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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING

AND TOLERANCING

Some surprises
10 0.2
10.2

9.8

Coordinate Tolerancing System


Shortcomings:
- Square or rectangular zones

- Fixed-size tolerance zones


- Ambiguous instructions for inspection

Comparison of Tolerance Zone

15 0.2
20 0.2

10 0.2

10 0.2
0.16 excess

This hole axis is allowed


to be the further than
this hole

0.4

57 % more clearance
in a round zone
compared to square
zone

0.4 square

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing


4 Holes 5 0.5
O 0.56
15
20
10
10

20

Method of Inspection
X
X
SURFACE PLATE

This method for part


measurement?

SURFACE PLATE

OR

This method for part


measurement?

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance (GD&T) is an


international language that is used on engineering drawings to
accurately describe a part. It basically consists of well-defined
set of symbols, rules, definitions and conventions.

GD&T is a precise mathematical language that can be used to


describe the size, form, orientation and location of part features.

GD&T is also a design philosophy on how to design and


dimension parts.

It encourages a dimensioning philosophy called Functional


Dimensioning, that defines a part based on how it functions in
the final product.

Comparison between geometric and coordinate


tolerancing
Drawing
Concept

Coordinate Tolerance

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

CONDITION
Square or rectangular zones for
hole locations

Geometric Tolerance
CONDITION
Can use diameter symbol to
allow round tolerance zone

RESULTS
RESULTS
Less tolerance available for hole 57% more tolerance
Higher manufacturing cost
Lower manufacturing costs

TOLERANCE
ZONE
FLEXIBILITY

CONDITION
Tolerance zone fixed in size

CONDITION
Use of MMC modifier allows
tolerance zone to increase
under certain conditions

RESULTS
Functional parts scrapped
Higher operating costs

CONDITION
Functional parts used
Lower operating costs

Comparison between geometric and coordinate


tolerance
Drawing
Concept
EASE OF
INSPECTION

Coordinate Tolerance

Geometric Tolerance

CONDITION
Implied datum allows choices
for set up when inspecting the
part

CONDITION
The datum system
communicates one set up for
inspection

RESULTS
Multiple inspectors may get
different results
Good parts scrapped
Bad parts accepted

RESULTS
Clear instructions for
inspection
Eliminates disputes over part
acceptance

Tolerance Symbols
Characteristics
Flatness
Straightness
Roundness (Circularity)

Symbol

Type
Form

Cylindricity
Line Profile
Surface Profile

Profile

Perpendicularity
Angularity

Orientation

Parallelism
Circular Runout
Total Runout

Runout

Tolerance Frame
Tolerance Frame A boxed expression containing the geometric
characteristics symbol, the tolerance shape zone where applicable and
tolerance; plus any other datum reference and modifiers for the features
or datums:

0.1

0.1
Tolerance Symbol
Tolerance Zone Shape
and value
Modifier

0.1
M

A B C

Tertiary Datum
Secondary Datum
Primary Datum

GD&T Definitions

A Feature It is a general term applied to physical portion of


a part, such as a surface, hole, or slot. In short a feature is a
part surface
Basic Dimension It is a theoretical value used to describe
the exact size or location. A tolerance is always required with
a basic dimension to show the permissible variation. A basic
dimension is symbolized by boxing e,g., 10

GD&T Definitions - Datum


A Datum is a theoretically exact plane, point or axis from which a
dimensional measurement is made.
A datum feature is a part feature that contacts a datum
A planar datum is the true geometric counterpart of palanar datum
feature
Datum features and surfaces are actual part features and surfaces including
all of their feature or surface inaccuracies.
A true geometric counterpart is the theoretical perfect boundary or best
fit tangent plane of a specified datum feature

Datum
Tertiary datum
(Minimum one points of contact)
Secondary datum
(Minimum two points of contact)

Primary datum
(Minimum three points of contact)

Datums
A
A

On the outline of the feature


or an extension line
A
On the extension line
when datum feature is
the axis or median plane

On the axis or median plane


when datum feature is the
common axis or plane formed by
two feature

Toleranced Feature

Tolerance to line or Surface

Tolerance to axis or median plane

Tolerance to axis or median plane of common features

Datum Terminology
10.6 0.4

Drawing

Actual part

Gauge element for establishing Datum Axis


Datum feature

Datum feature simulator (gauge


element)
Simulated datum axis A
(Considered as datum axis A)
Simulated datum feature A
(Considered as true
geometric counterpart)

GD&T Definitions Mating Size


Mating Size:
Mating size for an external feature: The dimension of the smallest perfect
feature which can be circumscribed about the feature so that it just contacts
the surface at the highest points.
Mating size for an internal feature: The dimension of the largest perfect
feature which an be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the
surface at the highest points

GD&T Definitions MMC and LMC


Maximum Material Condition (MMC) - The state of the considered feature
in which the feature is everywhere at that limit of size where the material of
the feature is at its maximum e.g. minimum hole diameter and maximum
shaft diameter

Least Material Condition (LMC) - The state of the considered feature in


which the feature is everywhere at that limit of size where the material of
the feature is at its minimum e.g. maximum hole diameter and minimum
shaft diameter

GD&T Definitions - Virtual Condition


Virtual condition (VC) is the limiting boundary of perfect form permitted
by the drawing data for the feature; the condition is generated by the
collective effect of the maximum material size and the geometrical
tolerances. The VC of a feature of size includes effects of the size,
orientation, and location for the feature.
When the maximum material principle is applied, only those geometrical
tolerances followed by the symbol

shall be taken into account

when determining the virtual condition


Virtual Size is the dimension defining the virtual condition of a feature

GD&T Definitions Example


0.5 M

1500.3

Mating size

Virtual size 150.05


Virtual condition
Actual local size
Maximum material
condition

Perpendicularity
tolerance zone dia.
0.05

Virtual Condition
12.6 0.4
0.3 M

0.3 Tol at MMC


12.9 at VC

A
Virtual Condition

VC = MMC +Tol
12.9 = 12.6+0.3
Datum plane A
0.3 Tol at MMC

13.2+0.4
0.3 M

Virtual Condition

12.9 at VC

VC = MMC -Tol
12.9 = 13.2-0.3

Datum plane A

Multiple Virtual Condition


B
20

0.2 M
C

0.1 M

10.2-0.4
A B C

20
Size tolerance as per Rule #1
10.2-0.4

Virtual condition
boundary to datum A
10.3

The Dia must pass thru a


10.2 envelope as per Rule #1
& must be > 9.8

0.1 M

Virtual condition boundary


relative to datum A,B,C
10.4

0.2 M

A B C

Rules of GD&T
Rule #1 Where only a tolerance of size is specified , the limits of size of an
individual feature prescribe the extent to which variations in its form - as well as
in its size are allowed.
It is referred to as the perfect form at MMC or envelope rule. It is a key concept
it GD&T. It ensures that features of size will assemble with one another. It is the
Taylor Principle.
This means:

1. No element of the actual feature of size shall extend beyond a


boundary of perfect form at MMC.
2. The actual measured size at any cross section of the feature
shall within the LMC limit for size.
3. This rule does not apply to non-rigid parts or commercial
stock, such as bar stock, plates tunings, etc.

Rules of GD&T

Rule #2 For all applicable geometric tolerances, Regard Less


of Feature (RFS) applies with respect to the individual
tolerance, datum reference or both, where no modifying symbol
is specified.

Rule #1 Boundary
10.8-0.6

Part Height

10.8 Rule #1 boundary

Amount of Form Error


Allowed

10.8 (MMC)

10.7

0.1

10.6

0.2

10.5

0.3

10.4

0.4

10.3

0.5

10.2 (LMC)

0.6

10.2 LMC
part

Go Gauge and No-Go Gauge : Shaft


No-Go Gauge (Verifies that any twopoint check is equal to
or greater than LMC)

10.8-0.6

40.8-0.6
Go Gauge
Go Gauge

Verifies part diameter does


not exceed MMC size and
Rule #1 boundary
10.8

40.8 MIN

Part must
pass thru
the gauge

Part

Multiple
checks are
required

No-Go Gauge

10.2

Go Gauge and No-Go Gauge : Hole


30.6-0.4

9.2 + 0.2

Go Gauge Verifies part diameter does


not violate MMC size and
Rule #1 boundary
Part

No-Go Gauge Verifies that any twopoint check is equal to


or less than LMC

Part

9.4

9.2

Go Gauge
30.6 MIN
The No-Go gauge could be used at
both ends of the hole. If a check
inside the part is needed , a
variable two-point measurement
can be made
No-Go Gauge

Bonus Tolerance due to MMC


8.4 +0.4

1.0 M

Gauge
Part

12.6 0.6

Datum axis A

12.6

Gauge element for establishing


datum axis A

Size of
toleranced
part

Bonus
tolerance

8.4 (MMC)

1.0

8.5

1.1

8.6

1.2

8.7

1.3

8.8 (LMC)

1.4

Zero Tolerance at MMC


8.4 +0.4

1.0 M

12.6 0.6

A
7.4 +0.4

0 M

Zero tolerancing at MMC allows


more size tolerances with out
changing MMC concept.
It allows machinist a wide range
of tools sizes to choose from.
Not to be applied to tapped holes.
Adds weight and not be used

Bonus Tolerance at LMC


A

24.8-0.6
0.2 L

Toleranced dia
AME

Position
Tolerance zone dia

24.2

0.2

24.4

0.4

24.6

0.6

24.8

0.8

20.4+0.4

Minimum Wall
Thickness ?
[(24.2 0.2) 20.8]%2 = 1.6

Datum Shift - Definition

Datum shift is the allowable movement, or looseness, between


the part datum feature and the gauge.
Datum shift may result in additional tolerance for the part

Datum Shift-Perfect Datum


A
8.8 0.4

1.0 M A M

Gauge
Part

Datum axis A

12.6

Gauge element for establishing


datum axis A

12.6 0.6

Actual mating
size of datum
feature A

Diametral
datum shift
possible

12.6 (MMC)

0.0

12.4

0.2

12.2

0.4

12.0 (LMC)

0.6

Datum Shift Additional Tolerances


10 0.3

5 0.3
0.1 M A M

A
Datum Feature Controlled Feature
Size
Size

Datum Shift

Tolerance

10

0.1

10

4.9

0.2

10

4.8

0.3

10

4.7

0.4

9.9

4.8

0.1

0.4

9.8

4.8

0.2

0.5

9.7

4.7

0.3

0.7

Datum Shift With Datum Tolerance


8.4 +0.4

12.6 0.6
0.2 M

1.0 M A M

A
Gauge
Part

Datum axis A

12.8

Simulated datum

Datum shift = Gauge size Actual

Actual mating
size of datum
feature A

Diametral
datum shift
possible

12.8

0.0

12.6 (MMC)

0.2

12.4

0.4

12.2

0.6

12.0 (LMC)

0.8

Straightness Tolerance - Surface


0.1

0.1

0.1 wide tolerance zone


for each line element of
the surface

Straightness Tolerance - Axis


0.1

Tolerance zone of
0.1mm wide

0.1

Cylindrical tolerance
zone of diameter
0.1mm

Cylindricity Tolerance

0.5

0.5

All element of the surface must lie


within two concentric cylinders
0.5mm apart parallel to the axis

Tolerance of Position
B
A

12.2

6.0 +0.4
0.2 A B C

C 16.2

0.2 tol. zone

Datum plane C
16.2

12.2
Datum plane A
Datum plane B

Tolerance of Position to Non-parallel Hole


B

4x30o
6

4x 6 + 0.2
0.4 M

A B C

14+0.4
Hole AME

Bonus
Tol.

Total Tol.
Dia

6.0

Tol.
Dia.
0.4

0.4

6.1

0.4

0.1

0.5

6.2

0.4

0.2

0.6

Perpendicularity - definition
Perpendicularity is the condition that results when a surface, axis,
or centerplane is exactly 90 degrees to a datum. A perpendicularity
control is a geometric tolerance that limits the amount a surface,
axis, or centerplane is permitted to vary from being perpendicular
to the datum

The two common tolerance zones for a perpendicularity are:


-Two parallel planes
- A cylinder

Perpendicularity of Surface
0.2 A B

24.8 0.4

22.2-0.4

A
Tolerance zone
two parallel planes
0.2 apart,
perpendicular to A

Datum plane B

All elements of the part surface


must be within the tolerance zone

Part contacts datum plane


A first and datum plane B
second
Datum plane A

Perpendicularity to Axis
Tol. Zone dia.

50.2 0.2
0.2 M A

Dia

Perpendicularity
tol

Bonus
tol.

Tolerance Zone

50.2

0.05

0.0

0.05

50.1

0.05

0.1

0.15

50.0

0.05

0.2

0.25

Parallelism of Surface
22.2-0.4

0.1 A

A
All elements of the part
surface must be within the
tolerance zone

22.8
21.8

Tolerance zone is
two parallel planes
0.1 apart & parallel
to datum plane A
Datum plane A

Parallelism To A Diameter

22.2 0.4

10.2 + 0.4
0.1 M

Gauge for verifying


parallelism of hole

Tolerance zone
0.1 dia . cylinder

Datum
plane A

10.1

Datum plane A
Adjustable to accommodate
hole location tolerance

Axis of diameter must be


within tolerance zone

Symmetry
28.4 0.4

22.4 0.2
0.6 A

A
Datum
centreplane A

Tolerance zone 2
parallel planes 0.6 apart

Median points of toleranced


feature lie within the tolerance
zone

Concentricity
A
30.60.4
0.3
12.2 0.2
Midpoint 15.3

Chuck or collet

X = 15.4

X = Distance from datum ax


to part surface

Y = Distance from datum ax


to part surface

X Y = Distance of two poi


measurement

Y= 15.2 W = Midpoint = (X+Y)/2


Daum axis
Median points of the toleranced dia. must be
within the tolerance zone

Z = Distance between
midpoint and datum axis

Z=X-W
Each distance Z must be within the
cylindrical tolerance zone

Circular Runout
A
30.60.4
1

12.2 0.2

Chuck or collet

Part surface
Two co-axial
circles originate
from the datum
axis

Daum axis

Radial distances between


circles equal to the runout
tolerance value

Circular Runout to a Surface


A

12.2 0.2

Chuck or collet

0.2

Angle of surface not controlled


with circular runout
Datum axis

Maximum indicator
reading 0.2

Rotated 360 degrees. The gauge


is moved along consecutive
vertical circles

Total Runout
A
30.60.4
1

12.2 0.2

Chuck or collet

Dial indicator reading is the runout


tolerance value
Datum axis

Gauge covers a helix of the


surface of the diameter

Rotated 360 degrees. The gauge


is moved along the axis

Comparison of Concentricity, Runout and Tolerance


of Position
GEOMETRIC CONTROL
CONCEPT

CONCENTRICITY

TOTAL RUNOUT

Tolerance zone

Cylinder

Tolerance zone
applies to

Median points of
toleranced diameter

Relative cost to
produce

CC

CCC

Relative cost to
inspect

CCC

CC

Part characteristics
being controlled

Location and
orientation

Two co-axial
cylinders

TOP
Cylinder

Surface elements of Axis of AME


a toleranced diameter
of the
tolerances
diameter

Location, orientation Location and


and form
orientation

Functional Gauge-Shaft
12.6 0.4
0.3 M

0.3 Tol at MMC


A

12.9 at VC

A
Virtual Condition
Datum plane A
Functional Gauge

12.9

Functional Gauge-Hole
0.3 Tol at MMC

13.2+0.4
0.3 M

12.9 at VC

Virtual Condition

A
Functional Gauge

12.9

Datum plane A

Functional Gauge
A functional gauge verifies functional requirements of part features
as defined by the geometric tolerances
A functional gauge does not provide a numerical reading of a part
parameter.
When compared to variable gauge, a functional gauge offers several benefits:.
The gauge represents the worst-case mating part.
Part can be verified quickly
A functional gauge is economical to produce
No special skills are required to read the gauge or interpret the result
A functional gauge can check several part characteristics simultaneously

Advantages of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerance


Improved communication and clear understanding between the designer,
manufacturer and inspector, and vendor
Ensures uniform drawings and minimises written specifications and
instructions. Provides uniform interpretation.
Eliminates implied datums and dictates the method of gauging rather than
relying on an individuals interpretation.
Provides a clear understanding of how the part functions.
Identifies product problems early in the design stage.
Provides greater tolerances for manufacturing in the design stage, and later in
form of bonus tolerancing.
Ensures assembly of components.
Provides savings in time and money.

Thank you

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance


4 Holes 5 0.5
O 0.56
15
20
10
10

20

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance


4 Holes 5 0.5
O 0.56
15
20
10
10

20

GD&T Definitions Datum (Contd)


Depending upon the type of datum feature, true geometric
counterpart may be:
- A tangent plane contacting the high points of a surface
- A maximum material condition boundary
- A least material condition boundary
- A virtual condition boundary
- An actual mating envelope
- A worst-case boundary