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By Akmal Rais

Is a process to
removes dirt
and other
suspended in

To reduce
turbidity in the

What, Why and


Addition of


by Nazreen Zainurin


is the process of
letting suspended material settle
down by gravity.
Example of suspended material is silt
or clay from the water source
Suspended material created from
elements in the water by the help of
chemical used in coagulation


is accomplished by
decreasing the velocity of the water
being treated to a point below which
the particles will no longer remain in
suspension. When the velocity no
longer supports the transport of the
particles, gravity will remove them
from the flow.
Most water treatment plants include
sedimentation in their treatment


in the Treatment Process

The purpose of sedimentation - to decrease the
concentration of suspended particles in the water
Sedimentation can also occur as part of the pretreatment process, where it is known as presedimentation/plain sedimentation
Without coagulation/flocculation, plain sedimentation
can remove only coarse suspended matter (such as
grit). This type of sedimentation typically takes
place in a reservoir, grit basin, debris dam, or sand
trap at the beginning of the treatment process.


following coagulation/flocculation
is meant to remove most of the suspended
particles before the water reaches the filters
Pre-sedimentation removes most of the sediment
in the water during the pre-treatment stage.
Pre-sedimentation reduce the load on the
coagulation/flocculation basin and sedimentation
In addition, pre-sedimentation basins are useful
because raw water entering the plant usually
more uniform in quality than water without such a
holding basin


of Basins
Rectangular basins are the
simplest design, allowing water to
flow horizontally through a long
tank. This type of basin is usually
found in large-scale water
treatment plants. Rectangular
basins have a variety of
advantages - predictability, costeffectiveness, and low
maintenance. A disadvantage of
rectangular basins is the large


of Basins
Double-deck rectangular
basins are essentially two
rectangular sedimentation
basins stacked one atop the
other. This type of basin
conserves land area, but has
higher operation and
maintenance costs than a
one-level rectangular basin.


of Basins
Square or circular
basins with horizontal
flow are often known
asclarifiers. This
type of basin is likely to
have short-circuiting


of Basins
A fourth type of sedimentation basin is
more complex.Solids-contact
clarifiers, also known as up flow solidscontact clarifiers. Solids-contact
clarifiers are often found in packaged
plants and in cold climates where
sedimentation must occur indoors. This
type of clarifier is also often used in
softening operations.


All sedimentation basins have four

zones - the inlet zone, the settling
zone, the sludge zone, and the
outlet zone. Each zone should
provide a smooth transition between
the zone before and the zone after.


can be seen most easily in a

rectangular sedimentation basin,
such as the one shown below:

Waste treatment
By Muzzaffar

Flotation involves separation of Suspended
Solids, Oil and Grease from the water phase by
attaching the solids to fine air bubbles to
decrease the density of the particles so that they
float instead of sinking. The rising solids are
called the "float". The float is skimmed off the
surface and further processed in the sludge train.

Waste flow is pressurized to approach saturation

released to the atmospheric pressure

Minute air bubbles are released from the solution

SS, oil & grease, sludge flocs are floated
attachment with air bubbles

Enmeshed in the floc particles

Air-solids mixture rises to the surface

Advantages of flotation over sedimentation:

high rise velocity permits small tankage
ability to handle variable solids loading (can
adjust air flow)
can provide high float concentration (good
can remove low density particles which would
require long settling periods.

capital costs
energy, operating costs

Various flotation processes include the


Dissolved air flotation

Induced gas flotation
Froth flotation,( typical in the mineral
processing industry)

Dispersed (induced) air flotation

Air is introduced by propellers, impeller, eductors,
a sparger or air pumped through diffusers. Bubble
size is relatively large 100 1000 m. High
shear and high bubble rise rate limit this to
processes such as ore benefaction (separation). In
wastewater or water treatment the floc is not
generally strong enough for the high shear
induced by propellers or high air pumping rate.

Induced Air Flotation


Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)

In this case the suspension is saturated with air at
high pressure (40-50 psig). This suspension is
then pumped to a flotation chamber at 1 atm (14.7
psi). Bubbles are released to the water (since the
water was previously supersaturated) and will
attach to the suspended solids. These bubbles are
smaller than in dispersed air flotation ( 30 -120 m)
--smaller bubbles adhere to solids better. This is
the most important type of flotation for wastewater

DAF Flow Diagram


Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating

hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic. This is used in
several processing industries. Historically this was first used
in the mining industry.
Eg oxides-hematite,cassiterite;oxidisedmalachite,cerussite;non metallic-fluorite,phosphate,fine

Mechanism of froth
Grinding to liberate the mineral particles
Reagent conditioning to achieve hydrophobic
surface charges on the desired particles
Collection and upward transport by bubbles in
an intimate contact with air or nitrogen
Formation of a stable froth on the surface of
the flotation cell
Separation of the mineral laden froth from the
bath (flotation cell)

Collectors either chemically bond (
chemisorption) on a hydrophobic mineral
surface, or adsorb onto the surface in the
case of, for example, coal flotation through
physisorption. Collectors increase the
natural hydrophobicity of the surface,
increasing the separability of the
hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles.


Frothers produces stable bubbles for

hydrophobic particles to attach in liquid
phase only and not to mineral surface.

It should have low collecting power.

Reduce surface tention.

Modifiers as activators, depressants or pH
modifiers. Alters selectivity of the collectors.
It intensifies or reduces their water repellant
effect on the mineral surface.
Activator-soluble salts which ionizes in solution
Eg activation of sphalerite by cu in solution
Depressant-are used to increase the selectivity
of floatation by rendering certain minerals
hydrophilic thus preventing their floatation.