Anda di halaman 1dari 64

Components of control and automation

equipments and devices

• A. Components and types of
control system
• Automation hierarchy and
At the end of the lecture students will be able to
• The process/system/plant - Process
variable/Measured variable
• Sensor or sensing element/measuring element
• System desired value / Set point, error or
• Automatic controller, comparator or comparing
• Correcting unit – actuating unit (Actuator)
Control system
1. Control system components
Simplified Control System (CS)

Courtesy NIST Manufacturing Engineering Lab, Intelligent Systems

1 - Control System
2 - Sensors, Switches
3 - Valves, Pumps, Transformers
4 - Resource 4

Control System – brains of a electronic and/or electro-

mechanical system with sensors used to monitor & change
levels or direct: air, water/fluid, electricity, traffic, fuel, etc.
Simplified Control System (CS)

• This is well the interconnected components in a system.

• These systems use slower bandwidth, e.g. 9600 bps, tentacles for
data collection, “real time” sampling, firmware types of logic circuits,
and electromechanical connections to effect valves, gates, throw
switches, etc.

• Control system are often thought as that equipment used solely by

large utilities, e.g. power, gas, water
• In fact these systems exist in every modern building.
• The larger and newer the building and or building complex, the
greater the likelihood that one of these systems is resident..
Scada system

SOURCE: Vendor Site

Other frequently used terms for this arena include Distributed Control
Systems or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Technical necessity of
 Processing of the information flow
 Enforcement of safety and availability
 Reduction of personal costs
The Cultures
Physical Plant Network Operations
• Focus • Focus
– Safety – Security
– 100% Availability – 99.5% Availability
– Electro-mechanical – Electronic
– No updating, Aged equipment – Continuous Updating, New
• The Language • The Language
– RTUs, PLCs, IEDs – Routers, Switches, Servers
– DNP, Modbus – IP, Ethernet
– Low Bandwidth – High Bandwidth
– Analog & Digital – All Digital
• The Vendors • The Vendors
– Allen Bradley(AB)/Rockwell, – IBM, Microsoft, CISCO, Dell
Honeywell, Siemens, Johnson
Expectations of Automation
 Process Optimisation
– Energy, material and time savings
– Quality improvement, reduction of waste, pollution control
– compliance with laws, product tracking
– Increase availability, safety
– Fast response to market
– Connection to management and accounting
 Acquisition of large number of “Process Variables”, data mining
 Personal costs reduction
– Simplify interface
– Assist decision
– Require data processing, displays, data base, expert systems
 Human-Machine Interface (MMC = Man-Machine Communication)
 Asset Optimisation
– Automation of engineering, commissioning and maintenance
– Software configuration, back-up and versioning
– Maintenance support
 Engineering Tools

Data Quantity
Power Plant (25 years ago)
in Different Plants
– 100 measurement and action variables (called "points")
– Analog controllers, analog instruments
– one central "process controller" for data monitoring and
• Thermal power plant (today)
– 10000 points, comprising:
• 8000 binary and analog measurement points and
• 2000 actuation point
– 1000 micro-controllers and logic controllers
• Nuclear Power Plant
– three times more points than in conventional power plants
• Electricity distribution network
– 100’000 – 10’000’000 points
• Data reduction and processing is necessary to operate plants
Sensors devices
Transmitting devices
• Telemetering may be defined as signal transmission over a
considerable distance.
• The device at the measuring point, usually a transducer, is then
often called a transmitter with the receiver located at the recording
or control center.

• Flapper-Nozzle Mechanism
• Pneumatic Converters for Pressure, Flow, and
Temperature Measurements
• Control Valves
• Valve Positioners
• Inductive signal transmitters
• Capacitive signal transmitters
• Potentiometric signal transmitters
Final control elements
• Final control elements act directly on the controlled body, process or
machine. The controller output signal is fed to the correcting unit
which then alters the variable to return the system to its desired or
set value.
• This correcting unit could be a valve, motor, damper or an electric
• Most marine applications involve the use of valves to regulate fluid

• Operation of Control Valves

• Control Valve Characteristics
• Equal Area Percentage Control Valve Characteristics
• Single Ported Control Valves
• Double Ported Control Valves
• Valve Positioner
• Hydraulic and pneumatic control drives
– Dismantle, repair and refit control actuating devices
• Calibration requirements
Output Elements

• Output elements generate high-power outputs in response

to controller signals. These outputs are usually in the form
of physical quantities such as position, speed,
temperature, flow, etc so that the output elements can
also take many different forms.

• For example, speed control can be obtained by controlling

and electric motor or by controlling an internal combustion

• Obviously the torque and power that is generated in each

of these cases is different and the output element that is
chosen in a particular situation is determined by such
Output Elements
• DC Motor - DC electric motors can be used
in positional or speed control systems where
the power requirements are relatively low.
These output elements are frequently known
as servomotors. Servomotors can be
armature-controlled or field-controlled.

• The figure illustrates the circuit diagram for

an armature-controlled motor, where VC is
the output voltage from a controller and is
applied to the armature terminals of the

• A separate field voltage, Vf is applied to the

field winding of the motor so that magnetic
field is generated. Since F = Bil and flux
density B and the armature conductor length
1 are maintained at constant magnitudes,
then the force that is generated in each
armature conductor generates an
unidirectional torque which causes the
armature to rotate.

• In this way, the rotation of the armature can

be considered to be proportional to the
armature current.
Output Elements
• Hydraulic Actuators - These actuators can be in the
form of hydraulic motors or hydraulic piston devices,
and are available in a wide range of power
capacities, torque capacities and speeds.

• The figure illustrates a typical double-acting piston

and cylinder actuator. Coulomb friction affects the
performance of these actuators and pressure
differentials as high as 30% of the supply pressure
can be necessary in order to overcome this
resistance to motion.

• The mathematical equations that govern the motions

of these actuators under steady conditions are:

Q = LPP + APv

• where Q is the flow of oil into the cylinder, LP is the

leakage flow coefficient for the piston AP is the
piston area, v is the piston velocity, F is the force that
is generated by the piston and P is the pressure
differential across the piston.
Output Elements
• Pneumatic Actuators - Pneumatic
actuators can be classified as low-
pressure or high-pressure actuators.
High-pressure actuators are usually
piston-type actuators which are similar
in operation to hydraulic piston-type
actuators. They are operated usually
by spool-type control valves.

• Low-pressure actuators are frequently

known as pneumatic motors and can
be used in order to generate
translatory or rotary motions.

• The figure illustrates a typical motor.

In this actuator, low-pressure air
causes the large-area diaphragm to
deflect which in turn causes the
translatory motion of an output shaft.
This type of actuator is used frequently
in process industries for operating flow
control valves. Translatory movements
can also be generated by capsules
and bellows.
Exhaust steam pressure control
• Exhaust steam for various
auxiliary services may be
controlled at constant pressure
by appropriate operation of a
surplus steam (dump) valve or
a make-up steam valve, A
single controller can be used
to operate one valve or the
other in what is known as 'split
range control’.

• The control arrangement is

shown The steam pressure in
the auxiliary range is
measured by a pressure
Exhaust steam pressure control
(Source: Introduction to Marine Engineering by D A
Centralized control system
Steering Control System
• B. Automation hierarchy and archtechture
• Little difference in the overall
architecture of different
applications control systems. Enterprise
• ANS/ISA standard
• Enterprise Resource Planning: Manufacturing
– Business Planning & Execution
– Plant Production
Scheduling Supervision (SCADA)
– Operational Management,
• Manufacturing Execution Group Control
– Manufacturing
Operations & Control
– Dispatching Production, Individual
Detailed Product Control
Scheduling, Reliability
Assurance,... Field
• Control & Command System:
– Batch control
– Continuous Control Primary technology
– Discrete control
Example: Siemens WinCC
Large control system hierarchy
4 Planning, Statistics, Finances administration

3 Workflow, Resources, Interactions enterprise

SCADA = supervision
2 Supervisory Supervisory Control
And Data Acquisition

Group Control

Unit Control

Sensors T
& Actors A V

0 Primary technology
Large control system hierarchy – Cont… 2
• Administration:
– Production goals, planning
• Enterprise:
– Manages resources, workflow, coordinates activities of
different sites
quality supervision, maintenance, distribution and planning
• Supervision:
– Supervision of the site, optimization, on-line operations,
Control room, Process Data Base, logging (open loop)
• Group (Area):
– Control of a well-defined part of the plant (closed loop,
except for intervention of an operator)
– Coordinates individual subgroups, Adjusting set-
points and parameters
• Commands several units as a whole
Large control system hierarchy
• Unit (Cell): – Cont… 3
– Control (regulation, monitoring and protection) of a small part
of a group (closed loop except for maintenance)
• Measure: Sampling, scaling, processing, calibration
• Control: regulation, set-points and parameters
• Command: sequencing, protection and interlocking
• Field:
– Sensors & Actuators, data acquisition, digitalization, data
– No processing except measurement correction and built-in
• Field level is in
interaction with
the plant's
unit controllers
Group level
• Group level
coordinates the
activities of several
unit controls
• Distributed Control
Systems (DCS)
commonly refers to
a hardware and
infrastructure to
perform Process
Local human interface at group level

Sometimes, the group level has its own Maintenance console /

man-machine interface for local
operation control emergency panel
Supervisory level: Man-machine

• Control room (mimic wall) 1970s...

• All instruments were directly wired to the control room
Supervisory level:

SCADA = Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

• Displays the current state
of the process
• Display the alarms and
events (alarm log, logbook)
• Display the trends
(historians) and analyse
• Display handbooks, data
sheets, inventory, expert
system (documentation)
• Allows communication and
data synchronization with
other centres
Operator workplace: Three main functions

1. Current state 2. Trends and history

3. Alarms
Response time and hierarchical
level ERP
(Enterprise Resource

Execution (Manufacturing
Level Execution System)

(Supervisory Control
Supervisory and Data
Level Acquisition)
Control System)
Level PLC
Logic Controller)

ms seconds hours days weeks month

Operation and process data
• Normally, the operator
is only concerned by
the supervisory level,
but exceptionally,
operators (and
engineers) want to
access data of the
lowest levels
• The operator sees the
plant through a fast
data base, refreshed in
Automation applications
 Power generation hydro, coal, gas, oil, shale, nuclear, wind, solar
 Transmission electricity, gas, oil
 Distribution electricity, water
 Process paper, food, pharmaceutical, metal,processing,
glass, cement, chemical, refinery, oil & gas
 Manufacturing computer aided manufacturing (CIM), flexible
fabrication, appliances, automotive, aircrafts
 Storage silos, elevator, harbor, deposits, luggage
 Building heat, ventilation, air conditioning
(HVAC), process control, fire, energy
supply, tunnels, highways,....
 Transportation rolling stock, street cars, sub-urban trains,
busses, cars, ships, airplanes, satellites,...
What is a CS?

Local Infrastructure possibly using CSs

• Electrical distribution, & • Fire alarms &
UPS suppression
• Natural gas distribution • Elevators & escalators
• Fuel Oil storage & flow • Gates & doors, alarms
• Water storage & flow • Video security cameras
• Lighting • Traffic signals
• Heating, cooling, • Process Line Control
Modern engineering applications of control
• Flight Control Systems • Chemical Process Control
– Regulation of flow rates,
– Modern commercial and
temperature, concentrations, etc.
military aircraft are “fly by wire”
– Long time scales, but only crude
– systems, unmanned aerial models of process
vehicles (UAVs) are already in • Communications and Networks
place – Amplifiers and repeaters
• Robotics – Congestion control of the Internet
– High accuracy positioning for – Power management for wireless
flexible manufacturing communications
– Remote environments: space, • Automotive
sea, non-invasive surgery, etc. – Engine control, transmission
control, cruise control, climate
control, etc
– Luxury sedans: 12 control devices
in 1976, 42 in 1988, 67 in 1991


Automation systems manufacturers
Company Location Major mergers

ABB CH-SE Brown Boveri, ASEA, CE, Alfa-Laval, Elsag-Bailey

Siemens DE Plessey, Landis & Gyr, Stäfa, Cerberus,..

Ansaldo IT
Emerson US Fisher Rosemount
General Electric US
Honeywell US
Rockwell Automation US Allen Bradley, Rockwell,..
Alstom FR Alsthom, GEC, CEGELEC, ABB Power,..
Schneider Electric FR Télémécanique, Square-D, ...
Invensys UK Foxboro, Siebe, BTR, Triconex,…
Hitachi JP
Yokogawa JP

€ 80 B / year business, growing 5 % annually

Examples of automated plants
Appliances control (windows, seats,
Motor control (exhaust regulations)
ABS and EPS, brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire

19% of the price is electronics, (+10% per

Airplanes Avionics
flight control, autopilot
flight management
flight recording, black boxes
Examples of automated plants
Flexible automation, Manufacturing

Numerous conveyors,
robots, CNC
machines, paint
shops, logistics.
Examples of automated plants: Distribution:
Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (environmental protection)

from the earth to the refinery
(High pressure, saltwater,
explosive environment with gas)

(extreme explosive environment)
Examples of Automated plants:
power plants
• Raw materials
• Primary
process (steam,
• Personal, plant
• Environmental
• Generation
• Energy
Examples of automated
Waste treatment, incinerators
• Raw material supply
• Burning process
• Smoke cleaning
• Environmental control
• Co-generation process
(steam, heat)
• Ash analysis
• Ash disposal
Examples of automated plants:
water treatment

Managing pumps, tanks, chemical composition, filters, movers,..

Other examples of feedback
• Biological Systems
– Physiological regulation
– Bio-molecular regulatory networks

• Environmental Systems
– Microbial ecosystems
– Global carbon cycle

• Financial Systems
– Markets and exchanges
– Supply and service chains
Cruise control disturbance

reference + Control + System


• Stability/performance
mv&= −bv + uengine + uhill – Steady state velocity approaches
desired velocity as k → ∞
uengine = k (vdes − v )
– Smooth response; no overshoot or
velocity oscillations
• Disturbance rejection
– Effect of disturbances (hills)
k 1 approaches zero as k → ∞
vss = vdes + uhill
b+ k b +k • Robustness
– Results don’t depend on the
→ 1 as → 0 as specific values of b, m, or k for k
k →∞ k →∞ sufficiently large
Local Infrastructure possibly using CSs
• Electrical distribution, & • Fire alarms &
UPS suppression
• Natural gas distribution • Elevators & escalators
• Fuel Oil storage & flow • Gates & doors, alarms
• Water storage & flow • Video security cameras
• Lighting • Traffic signals
• Heating, cooling, • Process Line Control
hind wing
Insect flight
neural (halteres)

two wings


• More information:
COMPUTATION – M. D. Dickinson, Solving the
mystery of insect flight, Scientific
~500,000 neurons American, June 2001.
Segway: The
human Transporter
Automated manufacturing

2) CNC Machining

1) Flexible Manufacturing 3) Injection Molding Station

Automation of processes
Integrating part quality into the
manufacturing system

On-Line Part Characterization

Automated and Semi-Automated
and Statistical Quality Control
Quality Assessments
Controller design
Traditional Form:
r e u y
PID Process

Adaptive Form:
State u y

e Process

State r
So what? …the Changing landscape
The Changing landscape
1. Remote connectivity/control of CS devices 1.
2. Standardization of CS Protocols
3. Connection of CS & Business LANs
4. “Windowing” of CS & SCADA Control


4. 3.
What are the concerns?

Access sirport lighting controls

From your PDA

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Facility Electrical Grid Access

via your cell phone

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Natural Gas Well Access

via your browser

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Cost Justification

WAYNE, Pa., Oct. 24, 2002 -- Energy information systems and wind-powered generation will emerge as the two most critical energy technologies in the next
five years, according to a majority of energy entrepreneurs and investors surveyed at the EnerTech Forum in Phoenix last week. Scott Ungerer, Managing
Director of EnerTech Capital, said respondents believed energy information systems, which allow companies to better manage their energy use, would continue
to grow, particularly given the current economic climate. "With corporate America's increased focus on the bottom line, monitoring and managing energy use is
receiving more attention than ever by corporate users." On the telecommunications front, respondents predicted the following communications technologies
would be in widespread use in the next five years: broadband wireless (named by 68 percent) and optical networks (named by 51 percent). When asked why
utilities have been so slow to adopt energy management solutions like sophisticated monitoring, data collection, and equipment control and dispatch, 49
percent said the economics of the technology is not yet compelling enough for utilities. The same percentage predicted that the energy management market
sector would remain fragmented for many years, with no clear and pronounced trend.
What are the concerns?
Operational Security
Raise Awareness
Improve Understanding & Connections between Computer/IT & Building Engineers

• IT Security Worker • Building/Campus

– Electronic Engineer
• Equipment settings – Supply & Discharge
• Switch settings • Electricity
• Access Control • Water
– Computer • Fuel
Programming & Data – Circuit Settings
• Creation – Valve Settings
• Execution
– Electro-Mechanical
• Storage
– Physical Plant Safety
The following has been discussed:
• The process/system/plant - Process
variable/Measured variable
• Elements of control system and components
• Correcting unit – actuating unit (Actuator)
• Example of control system and components