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Mohammad Shukeri Hamzah

JABATAN SAINS
Tel:609 7717 758 (Off)
012 9298705
Email: keri3058@yahoo.com
1
What is research?
 Another process of “tool” or sense making
 The world is a complex place
 Dynamic, ever-changing
 Driven by entropy, chaos
 Built-in rot, decay, obsolescence
 Need to be always in control
 From Science: devices and remedies
 From Soc. Science: mental tools/strategies

2
PENYELIDIKAN PENDIDIKAN
(EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH)

 GURU MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN


LIBATKAN PILIHAN DAN RISIKO
 PERLUKAN
MAKLUMAT,FAKTA,PENGALAMAN
 MERUPAKAN PROSES
PENYELIDIKAN

3
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
 RESEARCH BERMULA DENGAN ADANYA
PERASAAN TIDAK PUASHATI TERHADAP
SUASANA KERJA,CORAK PENGURUSAN P&p
DAN PRESTASI DIRI
 PENYELIDIKAN –PROSEDUR YANG TERATUR
UNTUK UNTUK MEMPEROLEHI PENGETAHUAN
DAN KEMAHIRAN BARU
 HASILNYA DINAMAKAN SEBAGAI NISBA ATAU
VARIABLE BARU

4
PP
 Proses penyelidikan libatkan
kenalpasti masalah,mengumpul
,menganalisis dan mentafsir bukti
untuk membuat keputusan
 PP ditafsirkan sebagai prosedur
teratur untuk memperolehi
pengetahuan dan kemahiran baru
dalam kurikulum pendidikan.
5
Pendekatan Kuantitatif
dan
Pendekatan Kualitatif
• Quantitative approaches is a deductive
process which attempting to provide evidence
for or against a pre-specified objectives
focused on testing preconceived outcomes.

• Qualitative approach usually begins with open-


ended observation or interviews and analysis,
most often looking for patterns and processes
that explain “how and why” questions.

6
Kajian Kualitatif
 Definisi: Satu usaha untuk memahami sesuatu
situasi itu dalam keadaannya yang tersendiri.
Bagaimana individu itu bertindak,
berinteraksi, menjalani kehidupan harian
secara neutral, menunjukkan reaksi dalam
menghadapi liku-liku kehidupan yang
ditempuhi, Input akhirnya ialah satu hasil
kajian yang memberi kefahaman yang
mendalam mengenai kehidupan sebenar
responden yang dikaji (Pattom, 1985).

7
Ciri Penyelidikan kualitatif
•Penyelidik adalah instrumen data dan
analisis yang akan dibuat
•Penyelidikan kualitatif melibatkan kerja
lapangan
•Penyelidikan kualitatif bersifat deskriptif
tentang peristiwa, manusia dan proses
•Penyelidikan kualitatif bersifat induktif

8
The differences
 Qualitative research
 Introduce new theories
 Suggest causes
 Descriptive, bottom-up
 Uses inductive thinking
 Quantitative research
 Sharpen old/existing tools
 Suggest a cure
 Prescriptive, top-down
 Uses deductive thinking

9
What is research?
 Another process of “tool” or sense making
 The world is a complex place
 Dynamic, ever-changing
 Driven by entropy, chaos
 Built-in rot, decay, obsolescence
 Need to be always in control
 From Science: devices and remedies
 From Soc. Science: mental tools/strategies

10
Quantitative Research
 Sharpen / replace existing practices / tools
 Prescribe, top-down intervention
 Paradigms, theories & models play Critical Roles
 Justification: “….no study has yet explored the use
of this P / T / M in this context…..”,
 Title: “The effects of an IV on a DV among an
MV…..”

11
Quantitative Research
Problem or Need

Identify an alternative
Structure to guide
research: Create a structure
Theoretical Framework to guide research:
Conceptual
Framework
Grand theory
Midrange theory
Micro-range theory

Conceptual Definitions
of Study Variables,
Research Questions, Operational Definitions to Instruments
Hypotheses measure the study variables
12
What is obtained?
 A new cure / remedy
 A more dynamic & productive
paradigm

13
Acute Anomalies
Malaysia:- 5 As + Sc + IS + BSc = killers
 PhD + Datukship + CEO = CBT
 Car + Motorcycle + License = accidents
 Schooling + F in all subjects = millionaire
The US:- Best of everything + Best of
everything + best of everything
= killers
World: Islam + marginalization = terrorists

How to study / solve these problems?


14
Qualitative Research
 Reassess known paradigms, theories & models in
specific contexts
 Non-invasive data collection
 Justification: “….no adequate P / T / M currently
explains this phenomenon…..”,
 Title: “Violence in the Malaysian Premier Schools-A
case study”
 Or “Social construction of technology in the
Malaysian Smart School-A case study…..”

15
What is obtained?
 A new mind set / problem situation
 A hidden/grounded theory

16
Qualitative Research
Problem in a
given context

Reveal Survey related theories to


Grounded guide the development the
theory research instruments

- Piece together bits &


pieces of data to
address the research
questions

17
Summary
Survey of issues, paradigms, theories, models, frameworks

Suggest
Cured?
a cure Choose
Identify a Collect the
Problem/ P/T/M/F.
Data &
need Develop the
Analyse
Identify instruments
Grounded
hidden
Theory?
Lit. review causes

18
Empat kaedah utama pengumpulan
data kualitatif

• Pemerhatian
• Temubual
• Dokumen
• Imej

19
Dalam beberapa situasi penyelidik
• Mengumpul maklumat melalui pemerhatian
sebagai peserta
• Mengumpul maklumat melalui pemerhatian
sebagai pemerhati
• Melakukan temubual tak berstruktur atau
terbuka dan mencatatkan temubual
• Melakukan temubual tak berstruktur atau
terbuka, merekodkan temubual dan
dalam bentuk audio melakukan transkripsi
temubual

20
Steps in Educational Research
(Contd.)
 5) define the variables involved in operational
terms [e.g. Academic achievement are grades
assigned by teachers; or Intelligence is the
score obtained in Cattle’s Culture Fair
Intelligence Test]
 6) Design instruments to measure the variables
involved
 7) Pilot test the instruments to ascertain (I)
whether it is suitable for the sample under
study (2) Internal Reliabilities (Item Analyses),
Test Reliablities and Test Validities.
 8)Administer the instruments and score based
on a predetermined score sheet.

21
Steps in Educational Research
(Contd.)
 9) Analyse the data using SPSS
 10) Interprete the analyses and answer the
research question or reject/accept the
hypotheses
 11) State any assumptions or limitations in
the study.

22
Types of Educational Research

 Action Research-kajian secara sistematik untuk


meningkatkan amalan pendidikanoleh golongan
yang terlibat melalui tindakan praktis mereka
sendiri
 Historical Research - describes What was; involves
investigating, recording, analyzing and intepreting the
events of the past
 Descriptive Research - describes What is; involves
the describing, recording, analysing and interpreting
the conditions that exist, Comparing two or more
groups, seeking relationships between two or more
variables.
 Experimental Research - describes What will be
when certain variables are carefully controlled or
manipulated

23
Descriptive Research

 Survey Research
 Case studies
 Correlational Research

24
Types of Research
Designs
 Preexperimental Designs - 1) The
One-shot Case study
Design 1: One Group

(a) X Y (Experimental)

(b) X Y (Ex Post Facto)

25
Types of Research
Designs
(contd)
 Preexperimental Designs: 2) One-
Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Design 2: One Group, Before - After

(a) Yb X Ya (Experimental)

(b) Yb X Ya (ExPostFacto)

26
Types of Research
Designs
(contd)
 Preexperimental Designs: The
Static-Group Comparison
Design 3: Two-Groups

(a) X Y
---------------- (Experimental)
(~ X) Y

(b) X Y
----------------- (Ex Post Facto)
(~X) ~Y 27
Types of Research
Designs
(contd)
 True Experimental Designs: 1) The
Pretest-Postest Control-Group
Design
Design 4:

R Yb X Ya
----------------------------

R Yb Ya

28
Types of Research
Designs
(contd)
 Quasi Experimental Design (Ex
Post Facto Design) - No random
assignment of treatment
Design 5:

Yb X Ya
----------------------------

Yb Ya

29
 a good design is measured by its
validity - its capability to answer
questions it addresses.
 2 types of validity: Internal Validity &
External Validity

30
Internal Validity

 asks the question whether a


“treatment” really made the difference
 Threats to Internal Validity: a) History,
b) Maturation, c) Testing, d)
Instrumentation, e) Statistical
Regression, f) Selection, g)
Experimental Mortality and h)
Interactions among factors.

31
Pilot Study- Reliability and
Validation of Instrument
 Ascertain Reliability:
 (A) INTERNAL CONSISTENCY: (1) Item Analysis -
Index of discriminability (2) Split-half reliability (3)
Kuder-Richardson reliability (for dichotomous data)
(4) Conbach Alpha (for ordinal data) SPSS- Data
Editor-Statistics-Scale-Reliability Analysis - Model
(Alpha, Split-half, Guttman, Parallel)
 (B) STABILITY: (1)Test-retest reliability (2) Alternate
Forms reliability - use SPSS-Data Editor-Statistics-
Compare Means-Paired-Samples t-test.
 Ascertain Validity: (1) Content Validity (2) Construct
Validity (3) Criterion-related Validity/ Concurrent
Validity (4) Predictive Validity

32
Validity
 Content Validity - if the instrument tests only
those aspects that should be tested
 Construct Validity - if the test measures what
it is supposed to measure
 Criterion-related Validity/ concurrent
validity - if the test scores are closely related
to another test which measures similar
construct
 Predictive Validity - if the instrument can
predict correctly a particular outcome

33
METHODS OF ESTIMATING RELIABILITY
Type of
Reliability Measure Procedure

Test-retest method Measure of stability Give the same twice to the same
group with any time interval
between tests from several
minutes to several years

Equivalent-Forms Measure of equivalence Give two forms of the test to


Method the same group in close
succession

Test-retest with Measure of stability Give two forms of the test to the
equivalence forms and equivalence same group with increased time
interval between forms

Split-half method Measure of internal Give test once. Score two equivalent
consistency halves test (e.g. odd items and even time)

Kuder-Richardson Measure of internal Give test once. Score total test and
method consistency apply Kuder-Richardson formula
34
DESIGNING INSTRUMENTS

 Should be suitable for the population


under study
 Should sample the universe of data
pertaining to the variable measured
 Should be reliable
 Should be reliably scored

35
Outline of SPSS Part 1

 Types of Data
 How to enter data and examine data
 How to explore data for normality
 What analyses / statistics to use
 How to run these analyses
 How to COMPUTE and RECODE

36
Outline

 How to select cases


 How to interpret results and report
 How to draw graphs
 How to create and edit tables and
place in other applications

37
Exercise 1
Start your SPSS for Windows now. You will get the
Data Editor Window. Study the menu bar and the
options available in each menu.
Then,
1. Open the data file call ‘PRACTICE’.
2. Run some simple frequency analyses on the
following variables:
a) sex
b) race
c) region
d) happy
3. From the results in your Output Navigator
describe the respondents in this study
38
Types of Measurement Scales and
their Statistical Analyses

Measurement Characteristics Type of Data Statistical


Scale Tests
Simple Classification in Non-
Nominal Chi-square
Categories without any order parametric
e.g Boy / Girl
Happy / Not Happy
Muslim / Buddhist / Hindu

Ordinal Has order or rank ordering Non- Spearman’s rho


e.g. Strongly agree, agree, parametric Mann-Whitney
undecided, disagree, strongly Wilcoxon
disagree
(LIKERT SCALE)

39
Types of Measurement Scales and
their Statistical Analyses

Measurement Characteristics Type of Data Statistical


Scale Tests
Do not have true 0 points. Has Parametric COMPARISON:
Interval order as well as equal distance t-tests
or interval between ANOVA
judgements (Social Sciences)
e.g. IQ score of 95 is better RELATIONSHIP:
than IQ 85 by 10 IQ points Pearson r
Ratio Have true 0 points. Has high Parametric
order, equal distance between COMPARISON:
judgements, a true zero value t-tests
(Physical Sciences) e.g.age, no. ANOVA
of children, 9 ohm is 3 times 3 RELATIONSHIP:
ohm and 6 ohm is 3 times 2 Pearson r
ohm But IQ 120 is more
comparable to IQ 100 than to IQ
144, although ratio
IQ 120 /100 = 144 /120 = 1.2 40
Types of Measurement Scales and their
Statistical Analyses

 Higher order of measurement -->


lower order e.g. Interval --->
ordinal, nominal
 But not ordinal, nominal ---->
interval

41
Refer to the handout provided.

Exercise 1

Indicate in the spaces provided in


Table 1 the level of measurement of the
corresponding variables

42
Data Collection

 Identify the population to be studied


 Choose sample randomly or by stratified
random sampling
 The accuracy of the findings of a research
depends greatly on (1) how the sample is
chosen (2) whether the correct
instruments are used (3) the reliability
and validity of the instruments

43
Entering & Editing Data
 Open SPSS by double clicking at the SPSS icon
or ‘START’ - ‘PROGRAM’ - ‘SPSS’
 Define variable
 Enter data
 Adding labels for variables and value labels
 Inserting new cases
 Inserting new variables
 Adding Missing Value codes
 Examining Data by running ‘FREQUENCY’

44
Refer to the handout provided.

Exercise 2:

Enter data given in the handout


then answer the questions

45
Exploring Data Graphically

 To check normality graphically and decide on its


appropriate analyses
 1) By displaying data
 Histogram
 Boxplot
 Stem-and-leaf Plot
 2) By Statistical Analyses
 Descriptive Statistics
 M - Estimators
 Kolmogorov-Sminov Test
 Shapiro-Wilk

46
Histogram

H i s to g ra m S t a t is tic s
14

12
C H IL D R E A R IN G
P R A C T IC E S
10
S td .
E r ro r
8
M ean 1 8 .0 5
6 M e d ia n 1 7 .0 0
S td . D e v ia tio n
4 3 .8 9
Frequenc y

2 S td . De v = 3 .8 9 Ske w ne ss .2 7 4 .3 6 9
M e a n = 1 8 .0
0 N = 4 1 .0 0 K u rto s is - .5 7 3 .7 2 4
1 0 .0 1 2 .5 1 5 .0 1 7 .5 2 0 .0 2 2 .5 2 5 .0
M in im u m 10
C H ILD R EAR IN G PR AC TIC ES M a x im u m 26
47
Checking Normality -
Skewness
 Skewness measures the
symmetry of the sample
distribution
 SkewnessStandard Error
= Statistic

If Skewness < -2 or > +2, reject normality


If -2 < Skewness < 2 ---> Normal
distribution
48
Mean
Negatively Skewed Median

If Ratio is negative
If Mean < Median

22

Boxplot 20

18

Negatively skewed 16

14

12

10

8
CRA

35
6
N= 13 22
MALE FEMALE

SEX

49
Median
Mean
Positivity Skewed
If Ratio is positive
If Mean > Median

50
Checking Normality -
Kurtosis
 Kurtosis measures the spread of
the data
 Standard
Kurtosis Error
= Statistic

If Kurtosis < -2 or > +2 reject normality


If -2 < Kurtosis < 2 ---> Normal
distribution
51
Kurtosis
 Large Positive value = tails of the
distribution are longer than those
of a normal distribution

Normal Graf

52
Kurtosis
 Negative value of Kurtosis
indicates shorter tails (Box like
distribution)

Normal Graf

53
Values more than 3 box-lengths from 75th
percentile
Boxplot
Values more than 1.5
box-lengths from 75th
30 percentile (outliers)
Largest observed value that isn’t
outlier
20
75th Percentile
Median
25th Percentile
10 Smallest observed value that isn’t
outlier
Slightly positively
skewed
0
N= 41
54
CHIL D REARING PRACT I
Stem-and-Leaf Plot
CHILD REARING PRACTICES Stem-and-Leaf Plot

Frequency Stem & Leaf

1.00 1 . 0
2.00 1 . 23
8.00 1 . 44444455
11.00 1 . 66666777777
3.00 1 . 889
8.00 2 . 00000111
4.00 2 . 2233
3.00 2 . 555
1.00 2 . 6

Stem width: 10
Each leaf: 1 case(s)

55
Testing Normality of data
collected
 All data must be tested for normality before analyzing them
statistically.
 Normality - if the data samples the population
representatively, it will be normally distributed - where the
mean and median are approximately equal
 Type of analysis depends on the normality of data and the
level of measurement of data
 - Normally distributed data - use Parametric Tests like t-
tests, ANOVA, Pearson r. -
Non-normally distributed data - use Non-parametric Tests
like Chi-square, Spearman’s rho, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon

56
To show Normality of Data
Descriptives

SEX Statistic Std. Error


CRA MALE Mean 15.08 1.12
95%Confidence Lower
12.63
Interval for Mean Bound
Upper
17.52
Bound
5%TrimmedMean
15.20 M -Es tim a to rs

Median 16.00
CRA
Variance 16.410 SEX
Std. Deviation
4.05
M AL E F EM AL E
H u be r's a
Minimum 7 1 5 .14 14 .3 0
M -Estim a to r
Maximum 21
T u ke y'sb
Range 14 1 5 .25 14 .3 2
Biw e ig h t
InterquartileRange
6.00 H a m p e l's c
1 5 .20 14 .3 7
Skewness -.279 .616 M -Estim a to r
Kurtosis -.065 1.191 An d re w s'
d 1 5 .25 14 .3 2
FEMALE Mean 14.36 .77 W ave
95%Confidence Lower
12.75 a . T h e w eig h ting con sta n t is
Interval for Mean Bound
Upper 1 .33 9.
15.97
Bound b . T h e w eig h ting con sta n t is
5%TrimmedMean 4 .68 5.
14.39
c. T h e w e ig hting co n sta nts
Median 14.00 are 1 .7 0 0 , 3 .4 00 , a n d 8 .5 0 0
Variance 13.195 d . T h e w eig h ting con sta n t is
Std. Deviation
3.63 1 .34 0*pi.
Minimum 7
Maximum 21
Range 14
InterquartileRange
5.00

Skewness .025 .491


Kurtosis -.662 .953
57
Data Editor - Analyze - Descriptive Statistics - Explore

Testsof Normality

CRA
SEX
MALE FEMALE
Kolmogorov-Smirnov a Statistic .129 .151
df 13 22
Sig. .200 * .200 *
Shapiro-Wilk Statistic .963 .965
df 13 22
Sig. .751 .581
*. Thisisalower boundof thetruesignificance.
a. LillieforsSignificanceCorrection

Not sig. at p < .01.


Data is normally distributed
58
BoxPlot for Male and Female parents
22

20

18

16

14

12

10 Slightly Positively
Slightly Negatively Skewed
8 Skewed
CRA

35
6
N= 13 22
MALE FEMALE

SEX
59
Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot
Normal Q-Q Plot of CRA of CRA
Normal Q-Q Plot of CRA Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot of CRA
For SEX= MALE For SEX= MALE
1.5 .4

1.0
.2

.5
-.0

0.0
-.2

Dev from Normal


Expected Normal

-.5

-.4
-1.0

-.6
-1.5
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Observed Value
Observed Value

Normal Q-Q Plot of CRA Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot of CRA

For SEX= FEMALE For SEX= FEMALE


.2
2.0

1.5 .1

1.0
0.0
.5

0.0 -.1
Expected Normal

Dev from Normal

-.5
-.2

-1.0
-.3
-1.5

-2.0 -.4
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
60
Observed Value Observed Value
Exercise
Open the data file “PRACTICE’ and check the normality of
the ‘Age’ data of the respondents using
a) Histogram
b) Boxplot
c) Stem-and-leaf
d) E-estimators
e) Kolmogorov-Sminov & Shapiro Wilk
f) Normal Q-Q Plot
g) Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot

61
Testing equality of
variance
Levernes Test (SPSS-DataEditor-Analize-Explore
-Plots(Leverne)

Test of Homogeneity of Variance

Levene
Mothers Statistic df1 df2 Sig. Not
CHILD
Fathers
REARING
Sig.
.000 1 39 .991
PRACTICES

If Leverne Statistic is highly significant (p < .001), the groups do not


have equal variance
If Leverne Statistic is not significant (p > .001), the groups have
equality of variance and t-tests analyses can be undertaken
62
Exercise
You wish to compare the ages of male and
female respondents using the t-test. To use
the t-test, you must make sure the variances in
the age of male and female respondents are
similar. How are you going to do it? Can
you use the t-test to compare the ages of male
and female respondents in the sample?

63
Compute Data
SPSS data editor - Transform - Compute -

Please try exercise 3. 64


RECODE
SPSS Data Editor - Transform - Recode - into different variable
/ into same variable

65
Recode (contd)

Please try exercise 4 66


Select cases
SPSS Data Editor - Data - Select cases-

67
Select cases

Please try Exercise 5


68
Analyses
(Degree of Association/
Relationship)
SPSS Data Editor - Statistics - Correlate - Bivariate -

69
Parametric Statistical
Analyses
(Degree of Association/
Relationship)
Pearson Product-moment Correlation
Correlations

WHAT
KINDOF
SOMETHING PERSON
ABOUT ARE
CRA MYSELF YOU?
Pearson CRA 1.000 .204 .285
Correlation SOMETHING
ABOUT .204 1.000 .375 *
MYSELF
WHATKIND
OF
.285 .375 * 1.000
PERSON
AREYOU?
Sig. CRA . .239 .097
(2-tailed) SOMETHING
ABOUT .239 . .016
MYSELF
WHATKIND
OF
.097 .016 .
PERSON
AREYOU?
*. Correlationis significant at the 0.05level (2-tailed).

70
Presenting Correlation Table

Table 1
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between SAM,
WKOPAY and CRA Scores

CRA SAM WKOPAY

SAM .20 1.00 .38*

WKOPAY .29 .38* 1.00

N of Cases: 165 1- tailed Signif: * - .01 ** - .001

71
Reporting Product Moment
Correlations
 Table 1 presents the inter-correlations among Creative Child Rearing
Practices (CRA), Something About Myself (SAM) and What Kind of
Person Are You? (WKOPAY) scores. The correlation coefficient
between CRA and SAM scores is .20 which is not significant at p < .
05. This indicates that parents who perceive themselves as creative
based on their past creative performances do not engage in creative
child rearing practices.

 The correlation coefficent between CRA and WKOPAY scores is also


not significant (r = .29, p > .05). This indicates that parents who
perceive themselves as creative based on their personality
characteristics, also do not engage in creative child rearing practices.

72
Report
 There is a significant correlation
between SAM and WKOPAY (r = .375, p
< .05). The correlation is positive,
indicating that an increase in SAM
scores will result in an increase in
WKOPAY scores. Results also show that
14% (r squared) of the variance of SAM
scores is explained by WKOPAY scores.
About 86% of the variance in SAM is
unaccounted for.

73
t - tests

 Paired t-tests
 Grouped t-tests

74
Assumptions of t-tests

 1) Data must be interval or ratio


 2) Data must be obtained via
random sampling from
population
 3) Data must be normally
distributed

75
Analyses
( comparisons - t-tests )
SPSS Data Editor - Compare means - Independent Sample t test

76
Parametric Statistical
Analyses
( comparisons - t-tests )
G ro u p Sta tis tic s

Std . S td . Erro r
SEX N M e a n D e via tio n M e a n
CRA M AL E 13 1 5 .0 8 4 .0 5 1 .1 2
F EM AL E 22 1 4 .3 6 3 .6 3 .7 7

In d e p e n d e n t S a m p le s T e s t

L e v e n e 's T e s t fo r
E q u a lity o f V a r ia n c e s t- te s t fo r E q u a lity o f M e a n s
9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
S ig . M e a n S td . E r r o rIn te r v a l o f th e M e a
F S ig . t df ( 2 - ta ile d )D iffe r e n c eD iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r
CRA Equal
v a r ia n c e s .0 0 6 .9 3 6 .5 3 8 33 .5 9 4 .7 1 1 .3 3 - 1 .9 8 3 .4 1
assum ed
Equal
v a r ia n c e s
.5 2 3 2 3 .1 2 8 .6 0 6 .7 1 1 .3 6 - 2 .1 1 3 .5 4
not
assum ed 77
Presentation of t-test
results
Table 2
T-tests comparisons of CRA scores by gender

Father Mother Effect


t-value p < .05
(n =13) (n =12) Size

Mean 15.06 14.36 5.38 NS .18

SD 4.05 3.63

78
Effect Size
__ ___
X 1− X 2
EffectSize =
s1 + s2
2

Example:
X1 = 15.08 s1 = 4.05
X2 = 14.36 s2 = 3.63
15.08 − 14.36 0.72
EffectSize = = = 18.75
4.05 + 3.63 3.84
2

Result: Effect Size (Cohen’s d) = 18.75 (Small effect size)

Note: Effect size ~ .5 (medium); ~ .8 (high) 79


Effect Size measured by
Cohen’s d

Cohen’ d Interpretation

~ .2 Small
~ .5 Moderate
~ .8 Large

80
Report

 The mean CRA scores of fathers and mothers are


15.08 and 14.36 and the standard deviations are 4.05
and 3.63 respectively. These scores are subjected to
t-test analysis. The Levern’s Test for equality of
variance indicates that the variances are similar. The
t-value obtained is .54 which is not significant at p < .
05. The effect is .18.
 These results indicate that fathers and mothers do
not differ in their child rearing practices. The effect
size indicates that parents’ gender has only a small
effect on their creative child-rearing practices.

81
Bonferonni Correction for
Multiple Comparisons
 For multiple comparisons, Bonferonni
corrections must be made
 If the overall level of significance is set
at p < .05 and the number of
comparisons involved is 10, then the
level of significance for each
comparison must be .05/10 which is .
005.

82
Paired t-test
 Assumptions
1) Normality of the population difference of
scores – this is ascertained by ensuring the
normality of each variable separately.
2) the other assumptions similar to group t – test
a) Data must be interval or ratio
b) Data must be obtained via random
sampling from population
c) Data must be normally distributed

83
Exercise
 1) Is there a significant difference
in the highest year of education
between the respondent’s mother
and father?
 2) Is there a significant difference
in the highest year of education of
respondent and his/her spouse?

84
Analyses
( comparisons - Oneway
ANOVA )
SPSS Data Editor - Compare Means - One-way ANOVA -

85
Analyses
( comparisons - Oneway
ANOVA ) Test of Homogeneity of Variances

Levene
Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
WHAT KIND
OF
.469 2 38 .629
PERSON
ARE YOU?
SOMETHING
ABOUT 3.473 2 38 .041
MYSELF

ANOVA

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
WHAT KIND Between
31.145 2 15.573 .632 .537
OF Groups
PERSON Within
ARE YOU? 936.660 38 24.649
Groups
Total 967.805 40
SOMETHING Between
149.208 2 74.604 2.193 .126
ABOUT Groups
MYSELF Within
1292.743 38 34.020
Groups
Total 1441.951 40 86
Understanding the ANOVA table
Variations among the sample means
F = -------------------------------------------
Variance within the samples

Between groups sum of squares / df 1 Between mean square


F = --------------------------------------------- = --------------------------
Within groups sum of squares / df 2 Within mean square

Between mean square is computed by subtracting the mean of the observations (the overall
mean) from the mean of each group, squaring each difference, multiplying each square by the
number of cases in its group, and adding the results for each group together. The total is called
between-group sum of squares

Within-group sum of squares is computed by multiplying each group variance by the number
of cases in the group minus 1 and add the results for all groups.

Mean square column reports sum of squares divided by its respective degree of freedom.
F ratio is the ratio of the two mean squares.
87
Presentation of One-way ANOVA
results
Table 3
One-way ANOVA for CRA scores by WKOPAY groups

Source DF Sum of Mean of F F


Squares Squares Ratio
Probability
Between Gps 2 31.145 15.573 .632 .537
Within Grps 38 936.660 24.649

Total 40 967.805

Multiple Range Test


Scheffe Procedure

No groups are significantly different at the .05 level 88


Interpreting F

 If the F value is significant, then


the groups are significantly
different
 To ascertain which groups are
significantly different, perform the
Scheffe test.
 F (Groups -1, No. of Participants – Groups – 1) = F Value

89
Report

 Results show that the three groups do


not differ significantly on CRA scores
(F (2, 37) = .632, p >.05). This represents
an effect size of 3.22% [{31 / (31 +
937)} x 100] which indicates that only
3.22% of the variance of CRA scores was
accounted for by the 3 groups.
 (do the same for SAM)

90
Effect Size
Is the degree to which the phenomena exists (Cohen, 1988)

Sum of Squares between Groups


Effect Size = ------------------------------------------- x 100
Total Sum of Squares

91
Power of a test
 Power of a statistical test is the probability of observing a
treatment effect when it occurs.
 It is the probability that it will correctly lead to the
rejection of a false null hypothesis (Green, 2000)
 The statistical power is the ability of the test to detect an
effect if it actually exists (High, 2000)
 The statistical power is denoted by 1 – β, where β is the
Type II error, the probability of failing to reject the null
hypothesis when it is false.
 Conventionally, a test with a power greater than .8 level
(or β = < .2) is considered statistically powerful.

α = is the probability of rejecting the true null hypothesis (Type I error)

β = is the probability of not rejecting the false null hypothesis (Type II error)

92
that influence the power of a
test:

 1) Sample size, or the number of units (e.g., people)


accessible to the study
 2) Effect size, the difference between the means, divided
by the standard deviation (i.e. 'sensitivity')
 3) Alpha level (significance level), or the probability that
the observed result is due to chance
 4) Power, or the probability that you will observe a
treatment effect when it occurs

Usually, experimenters can only change the sample size


(population) of the study and/or the alpha value

93
94
Parametric Statistical Analyses
( Comparison of more than 2 groups on
interval data - ANOVA - Simple
Factorial)
Statistics - General Linear Model - GLM General Factorial

95
Parametric Statistical Analyses
( Comparisonof more than 2 groups on
interval data - ANOVA - Simple
Factorial) Table 2
ANOVA a,b

Unique Method
Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
CRA Main Effects (Combined) 14.916 3 4.972 .318 .812
SEX .192 1 .192 .012 .913
sam grps 12.994 1 12.994 .830 .370
wk grps 3.346 1 3.346 .214 .648
2-Way Interactions (Combined) 32.025 3 10.675 .682 .571
SEX * sam
8.403 1 8.403 .537 .470
grps
SEX * wk
15.077 1 15.077 .963 .335
grps
sam grps *
13.149 1 13.149 .840 .367
wk grps
3-Way Interactions SEX * sam
grps * wk 2.472 1 2.472 .158 .694
grps
Model 55.588 7 7.941 .507 .821
Residual 422.583 27 15.651
Total 478.171 34 14.064
a. CRA by SEX, sam grps, wk grps
b. All effects entered simultaneously 96
ANCOVA
 Try exercise on ANCOVA on page
10.

97
Presentation of Three-way ANOVA results
Table 4
Analysis of Variance using CRA scores as the dependent variable
Source of Variation Sum of DF Mean F Signif.
Squares Squares of F
Main Effects 14.916 3 4.972 .318 .812
Sex .192 1 .192 .012 .913
SAM grps 12.994 1 12.994 .830 .370
WK grp 3.346 1 3.346 .214 .648

2-way Interactions 32.025 3 10.675 .682 .571


Sex x SAM grps 8.403 1 8.403 .537 .470
Sex x WK grps 15.077 1 15.077 .963 .335
SAM grps x WK grps 13.149 1 13.149 .840 .367

3 – way Interactions 2.472 1 2.472 .158 .894


Sex x SAM grps x WK
grps
Model 55.588 7 7.941 .507 ,821
Residual 422.583 27 15.651
Total 478.171 34 14.064
98
Reporting ANOVA – Simple
Factorial
As shown in Table 2, there is no significant differences between fathers
and mothers with respect to Child Rearing Practices ( F = .12, p > .05).
The results also show that WK groups (F = .83, p > .05) and SAM
Groups (F = .24, p > .05) also do not have significant effects on CRA
Scores. There are also no significant two-way interactions or three-way
Interactions between sex, WK groups and SAM groups.

The results indicate male parents do not differ from female parents
in their child rearing practices. Their creative perceptions also do
not affect their child rearing practices.

99
Multiple Regression
 Bivariate Multiple Regression
Aca Ach = Constant + b Motivation

 Multivariate Multiple Regression


Aca Ach = Constant + b1 Motivation + b2 Creativity + b3 Self-

confidence

100
Assumptions

1) Ratio of cases to independent variables:


20 more cases than predictors

2) Variables must be normally distributed – check graphically or


statistically (e.g. Box-plot, Histogram, skewness and kurtosis,
Kolmogorov-Smirnof or Shipiro Wilk)

3) IV must be linearly related to DV (Use Scatter-plot for Bivariate


Regression, For Multitivariate Use Residual Scatter Plot between
Standarized residuals and Standardized Predicted value – if linearly
related – points in scatter plot are evenly distributed on both sides
of 0)

4) No multicollinearity – IVs must be not be significantly correlated


(use Pearson correlation Matrix to check)

5) No multivariate outliers – use Mahalanobis Distance to ascertain


this.

101
Multivariate Outlier – an
example
 It is usual to find a person who is 15 years old 
and will not be a outlier when you plot a histogram
for age (univariate)
 It is also common to find a person earning a salary
of RM10,000 a month and this person may not be
an outlier when you plot a histogram for salary
(univariate)
 However, if you combine both age and salary
(multivariate) a person who is 15 years old earning
RM10,000 may become an outlier  called
multivariate outlier
 You need to get rid of multivariate outlier using
Mahalanobis Distance before you run your
multiple regression

102
What havoc a multivariate outlier can do to your results?
It can change your R from .08 to .88!

103
Methods for Selecting
Variables
 Forward Selection – starting from the
constant term, variable is added to the
equation or regression model if it results in
the largest significant (at p < .05 for e.g.)
increase in multiple R2 .
 Backward Selection – all variables are put
into the equation or regression model. At
each step, a variable is removed if this
removal results in only a small insignificant
change in R2.
 Stepwise variable Selection – most
commonly used method for model building.
Is a combination of Forward Selection and
Backward Selection. Variables already in the
model can be removed if they are no longer
significant predictors when new variables are
added to the regression model.
104
Types of Regression
Analyses
 Standard Multiple Regression
 Sequential / Hierarchical Multiple
Regression
 Statistical / Stepwise Multiple
Regression

105
Coding for Dummy
Variables
 Example:
 Gender – dichotomous
Male – 1
Female - 2
 Need to convert to dummy variable
Male - 1
Female - 0
to study the effect of gender on the DV
if r = sig + , male has higher significant
effect on DV
if r = sig - , female has higher significant
effect on DV

106
Using PRACTICE data file
Research Question:
 1) To what extent do PAEDU and

MAEDU predict EDUC?


 2) To what extent do PAEDU, MAEDU

and SEX predict EDUC?


 3) To what extent do PAEDU, MAEDU,

SIBS and SEX predict EDUC?

107
Results of Mul Reg for Research Question 1

108
Results of Mul Reg for Research Question 2

Descriptive Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation N


educ 13.54 2.797 973
paeduc 11.01 4.117 973
maeduc 11.02 3.409 973
sexdummy .4245 .49452 973

Correlations

educ paeduc maeduc sexdummy


Pearson Correlation educ 1.000 .450 .429 .112
paeduc .450 1.000 .672 .102
maeduc .429 .672 1.000 .065
sexdummy .112 .102 .065 1.000
Sig. (1-tailed) educ . .000 .000 .000
paeduc .000 . .000 .001
maeduc .000 .000 . .021
sexdummy .000 .001 .021 .
N educ 973 973 973 973
paeduc 973 973 973 973
maeduc 973 973 973 973
sexdummy 973 973 973 973
109
Results of Mul Reg for Research Question 2 (contd)
Model Summaryd

Change Statistics
Adjusted Std. Error of R Square Durbin-
Model R R Square R Square the Estimate Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change Watson
1 .450 a .203 .202 2.499 .203 246.937 1 971 .000
2 .481 b .232 .230 2.454 .029 36.704 1 970 .000
3 .486 c .236 .234 2.448 .004 5.670 1 969 .017 1.738
a. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc
b. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc, maeduc
c. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc, maeduc, sexdummy
d. Dependent Variable: educ

ANOVAd

Sum of
Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 1541.572 1 1541.572 246.937 .000 a
Residual 6061.733 971 6.243
Total 7603.305 972
2 Regression 1762.582 2 881.291 146.361 .000 b
Residual 5840.724 970 6.021
Total 7603.305 972
3 Regression 1796.560 3 598.853 99.934 .000 c
Residual 5806.745 969 5.993
Total 7603.305 972
a. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc
b. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc, maeduc
c. Predictors: (Constant), paeduc, maeduc, sexdummy
d. Dependent Variable: educ 110
Multiple Regression Results

C o e ffic ie nats

U n sta n d a rd ize d S ta n d a rd ize d


C o e fficie n ts C o e fficie n ts 9 5 % C o n fid e n ce In te rva l fo r CBo llin e a rity Sta tistics
M odel B Std . Erro r Be ta t S ig . L o w e r Bo u n d U p p e r B o u n d T o le ra n ce VIF
1 (C o n sta n t) 1 0 .1 7 8 .2 2 9 4 4 .4 9 9 .0 0 0 9 .7 2 9 1 0 .6 2 7
paeduc .3 0 6 .0 1 9 .4 5 0 1 5 .7 1 4 .0 0 0 .2 6 8 .3 4 4 1 .0 0 0 1 .0 0 0
2 (C o n sta n t) 9 .2 5 4 .2 7 2 3 4 .0 7 7 .0 0 0 8 .7 2 1 9 .7 8 7
paeduc .2 0 1 .0 2 6 .2 9 5 7 .7 6 8 .0 0 0 .1 5 0 .2 5 1 .5 4 8 1 .8 2 6
m aeduc .1 8 9 .0 3 1 .2 3 0 6 .0 5 8 .0 0 0 .1 2 8 .2 5 0 .5 4 8 1 .8 2 6
3 (C o n sta n t) 9 .1 4 2 .2 7 5 3 3 .2 5 0 .0 0 0 8 .6 0 2 9 .6 8 1
paeduc .1 9 6 .0 2 6 .2 8 8 7 .5 7 4 .0 0 0 .1 4 5 .2 4 6 .5 4 4 1 .8 3 7
m aeduc .1 8 9 .0 3 1 .2 3 1 6 .0 8 5 .0 0 0 .1 2 8 .2 5 0 .5 4 8 1 .8 2 6
se xd u m m y .3 8 0 .1 6 0 .0 6 7 2 .3 8 1 .0 1 7 .0 6 7 .6 9 3 .9 9 0 1 .0 1 1
a . D e p e n d e n t Va ria b le : e d u c

111
Collinearity Statistics -
Tolerance
 Tolerance – is the statistic used to determine
how much the independent variables are
linearly related to one another (Multicollinear)
 -Tolerance is the proportion of a variable's
variance not accounted for by other
independent variables in the model.
 Tolerance level must be more than .1

112
Collinearity Statistics - VIF
 VIF – Variance Inflation Factor
 - is the reciprocal of the tolerance
 VIF should be less than 10

113
Durbin-Watson
 Gives a measure of autocorrelations in
the residuals (or errors) in the values or
observations in the multiple regression
analyses
 If the Durbin-Watson value is between
1.5 and 2.5, then the observations or
values are independent  there are no
systematic trend in the errors of the
observation of the values (there should
not be a systematic trend in the errors)
114
Reporting Results of Mul Reg for Research
Question 2

Table XX
Standard Multiple Regression of PAEDUC, MAEDUC and SEXDUMMY on EDUC

Variables EDUC PAEDUC MEADUC B β t p < .05

PAEDUC .45 .20 .29 7.57 Sig

MEADUC .43 .67 .20 .19 .23 6.09 Sig

SEXDUMMY .11 .10 .07 .38 .07 2.38 Sig

Intercept = 9.14

Means 13.54 11.01 11.02 R = .49


R2 = .24
SD 2.80 4.12 3.41 Adjusted R2 = .23

115
Reporting Multiple Regression Results

A standard multiple regression was performed between respondents’


level of education, EDUC as the dependent variable and fathers’ level
of education (PAEDUC), mothers’ level of education (MAEDUC) and
respondents’ gender (SEXDUMMY). The assumptions were evaluated
using SPSS EXPLORE.
Table XX displays the correlations between the variables, the
unstandardized regression coefficients, B, and intercept, the standardized
Regression, β, R2 and adjusted R2.
R for regression was significant, F (3, 969) = 99.93, p < .05.
with R2 =.24.
The adjusted R2 of .23 indicates that more than one-fifth of the variability
of EDUC is predicted by the three predictors.

The regression equation is:

EDUC = 9.14 + .20 (PAEDUC) + .19 (MAEDUC) + .380 (SEXDUMMY)


116
Multiple Regression
 Try exercise on Linear Regression
and Multiple Regression on page
10.

117
Non-parametric tests
 do not require a normal distribution
 do not require equal group variances
 used with variables that are ordinal or nominal
 e.g. Chi-square for determining relationship between
nominal - nominal data or nominal - ordinal data (SPSS-
Data Editor-Statistics-Summarize-Crosstabs)
 e.g Spearman Rank- Order correlation for seeking
relationship between ordinal - ordinal data
 e.g. Mann-Whitney U-test to compare 2 different groups
on a ordinal/interval data

118
Non-parametric tests
 Kruskall-Wallis Test (To compare >
2 different groups)
 Fiedman Test (To compare same
group > 2 times)

119
Non - Parametric Statistical
Analyses
(Degree of Association)
SPSS Data Editor - Statistics - Summarize - Crosstabs

120
Non - Parametric Statistical
Analyses
(Degree of Association)
 Chi-square: used to find the degree
of association between 2 nominal
variables
Count CR - CREATIVE
cr groups CHILDREARING
low cr av cr hi cr Total
item29 .00 16 8 8 32
1.00 1 8 9
Total 16 9 16 41

Chi-S
quareTests

A sym p.
Sig.
V
alue df (2-tailed)
Pe a rso n a
12.465 2 .002
C hi-S q ua re
Like lih oo dR atio 14.696 2 .001
Line a r-b y-Line ar
11.389 1 .001
Asso cia tion
No fV alidC ases 41
a. 3cells(50.0%)haveexpe ctedco unt lessthan
5.Th em inimumexpectedco unt is1 .98 . 121
Reporting Cross
Tabulations
Descriptive:
Sixteen low, 8 average and 9 high creative
parents answered ‘no’ while 1 average and 8 high creative
parents answered “yes” on item 29. The chi-square analyses
reveal a significant association between parents’ creativity
and their responses, χ2 (2, 41) = 12.47, p <.05.

Interpretation:
The results show that creative parents do answer differently
on item 29 with the creative parents significantly answering “Yes”
on the item compared to the non-creative parents.
122
Non - Parametric Statistical Analyses
(Relationship)
Crosstab

Count
cr groups
low cr av cr hi cr Total
item30 .00 8 2 3 13
1.00 8 7 13 28
Total 16 9 16 41

Chi-SquareTests

Asym p. NS
S ig.
Value df (2-tailed)
Pearson a
4.087 2 .130
C hi-Square
LikelihoodR atio 4.063 2 .131
Linear-by-Linear
3.520 1 .061
Association
Nof V alidCases 41
a. 1cells(16.7% )haveexpectedcount lessthan
5. Them inimumexpectedcount is2.85.

FINDING:
There is no relationship between item 30 and the childrearing practices
123
Non-Parametric Statistical Analyses
(Relationship)
s a m g rp s * c r g ro u p s C ro s s t a b u la tio n

Count
cr g ro u p s
lo w c r av cr hi cr T o ta l
sa m g rp s 1 12 5 8 25
2 4 4 8 16
T o ta l 16 9 16 41

Chi-SquareTests

Asym p.

Value df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
NS
Pearson a
2.244 2 .326
Chi-Square
LikelihoodRatio 2.306 2 .316
Linear-by-Linear
2.050 1 .152
Association
Nof ValidCases 41
a. 1cells(16.7% ) haveexpectedcount lessthan
5. Them inimumexpectedcount is3.51.

FINDING:
124
There is no relationship between SAM and CR
Non - Parametric Statistical
Analyses (Comparison of
Groups on ordinal data)
SPSS Data Editor - Nonparametric Tests - 2 Independent sample

125
Non - Parametric Statistical
Analyses (Comparison of Groups
on ordinal data)
Mann-Whitney U-Test
Ran ks Test Statisticsa

M ean Sum of ARTISTRY


SEX N Rank Ranks Mann-Whitney
194.500
ARTIST RY M ALE 15 20.97 314.50 U
Wilcoxon W 314.500
F EM ALE 26 21.02 546.50
Z -.014
NS
T otal 41 Asymp. Sig.
.989
(2-tailed)
Exact Sig.
b
[2*(1-tailed .989
FINDING: Sig.)]
Fathers and mothers do not differ a. Grouping Variable:
SEX
in the variable Artistry b. Not corrected for
ties. 126
Factor Analyses

 Used as data reduction method


to reduce a large number of
variables to a smaller set of
factors that is representative of
all the variables

127
 Used as data reduction method
to reduce a large number of
variables to a smaller set of
factors that is representative of
all the variables

128
Conclusion

 Research Process
 Types of data
 Data Entry and Data Examination
 Data Exploration - both graphical +
statistical
 Data Analyses - Parametric & Non-
parametric, Interpreting and Reporting

129
Output
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy. .466

Bartlett's Test of Approx. Chi-Square 7478.285


Sphericity df 3741
Sig. .000

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy is less


than .5 (should be more than .5, the higher the better)  so the
variables are marginally factorizable.

The Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity is significant p < .05. This indicates


that the variables are related and therefore factorizable.

130
Interpreting Output

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy = is the


statistic that indicates the proportion of variance in your
variables that might be caused by underlying factors.

High values (close to 1.0) generally indicate that a


factor analysis may be useful with your data. If the value
is less than 0.5, the results of the factor analysis probably
won't be very useful

131
132