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Managing Mass
Communications:
Advertising,
Sales Promotions,
Events and Experiences,
and Public Relations
Marketing Management
A South Asian Perspective, 13th ed

Chapter Questions
What steps are involved in developing an
advertising program?
How should sales promotion decisions be
made?
What are the guidelines for effective brandbuilding events and experiences?
How can companies exploit the potential of
public relations and publicity?

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

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AIDS prevention campaign in


West Bengal was a unique
integrated mass media campaign

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What is Advertising?
Advertising is any paid form of
nonpersonal presentation and
promotion of ideas, goods, or services
by an identified sponsor.

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Procter & Gambles


Advertising History

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Figure 18.1 The Five Ms of Advertising

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Advertising Objectives
Informative
advertising

Persuasive
advertising

Reminder
advertising

Reinforcement
advertising

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Factors to Consider in Setting an


Advertising Budget
Stage in the product life cycle
Market share and consumer base
Competition and clutter
Advertising frequency
Product substitutability
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Developing the
Advertising Campaign
Message generation
and evaluation
Creative
development and
execution
Legal and social
issues

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Television
Advantages
Reaches broad
spectrum of consumers
Low cost per exposure
Ability to demonstrate
product use
Ability to portray image
and brand personality

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Disadvantages
Brief
Clutter
High cost of production
High cost of placement
Lack of attention by
viewers

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Print Ads
Advantages
Detailed product
information
Ability to
communicate user
imagery
Flexibility
Ability to segment

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Disadvantages
Passive medium
Clutter
Unable to
demonstrate
product use

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Print Ad Components

Picture

Headline
Copy

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Signature
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Print Ad Evaluation Criteria

Is the message clear at a glance?


Is the benefit in the headline?
Does the illustration support the headline?
Does the first line of the copy support or
explain the headline and illustration?
Is the ad easy to read and follow?
Is the product easily identified?
Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified?
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
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Communicating to the Rural


Audience
Large variations in language and culture
Campaigns have to be tailor made for product and
region
Product demonstrations in haats, mandis, and
melas (fairs) are useful
TV and print media do not reach all villages and all
customers
Wall paintings and signboards very popular
Folk theatre, magic shows and puppet shows are
also used as a media vehicle
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
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Media Selection

Reach
Frequency
Impact
Exposure

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Figure 18.2 Relationship Among Trial,


Awareness, and the Exposure
Function

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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Choosing Among Major Media Types

Target audience and media habits


Product characteristics
Message characteristics
Cost

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Major Media Types

Newspapers
Television
Direct mail
Radio
Magazines

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Outdoor
Yellow Pages
Newsletters
Brochures
Telephone
Internet

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Table 18.2 Advertising Research


Techniques

For Print Ads


For Broadcast Ads
In-house tests
Trailer tests
Theater tests
On-air tests

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Place Advertising

Billboards
Public spaces
Product placement
Point-of-purchase

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Measures of Audience Size

Circulation
Audience
Effective audience
Effective ad-exposed audience

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Figure 18.3 Classification of


Advertising Timing Patterns

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Factors Affecting Timing Patterns


Buyer turnover

Purchase frequency
Forgetting rate

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Media Schedule Patterns

Continuity
Concentration
Flighting
Pulsing

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Evaluating Advertising
Effectiveness
Communication-Effect Research
Consumer feedback method
Portfolio tests
Laboratory tests
Sales-Effect Research

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Figure 18.4 Formula for Measuring


Sales Impact of Advertising

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What is Sales Promotion?


Sales promotions consist of a
collection of incentive tools, mostly
short term, designed to stimulate
quicker or greater purchase of
particular products or services by
consumers or the trade.

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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Sales Promotion Tactics


Consumer-directed
Samples
Coupons
Cash refund offers
Price offs
Premiums
Prizes
Patronage rewards
Free trials
Tie-in promotions
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Trade-directed
Price offs
Allowances
Free goods
Sales contests
Spiffs
Trade shows
Specialty
advertising
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Using Sales Promotions


Establish objectives
Select tools
Develop program
Pretest
Implement and control
Evaluate results
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Why Sponsor Events?


To identify with a particular target market or life
style
To increase brand awareness
To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of
key brand image associations
To enhance corporate image
To create experiences and evoke feelings
To express commitment to community
To entertain key clients or reward employees
To permit merchandising or promotional
opportunities
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Using Sponsored Events


Establish objectives
Choose events
Design programs
Measure effectiveness
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Ideal Events
Audience closely matches target market
Event generates media attention
Event is unique with few sponsors
Event lends itself to ancillary activities
Event enhances brand image of sponsor

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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Customer Experience Management:


Experience Providers

Communications
Identity
Product presence
Co-branding

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Environments
Internet
Electronic media
People

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Steps in the CEM Framework


Analyze the customers experiential world
Build the experiential platform
Design the brand experience
Structure the customer interface
Engage in continuous innovation
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Tasks Aided by Public Relations

Launching new products


Repositioning a mature product
Building interest in a product category
Influencing specific target groups
Defending products that have
encountered public problems
Building the corporate image in a way
that reflects favorable on products
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Public Relations Functions

Press relations
Product publicity
Corporate communications
Lobbying
Counseling

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Major Tools in Marketing PR

Publications
Events
Sponsorships
News
Speeches
Public Service
Activities
Identity Media

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Decisions in Marketing PR
Establish objectives
Choose messages
Choose vehicles
Implement
Evaluate results

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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Marketing Debate
Should marketers test advertising?
Take a position:
1. Ad pretesting is an unnecessary waste
of marketing dollars.
or
2. Ad pretesting provides an important
diagnostic function for marketers as to the
likely success of an ad campaign.
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
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Marketing Discussion

What are some of your favorite TV


ads? Why?
How effective are the message and
creative strategies?
How are they building brand equity?

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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