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CHAPTER 9

INSTRUCTION AND L2 ACQUISITION

By :
Hanik Mutammimah
Nim : 13108810007

INTRODUCTION

One of the goal of SLA is to


improve language teaching. To this
end some researchers have studied
what impact teaching has on L2
learning.

In this chapter we will consider three


branches of this research. They are:
The first concerns whether teaching learners grammar
has any effect on their language development. Do learners
learn the structures they are taught?
The second draws on the research into individual learners
differences. Do learners learn better if the kind of
instruction they receive matches their preferred ways of
learning an L2?
The third branch looks at strategy training. Does it help
to teach learners how to use the learning strategies
employed by good language learners?

FORM-FOCUSED
INSTRUCTION

What does form-focused instruction?


Language pedagogy has emphasized the need
to provide learners with real communicative
experiences.
And
it
is
all
about
Communicative Language Teaching.

Does form-focused instruction work?

One way to investigate whether formal


instruction has any effect on
interlanguage is to compare the
development of untutored and tutored
learners.

How significant are actually the effects of the


instruction?
Another way of testing the effectiveness of using
form-based instruction is by designing instructional
experiments to see if teaching a particular structure
results in its acquisition.
The experiment done by Manfred Pinemann reports
in detail on only two children and the results are
highly suggestive . The first learner acquired the
inversion rule, and the other learner failed to acquire
inversion.

How Durable Are The Effects Of Form-focused


Instruction?

The early research showed


that form-focused
instruction caused learners to increase their use of
some grammatical rules in their communicative
speech, often incorrectly, but the effect was short-lived.
Another research showed that instruction can have
effects that are both beneficial and long-lasting when
the set of materials for teaching are designed carefully.
There is a lot of evidence that the acquisition can
permanently influenced by instruction.

Why some structures seem to be permanently


and the others are not?
There are some possibilities related to this
issue:
1. The nature of the instruction
2. The nature of the target structure
3. The learners subsequent opportunities to
hear and use the target structure in
communication

The Effect of Instruction

Instruction have an effect on learners ability to


manipulate structures consciously and quite
another for it to affect their ability to use
structures with ease and accuracy in fluent
communication

Form-focused instruction
that works best

The issues:

1. A question of pedagogical efficiency


2. A considerable theoretical significance
for SLA

LEARNERINSTRUCTION
MATCHING

1. The same instructional option is not equally


effective for all L2 learners.
2. Learners vary in the particular types of ability
they are strong in.
3. Taking individual differences into account when
investigating the effects of instruction is
important.

STRATEGY
TRAINING
1. Strategy learning is a term referring to the
processes and actions that are consciously
deployed by language learners to help them to
learn or use a language more effectively.
2. involve different ways of making association
involving target words.
3. The idea of strategy training is attractive.

Conclusion
Direct instruction not always
successful nor are its effects
always durable. However, have
examined whether it is possible to
teach an L2 that direct instruction
can help in a number of ways.

Questions

1. Mention there are three branches of this research.


2. What is effect instruction ?
3. Mention the three some possibilities related to
this issue !
4. What is Strategy of learning ?

KEY ANSWER

1. -The first concerns whether teaching learners grammar has any


effect on their language development. Do learners learn the
structures they are taught?
- The second draws on the research into individual learners
differences. Do learners learn better if the kind of instruction they
receive matches their preferred ways of learning an L2?
- The third branch looks at strategy training. Does it help to
teach learners how to use the learning strategies employed by good
language learners?

2. The instruction have an effect on learners ability


to manipulate structures consciously and quite
another for it to affect their ability to use
structures with ease and accuracy in fluent
communication.
3. There are three some possibilities
a) The nature of the instruction
b) The nature of the target structure
c) and The learners subsequent opportunities to
hear and use the target structure in
communication.
4.

The strategy of learning is a term referring to


the processes and actions that are consciously
deployed by language learners to help them to
learn or use a language more effectively.

THANKYOU