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AUTOMATIC FIRE

SPRINKLER SYSTEM
DESIGN

Automatic Fire Sprinkler System


Content
1)

Classification of Occupancy

2)

Water Supply/Storage Requirement

3)

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage

4)

Piping Layout

5)

Hydraulic Calculation

6)

Pump Selection

Automatic Fire Sprinkler System


Content
1)

Classification of Occupancy

2)

Water Supply/Storage Requirement

3)

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage

4)

Piping Layout

5)

Hydraulic Calculation

6)

Pump Selection

Classification of Hazard Group


After the Architect has confirmed whether or not a building requires an
automatic fire protection system, the engineer must determine the
appropriate Hazard Group Classification.
The Hazard Group Classifications are, in order of risk from Low to High.
Light Hazard Occupancy
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Group I
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Group I
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Group II
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Group III
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Group III Special
High Hazard Occupancy
High Hazard Occupancy Process Risks
High Hazard Occupancy High Piled Storage Risks

Classification of Hazard Group


Determine Hazard Group
The Hazard Group Classification is a measure of the likely relative severity of a fire based on
the occupancy of the space. Spaces with different occupancy types may have different hazard
group classifications.

Example Mazda
Occupancy of space includes,

Office - (OH 1) , clause 3.2.3.1


Motor garages, including public and private car park- (OH 2) , clause 3.2.3.2
Showroom - (OH 3) , clause 3.2.3.3
Painting (Spray booth) - (HH, Process risk / Cat 3) , clause 3.2.4.1

Classification of Hazard Group


Determine Hazard Group
Example Mazda
Occupancy of space includes,
Office - (OH 1) , clause 3.2.3.1
Motor garages, including public and private car park- (OH 2) , clause 3.2.3.2
Showroom - (OH 3) , clause 3.2.3.3
Painting (Spray booth) - (HH, Process risk / Cat 3) , clause 3.2.4.1

Automatic Fire Sprinkler System


Content
1)

Classification of Occupancy

2)

Water Supply/Storage Requirement

3)

Sprinkler Spacing

4)

Piping Layout

5)

Hydraulic Calculation

6)

Pump Selection

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Based on Hazard group to determine Minimum Capacity Water Storage
Storage requirement with Calculated design flow rate with Automatic inflow
(900 L/min)
a) 30 mins for LH plus 1.3 time (clause 13.8.2.3)
b) 60 mins for OH and,
c) 90 mins for HH.
- Notes: Water supplies to sprinkler systems require a high level of reliability.
Deem no reliable source of Town water supply.
Minimum capacity of water supplies
a) Table 16 for Ordinary Hazard (Sprinkler & Hose reel)
b) Table 24 for High Hazard

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Example Mazda for Water Storage Tank
There having several occupancy groups.
Occupancy of space includes,
Office - (OH 1) , clause 3.2.3.1
Motor garages, including public and private car park- (OH 2) , clause 3.2.3.2
Showroom - (OH 3) , clause 3.2.3.3
Painting (Spray booth) - (HH, Process risk / Cat 3) , clause 3.2.4.1.
The water supply must be capable of meeting the most hydraulically demanding area of the
systems. (NFPA 13 Water Supply).

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Example Mazda for Water Storage Tank
There may chose with many options for minimum storage capacity.
In Myanmar, automatic inflow form Town water supply is still yet to improve
The calculation of water storage capacity with design flow rate is only suitable for
Light Hazard Occupancies.
The Ordinary and High Hazard recommend to use as per CP 52, Table 16 for

Ordinary Hazard and Table 24 for High Hazard.

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Water Storage Capacity for Ordinary Hazard

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Water Storage Capacity for Ordinary Hazard

Maxi Height of spk is about 15


m @ 135 000 L ,or 135 m3

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Water Storage Capacity for High Hazard

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Water Storage Capacity for High Hazard

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Water Storage Capacity for High Hazard

Density of Discharge is 7.5


mm/mm @ 237 000 L or 237
m3

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Example Mazda for Water Storage Tank
Design Data for Spray booth (Mazda)
Occupancy - Paint and varnish works (solvent based)
Design Density 7.5 mm/min (Table 20)
Calculate Minimum Water Storage) Option1, (From Table 23, 2nd column) )
2300 L/min x 90 min = 207 000 Liters or 207 m3 or,
237 000 Liters or 237 m3
Calculate Minimum Water Storage Option 2, with Area x Density of discharge
Spray booth area 47 m2
Density of Discharge - 7.5 mm/min
Minimum flow for Sprinklers 325.5 L/min
Minimum storage to be maintained 90 min
Minimum storage capacity 325.5 x 90 = 31725 Liters or 31.73 m3

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Example Mazda for Water Storage Tank
Determine the Minimum Water Storage Capacity
From Pump Flow with OH3 (15 m), if ignore HH for spray boot
1350 L/min x 60 min = 81 000 Liters or 81 m3
From Table 16 & 24
135 000 Liters or 135 m3 with OH3 (15 m) Hazard if ignore HH for spray boot
237 000 Liters or 237 m3 with High Hazard

Water Supply/Storage Requirement


Example Mazda for Water Storage Tank
Determine the Minimum Water Storage Capacity
From Pump Flow with OH3 (15 m), if ignore HH for spray boot
1350 L/min x 60 min = 81 000 Liters or 81 m3
From Table 16 & 24
135 000 Liters or 135 m3 with OH3 (15 m) Hazard if ignore HH for spray boot
237 000 Liters or 237 m3 with High Hazard

Automatic Fire Sprinkler System


Content
1)

Classification of Occupancy

2)

Water Supply/Storage Requirement

3)

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage

4)

Piping Layout

5)

Hydraulic Calculation

6)

Pump Selection

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage


Light Hazard (LH)
a) Criteria
Assumed area of operation 84m
Design density 2.25mm/min
Max. coverage per sprinkler
Sidewall 17m2
Other sprinklers 21m
b) Max distance between sprinkler
Sidewall 4.6m
Other sprinklers 4.6m
Size of sprinkler 10mm
c. Max distance from wall or partition
Sidewall sprinklers from end walls 2.3m
Other sprinklers 2.3m

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage


Ordinary Hazard (OH)
a)

Criteria
Assumed area of operation
- Group I 72m, Group II 144m, Group III 216m , Group III S 360m

Design density
- 5mm/min

Max. coverage per sprinkler


Sidewall 9m2
Other sprinklers 12m
b) Max distance between Sprinklers
Sidewall 3.7m
Other sprinklers
Spacing between rows 4.2m
Standard spacing 4.2m
Staggered spacing 4.6 m
Size of sprinkler 15mm

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage


High Hazard (OH)
a)

Criteria
Process Risks
- Assumed area of operation 260m
- Design density 7.5mm/min to 12.5mm/min
High Piled Storage Risks
- Assumed area of operation 260m to 300m
- Design density 7.5mm/min to 12.5mm/min
Max. coverage per sprinkler 9m (except rack sprinklers)

b) Max. distance between sprinklers 3.7m


Size of sprinklers
- 15mm
- 20mm

Classification of Hazard Group


Content
1)

Classification of Occupancy

2)

Water Supply/Storage Requirement

3)

Sprinkler Spacing, Rating & Coverage

4)

Piping Layout

5)

Hydraulic Calculation

6)

Pump Selection

Hydraulic Calculation
Design Points

Sprinkler design points are the hydraulic most demanding point(s) in the sprinkler system
immediately prior to the group of heads that are required to discharge.
These are the points for which the system inlet pressure and distribution pipe sizing must be
designed to provide adequate water pressure at the sprinkler heads.
The design points are typically at the most remote ends of any sprinkler array.
The design numbers of heads to discharge are as follows:
a) LH after 6 sprinklers

Flow rate 48 L/min per spk

Minimum discharge pressure 70 kPa


b) OH after 16/18 sprinklers

Flow rate 70 L/min per spk (or),

Minimum discharge pressure 35 kPa

Full flow at 1800 L/min and fiction loss shall not exceed 150 kPa (including main
distribution pipe and all risers)
c) HH depends on area of operation. Refer to CP 52 Table 20.

Minimum discharge pressure 50 kPa

Hydraulic Calculation
Hydraulic Calculations and Pipe Sizing

Full hydraulic calculations are required for LH & HH systems.


Partial hydraulic calculations are permissible for OH systems.
Hydraulic calculations are required for sprinkler systems to confirm:

The pressure drop from Control Valve to the Design Point in order to size the Fire Pump and size the
distribution pipework.
The pressure drop from Pump to Control valve to confirm pressure at CV is not less than that
specified in CP52.
To determine the pressure that will occur in sprinkler pipework branches closer to the pump and
assess if excess sprinkler flow may be a difficulty.

Hydraulic Calculation
Pre Hydraulic calculation
This friction loss from CV to DPs may not exceed 150 kPa based on design flow rate of
1800 L/m as specify by code.
Pressure drop from 90 bend is equivalent to 3m pipe length .
Sprinkler Pump Head
The pump head required is the sum of the pressure drop from the pump suction to
the sprinkler CV plus the minimum head specified in CP 52 Table 5.

Hydraulic Calculation
Pump Head Requirement
The pump head required is the sum of the pressure drop from the pump suction to the sprinkler CV
plus the minimum head specified in CP 52 Table 5.

Hydraulic Calculation
Pump Head Requirement

Hydraulic Calculation
Pump Head Requirement