to storativity (bS s)

intermediate times respond as a leaky aquifer with vertical

flow in the vicinity of the pumped well with storage release

controlled by the aquifer K h/Kv ratio

late time response follows Theis equation with gravity

drainage providing storage corresponding to the specific yield

(Sy)

Delayed-Yield Response

uB

uA

Unconfined response

is complex with theory

developed by

Boulton, Dagan,

Steltsova, Rushton

and Neuman.

parameter corresponds to a different time phase:

early-time response is controlled by u A = r2S/4Tt

intermediate-times are controlled by = r2Kv/Khb2

late-time response is controlled by u B = r2Sy/4Tt

The Hantush leakage parameter (r/B) is closely related to

(r/B)2 = r2Kv/Khbb where the Kv and b parameters refer to the leaky

bed. If these leaky-bed parameters become aquifer parameters

(r/B)2 =

10.0

0.002

0.01

0.04

0.25

1.0

W(uA,uB,)

1.0

4.0

0.1

0.0

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1/u

The Neuman type curves are fitted to data in a manner similar to that for

Theis curves. Higher values of indicate more rapid gravity drainage.

Partial Penetration

the well is less than the full thickness of the aquifer

The flow is not strictly horizontal and radial.

Flow-lines curve upwards and downwards as they

approach the intake and flow-paths are consequently

longer.

The convergence of flow-lines and the longer flowpaths result in greater head-loss than predicted by the

analytical equations.

For a given yield (Q), the drawdown of a partially

penetrating well is more than that for a fully

penetrating well.

The analysis of the partially penetrating case is

difficult but Kozeny (1933) provides a practical method

to estimate the change in specific capacity (Q/s).

Kozeny (1933) gives the following approximate reduction factor to

correct specific capacity (Q/s) for partial penetration effects:

F = L {1 + 7 cos(L) ( r )}

b

2b 2L

where b is the total aquifer thickness (m);

r is the well radius (m); and

L is screen length (m).

The equation is valid for L/b < 0.5 and L/r > 30

For a 300 mm dia. well with an aquifer thickness of 30 m and a

screen length of 15 m, L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 200 the reduction factor

is:

F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x 0.707 (1/200)} = 0.67

Other factor are provided by Muskat (1937), Hantush (1964),

Huisman (1964), Neuman (1974) but they are harder to use.

saturated thickness functions more efficiently for the

same open area.

Screen Design

300 mm dia.

well with single

screened

interval of 15 m

in aquifer of

thickness 30 m.

L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 200

F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x cos(0.5/2)

(1/200)} = 0.67

300 mm dia.

well with 5 x 3 m

solid sections

alternating with

5 x 3m

screened

sections, in an

aquifer of thickness 30 m.

There effectively are five

aquifers.

L/b = 0.5 and 2L/r = 40

F = 0.5 x {1 + 7 x cos(0.5/2)

(1/40)} = 0.89

This is clearly a much more

efficient well completion.

Recovery Data

When pumping is halted, water levels rise towards their

pre-pumping levels.

The rate of recovery provides a second method for

calculating aquifer characteristics.

Monitoring recovery heads is an important part of the welltesting process.

Observation well data (from multiple wells) is preferable to

that gathered from pumped wells.

Pumped well recovery records are less useful but can be

used in a more limited way to provide information on

aquifer properties.

Recovery Curve

0

Drawdown (m)

2

4

Drawdown 10 m

6

Recovery 10 m

Pumping

Stopped

8

10

12

-6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

72

Time (hrs)

the drawdown curve. The dotted line represent the continuation of the

drawdown curve.

Superposition

The drawdown (s) for a well pumping at a constant rate (Q) for a

period (t) is given by:

s = ho - h = Q W(u) where u = r2S

4T

4Tt

The effects of well recovery can be calculated by adding the

effects of a pumping well to those of a recharge well using the

superposition theorem.

The drawdown (sr) for a well recharged at a constant rate (-Q) for

a period (t = t - tr) starting at time tr is given by:

sr = - Q W(u) where u = r2S

4T

The total drawdown for t > tr is:

4Tt

s = s + sr = Q (W(u) - W(u))

4T

The total drawdown for t > tr is:

s = s + sr = Q (W(u) - W(u))

4T

The Cooper-Jacob approximation can be applied giving:

s = s + sr = Q (ln(2.25Tt) - ln(2.25Tt))

4T

r2 S

r 2S

Simplification gives the residual drawdown equation:

s = s + sr = Q ln(t)

4T t

The equation predicting the recovery is:

sr = - Q ln(2.25Tt)

4T

r 2S

For t > tr, the recovery sr is the difference between the observed

drawdown s and the extrapolated pumping drawdown (s).

Time-Recovery Graph

Est. recovery, s - s' (m)

0.00

2.00

4.00

to = 0.12 hrs

6.00

sr = 4.6 m

8.00

10.00

12.00

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

Aquifer characteristics can be calculated from a log(time)-recovery plot but the drawdown

(s) curve for the pumping phase must be extrapolated to estimate recovery (s - s)

Time-Recovery Analysis

For a constant rate of pumping (Q), the recovery any time (t) after

pumping stops:

T=

Q

= -Q = Q

4(s - s)

- 4sr 4sr

For the example, sr = 4.6 m and Q = 1100 m 3/d so:

T = 1100 / (12.56 x 4.6) = 19 m 2/d

The storage coefficient can be estimated for an observation well (r = 30

m) using:

S = 4Tto

r2

For the example, to = 0.12 and Q = 1100 m 3/d so:

S = 4 x 19 x 0.12 / (24 x 30 x 30) = 4.3 x 10 -4

It is necessary to use an observation well for this calculation because well

bore storage effects render any calculation based on r w potentially subject

to huge errors.

Residual Drawdown, s' (m)

0

2

4

6

s = 5.2 m

8

10

12

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

Transmissivity can be calculated from a log(time ratio)-residual drawdown (s) graph

by determining the gradient. For such cases, the x-axis is log(t/t) and thus is a ratio.

For a constant rate of pumping (Q), the recovery any time (t)

after pumping stops:

T= Q

4s

For the example, sr = 5.2 m and Q = 1100 m3/d so:

T = 1100 / (12.56 x 5.2) = 17 m2/d

Notice that the graph plots t/t so the points on the LHS represent

long recovery times and those on the RHS short recovery times.

The storage coefficient cannot be estimated for the residual

drawdown plot because the intercept t / t 1 as t .

This more obvious, remembering t = t - tr where tr is the elapsed

pumping time before recovery starts.

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

Theoretical intercept is 1

>> 1 indicates a recharge effect

>1 may indicate greater S for pumping than recovery ?consolidation

< 1 indicates incomplete recovery of initial head - finite aquifer volume

<< 1 indicates incomplete recovery of initial head - small aquifer volume

DST

Drill

Stem

Valve

Packer

Perforated

Section

Packer

Gauge

engineering, is a recovery test.

Packers are used to isolate the HSU of

interest which has been flowing for some

time.

Initially the bypass valve is open allowing free

circulation.

When the bypass valve is closed, the

formation pressure is shut-in and begins to

recover towards the static value.

The Horner plot is a direct analogue of the

residual drawdown plot.

DST Analysis

Recall that the final form of the recovery equation is:

ho - h = s = 2.3Q log(t)

4T

t

For a DST, the pressure (rather than head) is measured

po - p = 2.3Q log(t)

4kb

t

Remembering that p = h,T = Kb and K = k/

po

p (kPa)

100

1

10

t / t

intercept po when t / t = 1

This intercept is taken to be

the static formation pressure.

K can be estimated from the

gradient of the graph:

k = 2.3Q

4bp

Slug Test

Displacer

Displaced

Head

Initial

Head

injection (or displacement) of a known volume of

water is called a slug test.

The slug test is a rapid field method for estimation

of moderate to low K-values in a single well.

The procedure is:

initial head is noted

the slug is removed, added or displaced

instantaneously (displacement is best in this respect)

head recovery is monitored (usually with a

submerged pressure logging device)

typical head changes are 2-3 m in 25-50 mm dia.

piezometers so the volume of the slug is typically

only 1-10 litres

Slug Analysis

Tube or

Casing

2ra

ra

is access tube internal radius

rw is perforated section external radius

L

is length of perforated section

ho is initial head, t = to

h(t) is head after recovery time t

A

is the tube or casing csa = ra2

F

is a shape factor = 2L / ln(L/rw)

Analysis methods include:

Hvorslev (1951)

Cooper et al (1967)

2rw

the Hvorslev analysis is more widely used.

K = A ln (h) = ra2 ln(L) ln(h)

F(t - to) ho 2L(t - to) rw ho

Hvorslev Analysis

Tube or

Casing

2ra

K=

1.0

2L(t - to) rw ho

0.9

0.8

Plot time against log (h/h o)

0.7

Measure basic time lag T o

0.6

when ln(h0/h) = 1

0.5

K = ra2 ln (L)

h 0.4

2LTo rw

ho

Time lag To occurs when:

0.3

h = e-1ho = 0.37ho

If To = 1000 secs for a 50

0.2

mm dia. x 1 m length

Casagrande piezometer

with 38 mm dia access

tube K = 2 x 10-6 m/s

0.1

2rw

To

Time, t - to

Bounded Aquifers

Superposition was used to calculate well recovery by

adding the effects of a pumping and recharge well

starting at different times.

Superposition can also be used to simulate the effects of

aquifer boundaries by adding wells at different

positions.

For boundaries, the wells that create the same effect as

a boundary are called image wells.

This relatively simple application of superposition for

analysis of aquifer boundaries was for described by

Ferris (1959)

Image Wells

Recharge boundaries at

distance (r) are simulated by

a recharge image well at an

equal distance (r) across the

boundary.

Barrier boundaries at

distance (r) are simulated by

a pumping image well at an

equal distance (r) across the

boundary.

General Solution

ri

rp

adding image wells to a real

pumping well can be written:

s = sp si = Q [W(u) W(ui)]

4T

where up = rp2S and ui = ri2S

4Tt

4Tt

and rp,ri are the distances from

the pumping and image wells

respectively.

the drawdown is doubled.

For a recharge boundary, for all points on the boundary rp = ri

and the drawdown is zero.

Specific Solutions

Using the Cooper-Jacob approximation is only possible for large values of to ensure that u < 0.05 for all r so the

Theis well function is used: s = Q [W(u) W(ri2u)] = Q [W(u) W(u)]

4T

r p2

4T

s = Q [W(u) + W(u)]

4T

where = (ri/rp)2 and 0<<1

s = Q [W(u) - W(u)]

4T

where = (ri/rp)2 and 0<<1

Multiple Boundaries

barrier boundary at right

angles can be generated by

two pairs of pumping and

recharge wells.

right angles can be

generated by superposition

of an array of four pumping

wells.

r2

r1

r2

r1

Parallel Boundaries

A parallel recharge boundary and a barrier boundary (or any pattern with

parallel boundaries) requires an infinite array of image wells.

r1

r2

Boundary Location

s

t1

s

t2

measure off the same drawdown (s),

before and after the dog leg on a

log(time) vs. drawdown plot.

Find the times t1 and t2.

Assuming that the dog leg is created

by an image well at distance r2 , if the

drawdowns are identical then W(u1) =

W(u2) so u1 = u2.

Thus: r12S/4Tt1 = r22S/4Tt2

So r12t2 = r22t1 and r2 = r1(t2 / t1)

the observation point to the boundary.

Repeating for additional observation

wells may help locate the boundary.

Pumping Wells

The drawdown observed in a pumping well has two

component parts:

aquifer loss

drawdown due to laminar flow in the aquifer

well loss

drawdown due to turbulent flow in the immediate

vicinity of the well through the screen and/or gravel

pack

Well loss is usually assumed to be proportional to the

square of the pumping rate:

sw = CQ2

Well Efficiency

The total drawdown at a pumping well is given by:

st = s + sw = Q W(u) + CQ2 = BQ + CQ2

4T

The ratio of the aquifer loss and total drawdown (s/s t) is known

as the well efficiency.

s=

W(u)

=

B .

st W(u) + 4TCQ B + CQ

Mogg (1968) defines well efficiency at a fixed time (t = 24 hrs).

Thus, writing W(u) as the Cooper-Jacob approximation gives:

s=

1

=

1

.

st 1 + 4TCQ / [ln (2.25Tt /S) - 2 ln(rw)]

1 + CQ/B(rw)

Written in this form it is clear that well efficiency reduces with

pumping rate (Q) and increases with well radius (r w), where B is

inversely related to well radius.

The specific capacity is given by: Q =

1 .

st B + CQ

Step-Drawdown Test

s1

Drawdown, s

s2

s3

s4

s5

Time, t

different pumping rates (Q) designed

to determine well efficiency.

Normally pumping at each

successively greater rate Q1 < Q2 <

Q3 < Q4 < Q5 takes place for 1-2

hours (t) and for 5 to 8 steps. The

entire test usually takes place in one

day.

Equal pumping times (t) simplifies

the analysis.

At the end of each step, the pumping

rate (Q) and drawdown (s) is

recorded.

s/Q (m/m3/d)

analysed by plotting the

reciprocal of specific

capacity (s/Q) against the

pumping rate (Q).

C

B

Q (L/s)

Q=0 is B = W(u)/4T and the

slope is the well loss coefficient,

C.

B can also be obtained

independently from a Theis or

Cooper-Jacob analysis of a

pump test.

For Q = 2700 m3/d and s = 33.3

m the B = 0.012 m/m3/d

If C = 4 x 10-5, then CQ2 = 18.2 m

The well efficiency is 33.3/

(33.3+18.2) = 65%

Well Yield

Well yield

US gpm

< 100

< 170

< 350

< 700

< 1000

< 1800

< 3000

< 3800

< 6000

L/s

<6.4

<11

<22

<44

<64

<110

<190

<240

<380

m3/d

550

950

1900

3800

5500

9800

16000

21000

33000

in

4

5

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

mm

100

130

150

200

250

300

360

410

510

in

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

24

30

mm

150

200

250

300

360

410

510

610

760

in

5

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

24

mm

130

150

200

250

300

360

410

510

610

The chart is used to select casing sizes for a particular yield. The main constraint is

pumping equipment.

For example, if the well is designed to deliver 4,000 m3/d, the optimum casing dia. is 360

mm (2 nom. sizes > pump dia.) and the minimum 300 mm.

The drilled well diameter would have to be 410 to 510 mm to provide at least a 50 mm

grout/cement annulus.

Pump tests will not produce satisfactory estimates of either

aquifer properties or well performance unless the data collection

system is carefully and QA/QC is addressed in the design.

Several preliminary estimates are needed to design a

successful test:

Estimate the maximum pumping rate

Evaluate the best method to measure the pumped volumes

Plan discharge of pumped volumes distant from the well

Estimate drawdowns at observation wells

Simulate the test before it is conducted

Measure all initial heads several times to ensure that steadyconditions prevail

Survey elevations of all well measurement reference points

Number depends on test objectives and

available resources for test program.

Single well can give aquifer characteristics (T and

S). Reliability of estimates increases with

additional observation points.

Three wells at different distances are needed for

time-distance analysis

No maximum number because anisotropy,

homogeneity, and boundaries can be deduced

from response

The accuracy of drawdown data and the results of subsequent

analysis depends on:

maintaining a constant pumping rate

measuring drawdown at several (>2) observation wells at different

radial distances

taking drawdowns at appropriate time intervals at least every min

(1-15 mins); (every 5 mins) 15-60 mins; (every 30 mins) 1-5 hrs;

(every 60 mins) 5-12 hrs; (every 8 hrs) >12 hrs

measuring barometric pressure, stream levels, tidal oscillations as

necessary over the test period

measuring both pumping and recovery data

continuing tests for no less than 24 hours for a confined aquifers

and 72 hours for unconfined aquifers in constant rate tests

collecting data over a 24 hour period for 5 or 6 pumping rates for

step-drawdown tests

Control of pumping is normally required as head and

pump rpm changes. Frequent flow rate

measurements are needed to maintain constant rate.

Lower rates

periodic measurements of time to fill a container of known

volume

v notch weir - measure head (sensitive at low flows)

Higher rates

circular orifice weir - measure head v=(2gh)

rectangular notch weir - measure head

free-flow Parshall flume (drop in floor) - measure head

cutthroat flume (flat floor) measure head

Measuring Drawdown

Pumped wells

heads are hard to measure due to turbulence and pulsing.

data cannot reliably estimate storage.

Observation wells

smallest possible diameter involves least time lag

screens usually 1-2 m; longer is better but not critical should

be at same depth as centre of production section

if too close (< 3 to 5 x aquifer thickness) can be strongly

influenced by anisotropy (stratification)

if too far away (>200 m unconfined) h(t) increases with time

so a longer test is required boundary and other effects can

swamp aquifer response

Drawdown Instrumentation

Dipmeters

let cable hang to remove kinks

rely on light or buzzer, have spare batteries

Steel tapes

read wetted part for water level (chalking helps)

hard to use where high-frequency readings are needed

Pressure gauges

measure head above reference point

need drawdown estimates to set gauge depth

hang in well and record at predetermined interval

can be rented (cheaply) for tests

remote sites (no personnel) and closest wells (frequency)

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