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Dielectrics

Conductor has free electrons.


Dielectric electrons are strongly bounded to the
atom.
In a dielectric, an externally applied electric field,
Eext cannot cause mass migration of charges
since none are able to move freely.
But, Eext can polarize the atoms or molecules in
the material.
The polarization is represented by an electric
dipole.

Note the field will apply a force on both the positively charged
nucleus and the negatively charged electron. However, these forces
will move these particles in opposite directions
Note, an electric dipole has been created !

D, flux density is proportionally


increase as polarization increase
through induction of permittivity, of
the material relating the E and D

permittivity, = proportional
to the permittivity of free
space, 0
= r 0

However, the electron may be break free from the atom, creating
a positive ion and a free electron.

We call these free charges, and the electric field will cause them to
move in opposite directions :

Moving charge is electric current J(r ) .

Electric Boundary Conditions


Electric field maybe continuous in each of two
dissimilar media
But, the E-field maybe discontinuous at the
boundary between them
Boundary conditions specify how the tangential
and normal components of the field in one
medium are related to the components in other
medium across the boundary
Two dissimilar media could be: two different
dielectrics, or a conductor and a dielectric, or
two conductors

Dielectric- dielectric boundary

Interface between two dielectric media

Dielectric- dielectric boundary


Based on the figure in previous slide:
First boundary condition related to the tangential
components of the electric field E is:
E1t E2t

V/m

Second boundary condition related to the normal


components of the electric field E is:
D1n D2 n S

OR

1 E1n 2 E 2 n S

E2
Exy1

Ez1

E1

Exy2

Ez2
xy -plane

xy

Solution:
1=20

2 =5 0

1) Exy1=Exy2 thus,Exy2 = 3ax+4ay


2) Ez1 = 5az,

E2
2
1

but, Ez2 = ??

E1

20(5az) = 50(Ez2)

Example 1:
1) Find E2 in the dielectric,
when E1 = 3ax+4ay+5az,
2) And find 1 and 2.

Ez2 = 2az
thus, E2 =3az+4ay+2az

1=20
2

2=80
E1

E2
xy

Find E1 if E2 = 2x -3y +3z with s = 3.54 x 10-11(C/m2)


And find 1 and 2

Conductor- conductor boundary


Boundary between two conducting media:

Using the 1st and 2nd boundary conditions:


and E E
E1t E2t V/m
1 1n
2 2n
S

xy

J2
Jz1
Jxy1

Jz2

J1

Jxy2
z

Conductor- conductor boundary


In conducting media, electric fields give rise to
current densities.
From J E, we have:
J 1t J 2t

1 2

and

J1n
J 2n
1
2
S
1
2

The normal component of J has be continuous


across the boundary between two different
media under electrostatic conditions.

Conductor- conductor boundary


Hence, upon setting J 1n J 2 n , we found the
boundary condition for conductor- conductor
boundary:
1 2
J1n
s
1 2

electrostatics

Dielectric-conductor boundary

Assume medium 1 is a dielectric


Medium 2 is a perfect conductor

Perfect conductor

When a conducting slab is placed in an external


electric field, E 0
Charges that accumulate on the conductor
surfaces induces an internal electric field Ei E 0
Hence, total field inside conductor is zero.

Dielectric-conductor boundary
The fields in the dielectric medium, at the
boundary with the conductor is E1t E2t .
Since E2t 0 , it follows that E1t D1t 0 .
Using the equation, D1n , s
we get: D1n 1E1n s
Hence, boundary condition at conductor surface:
D1 1 E1 n s

at conductor surface

= normal vector pointing outward


where n

Dielectric-conductor boundary
Based on the figure in previous slide:
In a perfect conductor,
E D 0 everywhere in the conductor
Hence, E2 D2 0
This requires the tangential and normal
components of E2 and D2 to be zero.

Capacitance
Capacitor two conducting bodies
separated by a dielectric medium
s = Q / A

s = surface charge density


Q = charge (+ve / -ve)
A = surface Area

E = s/

2
E=0/V=0 on the surface

Capacitance
Capacitance is defined as:
Q
C
V

C/V

or F

where: V = potential difference (V)


Q = charge (C)
C = capacitance (F)

Example 7
Obtain an expression for the capacitance C of a
parallel-plate capacitor comprised of two parallel
plates each of surface area A and separated by
a distance d. The capacitor is filled with a
dielectric material with permittivity .

Solution to Example 7
expression for the capacitance C = Q/V
s = Q / A

and

the voltage difference is

zE zdz Ed

0
Q
Q
A

Hence, the capacitance is: C


V Ed
d

Example 8
Use image theory to determine E at an arbitrary
point P (x, y, z) in the region z > 0 due to a
charge Q in free space at a distance d above a
grounded conducting plane.

Solution to Example 8
Charge Q is at (0, 0, d) and its image Q is at
(0,0,d) in Cartesian coordinates. Using
Coulombs law, E at point P(x,y,z) due to two
point charges:
Q x y z;
R1 ( x 0) ( y 0) ( z d );
R2 ( x 0) ( y 0) ( z d )

Q
E
4 0

1 QR1 QR2
E

3
4 0 R 3
R
2
1

xx y y z z d

3/ 2
2
2
2
x y z d

xx y y z z d

3/ 2
2
2
2
x y z d

Electrostatic potential energy


Assume a capacitor with plates of good
conductors zero resistance,
Dielectric between two conductors has negligible
conductivity, 0 no current can flow through
dielectric
No ohmic losses occur anywhere in capacitor
When a source is connected to a capacitor,
energy is stored in capacitor
Charging-up energy is stored in the form of
electrostatic potential energy in the dielectric
medium

Electrostatic potential energy


1
Electrostatic potential energy, We CV 2
2
Q
Q
A
The capacitance: C

V Ed
d

Hence, We for a parallel plate capacitor:


1 A
1 2
1 2
2
Ed E ( Ad ) E v
We
2 d
2
2

where V Ed (voltage across capacitor)


v Ad (volume of the capacitor)

Image Method
Image theory states that a charge Q above a
grounded perfectly conducting plane is equal to
Q and its image Q with ground plane removed.