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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Lecturer: Mustafa Kamal

bin Shamshuddin

HIGHWAY
MATERIALS

BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Lecturer: Mustafa Kamal

bin Shamshuddin

Materials which involved in highway industry:


Soil
Sand
Crushed rock aggregates
Lime
Portland Cement
Bituminous materials

BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Lecturer: Mustafa Kamal

bin Shamshuddin

2.1

Properties and testing of soils, aggregates, lime,


Portland cement and Bituminous Materials

SOIL
Sub-grade is the part of embankment or natural soil
under the sub-base or lower sub-base of road and road
shoulder.
First part of the road constructed
The surface of sub-grade - formation level.

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Formation level - soil surface after the earthwork,


consolidation, compaction and stabilization works
Sustain load from the top surfaces
Selection of suitable soils is important

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PROPERTIES:
Good sub-grade
Should be stable under the varieties of vehicle load and
climatic condition.
The strength of the sub-grade should remain along the
design period.
The ability to drain water.

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PROPERTIES:
Not good (Unsuitable materials-USM)
Soils which consists of organic clays or silts.
The value of Liquid Limits (LL) > 80 % or Plasticity Index
(PI) > 55 %
The value of Loss on Ignition (LOI) > 2.5 %
Soils consist of roots, grass or other plants, toxic, peat or
mud.

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TESTING
The tests which are usually conducted to the soils for sub
grade and road embankment are listed as follows:
Loss On Ignition (LOI) BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
Liquid Limit (LL) and Plastic Limit (PL) BS 1377: Part 2:
1990
Compaction BS 1377: Test 13: 1975 (Part 4: 1990)
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) BS 1377: Test 16: 1975
(Part 4: 1990)
Field density test sand replacement method BS 1377

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SAND
1. Used for the sub-base layer.
2. Features:
Must drain readily.
Sustain smaller load pressure.
3. The functions:

To sustain road base layer and distribute load from


the vehicle.
Act as a drainage layer (if the materials used capable
to drain the water)

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Can be used as a temporary road during the construction


To protect the sub-grade from the failure due to the climatic
effect.
As a barrier layer to avoid the mixing of sub-grade and
road base materials.

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PROPERTIES:
Have small proportion of plastic or non plastic fines
Free from vegetative and other organic matter
Free from expansive clay minerals and lumps of clay
The liquid limit shall be not more than 25%.
The plasticity index shall be not more than 6%.
The aggregate crushing value shall be not more than 35%.
CBR value of 30 or more when compacted to 95% of the
maximum dry density
The gradation shall conform to one of the envelopes shown
in Table 1

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TESTING
Atterberg Limits
Aggregate Crushing Value
California Bearing Ratio
Gradation (Sieve test)

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Table 1: Gradation Limits for Sub-base Material from Specification of


Roadworks (Jabatan Kerja Raya, 1988)
B.S.Sieve Size
(mm)
50.0
25.0
9.5
4.75
2.0
425 m
75 m

% Passing By Weight
A

100
30 - 65
25 55
15 40
8 20
28

100
79 95
40 75
30 60
20 45
15 30
5 20

100
50 85
35 65
25 50
15 30
5 20

100
60
100
50 85
40 70
25 45
5 - 20

100
55
100
40
100
20 50
6 20

100
70
100
55
100
30 70
8 25

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AGGREGATE
Aggregates must be hard, durable, clean and essentially free
from clay and other deleterious materials.
PROPERTIES:

The plasticity index shall be not more than 6.


The aggregate crushing value shall be not more than 30.
The flakiness index shall be not more than 30.
Not less than 80% of particles retained on the B.S 4.75mm
sieve shall have at least one fractured face.

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The weighted average loss of weight in the sodium


sulphate soundness
test (5 cycles) shall be not more
than 12%.
The material shall have a CBR value of not less than 80
when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density.
The gradation shall comply with the envelope shown in
Table 2 for type specified.

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TESTING
Aggregate Impact Value (AIV)
Flakiness Index (FI)
Soundness
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
Sieve

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Table 2: Gradation limit for crushed aggregate road base from Spesification
of Roadworks (Jabatan Kerja Raya, 1988)

B.S Sieve
50.0 mm
37.5 mm
28.0 mm
20.0 mm
10.0 mm
5.00 mm
2.36 mm
2.00 mm
600 m
425 m
75 m

% Passing by Weight
Type I

Type II

100
95 100
60 80
40 60
25 40
15 30
8 22
08

100
85 100
70 100
60 90
40 65
30 55
20 40
10 25
2 10

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LIME AND
PORTLAND CEMENT
Mix with crushed rock aggregate for road base
construction
Combined with aggregate for asphalt to serve
an adhesion and anti stripping agent
Add for 2% by weight of combined aggregate
(Jabatan Kerja Raya, 1988)

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TESTING
Properties shall conform to the requirements of MS
522
Shall be dry, free flowing and free from agglomerations
at the time of use
For anti stripping purposes, stripping test need to be
conducted according to AASHTO T 182. Coated area
with bitumen at the end of the mixtures period of
immersion in water shall be not less than 95%.
The result will indicated that the effectiveness of the
lime or Portland cement used as anti stripping agent.

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BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Term of bitumen and tar
Term
Bitumen
Bitumen + aggregate

USA

United Kingdom

Asphalt (Asphalt cement)

Bitumen

Asphaltic concrete

Asphalt

p/s Tar previously used as a binder to produce mixture. Sources from coal mine.

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Bituminous surface layer which the combination of aggregates and binder.


The surface layer consists of two layers which known as the binder course and
the wearing course.
Capable of:
Withstanding high tyre pressure
Resisting the abrasive force due to traffic
Providing a skid-resistance driving surface
Preventing the penetration of surface water

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Binder Course
This layer is used to distribute load to the road base and provide the flat
surface to construct the wearing course.
The maximum size of aggregate used is 28 mm and mixed with percentage
of bitumen ranging from 4 6 %.
Wearing Course
Top layer with the main function to the safety of the road users.
The other functions of wearing course are listed as follows:

Provide skid resistance


Protect the road surface
Provide a safe and comfortable riding surface
Sustain abrasion from traffic
As a drainage system by providing a waterproof layer, and drain surface
run-off to the side drain.

The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm and mixed with bitumen with the
percentage ranging from 4.5 7 %.

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The materials used to construct this mixture are aggregates, bitumen and filler.
1. Aggregates provide interlocking structure, sustain load and distribute to
the layer beneath.
2. Bitumen

binder material which binds the aggregates to produce a


strong and stable mixture.

3. Filler

to fill the voids in the mixture and improve the elasticity of the
bitumen to produce a durable mixture and to reduce bleeding
in bituminous mixture.

BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin


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BITUMEN
In Malaysia, the term of bitumen refers to the binder material, which produces from
refinery of crude oil.
The mixture of bitumen and aggregate is called asphaltic concrete.
The chemical compositions of bitumen (Table 3)
Table 3: Chemical composition of bitumen
Minerals
Carbon
Hydrogen
Sulfur

Percentage
Content (%)
80 85
10
15

Nitrogen

Oxygen

<1

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Bitumen can be obtained from two main sources which are:


Natural sources

located in geological stratum and can be obtained in the


hard and soft form.

Petroleum bitumen bitumen in colloidal obtained from refinery process of crude


oil and has been widely used in the road construction.

Bitumen can be classified into four types as listed as follows:


1. Penetration bitumen
2. Cutback bitumen
3. Emulsified bitumen
4. Blown bitumen

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1. Penetration Bitumen
The grade is classified according to the penetration test ranging from 40 300
while based on the viscosity test ranging from 5 40.
2. Cutback Bitumen
Produced based on the bitumen with the percentage ranging from 50 80 %
mixed with the petroleum-based solvents.
Solvent will be evaporated
According to the rate of evaporation, this kind of bitumen can be classified into
three groups:
Rapid Curing (RC)
Medium Curing (MC)
Slow Curing (SC)

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Rapid Curing (RC)


Produced by mixing the bitumen with petrol.
Used for the tack coat and surface treatment.
Medium Curing (MC)
Produced by mixing the bitumen with kerosene.
Used for the prime coat and cold mix for the patching work.
Slow Curing
Produced by mixing the bitumen with the diesel.
Used especially for the prime coat, cold mix for patching work and
dust control.

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3. Emulsified Bitumen
Produced by mixing the bitumen (55 65 %) with water and emulsifier in the
colloidal rotor.
This situation will reduce the viscosity of bitumen and allow them to be used at
the low temperature.
The type of bitumen depends to the emulsifying agent that is used. The two
types of are as follows:
1. Anionic
Contains the negative bitumen globule.
Produced with positive emulsifying agent is used - alkali.
Suitable to be used with the aggregates which have positive charge like
limestone.

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2. Cationic
. Contains the positive bitumen globule.
. Produced when negative emulsifying agent is used acid.
. It is suitable to be used with the aggregates which have negative charge like
sand, quartz and silica.

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Emulsified bitumen can be classified into three groups:


1. Rapid Setting (RS)
Used for surface treatment and tack coat
2. Medium Setting (MS)
Used for Macadam penetration and open graded cold mix
3. Slow Setting (SS)
Used for tack coat, dense grade cold mix, crack patching and slurry mixture

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Emulsified bitumen is most widely used compared to cutback bitumen due to


the several factors as follows:
1. Environmental regulation emulsified bitumen contains water while
cutback bitumen contains materials which can evaporate and pollute the
air when it has been used.
2. The wastage of petroleum cutback bitumen uses petroleum solvents.
3. Safety emulsified bitumen is safer to be used.
4. Low temperature of mixing this situation can reduce the cost of fuel
consumption. Besides that, emulsified bitumen can be used on damp
surfaces while cutback bitumen needs dry condition.

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4. Blown Bitumen
Produced by heating the bitumen at high temperature and air is allowed
through the bitumen and it makes the bitumen become harder.
Basically, this type of bitumen is used for building materials especially for
roofs.

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TESTING
In order to ensure the bitumen that be used fulfill the
specification, series of
testing can be conducted as follows:

Penetration
Softening Point
Ductility
Flash and Fire Point
Viscosity
Loss on Heating
Thin Film Oven Test
Specific Gravity
Solubility

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AGGREGATES
Most of the aggregates used in the road construction were the natural
aggregates. However, there was also widely used the artificial aggregates such
as the waste material from the process of tin ore.
In road construction, the aggregates can be classified into three groups according
to the size as follows:
1. Coarse aggregates retained on the sieve 2.36 mm.
2. Fine aggregates

passing sieve 2.36 mm and retained at 75 m sieve size.

3. Filler

the dust passing sieve size 75 m (eg. quarry dust and


Portland cement).

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Coarse aggregates shall be:

screened crushed hard rock


angular in shape
free from dust, clay, vegetative and other organic matter and other
deleterious substances.

Quality requirements:

The aggregated crushing value shall be not more than 30.


The weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphates soundness test
(5 cycles) shall be not more than 12%.
The flakiness index shall be not more than 30
The water absorption shall be not more than 2%.
The polished stone value shall be not less than 40 (only applicable to
aggregates for wearing course)

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Fine aggregates shall be:

clean natural sands


non-plastic
free from clay, loam, aggregations of material, vegetative and other organic
matter and other deleterious substances.
screened quarry fines or mining sand. Mining sand shall be thoroughly
washed before use.

Physical and mechanical quality requirements:

The weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test
(5 cycles) shall be not more than 12%.
The water absorption shall be not more than 2%.

Notwithstanding compliance with the requirements, limestone aggregates shall


not be permitted for use in wearing course.

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The gradation of the combined course and fine aggregates, together with ordinary
Portland cement added as an adhesion and anti-stripping agent and if necessary
any other mineral filler shall conform to the appropriate envelope shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Gradation limit for surface layer mixture (after Jabatan Kerja Raya, 2008)
Mix Type
Mix Designation

Wearing Course
ACW 14

B.S. Sieve Size


37.5 mm
28.0 mm
20.0 mm
14.0 mm
10.0 mm
5.0 mm
3.35 mm
1.18 mm
425 m
150 m
75 m

Binder Course
ACB 14

ACB 28

% Passing By Weight
100
80 95
68 90
52 72
45 62
30 45
17 30
7 16
4 10

100
70 95
56 81
40 65
32 58
20 42
12 28
6 16
48

100
80 100
72 93
58 82
50 75
36 58
30 52
18 38
11 25
5 14
38

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SOIL STABILISATION
Soil for sub-grade which has CBR value < 2% need to be replaced
with better import material
Increase construction cost
Stabilize in-situ to increase the strength reduce the construction cost
Methods chemical stabilisation and mechanical stabilization

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HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE


MIX DESIGN

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STEP
1
STEP
2
STEP
3

STEP
4
STEP
5
STEP
6

Aggregate Selection

determine physical properties

perform blending calculations to achieve aggregate


gradation

Binder Selection

determine appropriate binder

Sample Preparation

5 blends with 3 samples


each

mixing and compaction

Density & Voids Calculation

Bulk density, Theoretical Max. SG

VTM, VFB & VMA

Stability Determination

Marshall stability and flow test

Optimum Binder Content Selection

based on the combined results of Marshall stability and flow, density analysis and voids
analysis

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MARSHALL MIX DESIGN


The most used method for hot mix asphaltic concrete mixture design is the
Marshall Method (ASTM D 1559).
The objective of the Marshall design:
a) to determine the mixing ratio of aggregates and optimum bitumen
content
b) produce the durable, stable and adequate of voids, workable, flexible,
economy and quality.
The most common method used to determine the optimum bitumen content is
the method proposed by the Asphalt Institute. The procedure of this method is
given as follows:
a. Determine
- Bitumen content for the maximum stability
- Bitumen content for the maximum density
- Bitumen content at the median of the specification of VTM
- Bitumen content at the median of the specification of VFB

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b. Calculate the mean value from these 4 values


c. Based on this mean value, determine the values from the
Marshall properties curve as listed below:
Stability (S)
Flow (F)
Stiffness (S/F)
Void in Total Mix (VTM)
Void Filled with Bitumen (VFB)
Compare the values obtain from (c) with the specification
values (Table 5).
IMPORTANT !!!
If it fulfills the specification, the bitumen can be considered
as the optimum bitumen content.
If it does not fulfill the requirement, the mixture needs to be
redesigned.

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Typical curve of Marshall properties

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Table 5: Test and Analysis Parameters for Asphaltic Concrete


(after Jabatan Kerja Raya, 2008)

Parameter

Wearing Course

Binder Course

Stability

>500kg

>450kg

Flow

>2.0mm

>2.0mm

Stiffness

>250kg

>225kg

3.0%-5.0%

3.0%-7.0%

75-85%

65-80%

Air voids in mix (VTM)


Voids in aggregates filled with
bitumen (VFB)

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Conventional bitumen content ranges used for mix design


Wearing Course
Binder Course

ACW 14

5.0 7.0%

ACW 20

4.5 6.5%

ACB 14

4.5 6.5%

ACB 20

4.0 6.0%

ACB 28

4.0 6.0%

For more information on Marshall Mix Design, visit this website:


http://training.ce.washington.edu/WSDOT/Modules/05_mix_design/05-4_body.htm

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EXAMPLE
% AC

Density

Stability

Flow

Stiffness

VTM

VFB

4.0

2.259

1339.2

2.62

511.8

6.49

57.96

4.5

2.270

1469.3

2.79

526.0

5.33

65.50

5.0

2.289

1551.0

3.19

486.2

3.86

74.59

5.5

2.272

1321.3

3.25

407.0

3.89

76.06

6.0

2.260

1196.7

3.70

323.1

3.70

78.40

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Average = (5.02 + 4.85 + 4.55 + 4.98) / 4 = 4.85 %

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Parameter
Stability
Flow
Stiffness
VTM
VFB

Results

Specification
(Binder course, JKR 1988)

Remarks

1530 kg
3.04 mm
495 kg/mm
4.42 %
71.1%

> 450 kg
> 2.0 mm
> 225 kg/mm
3.0 7.0%
65 80%

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

Optimum Binder Content, OBC = 4.85%

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COLD MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURE DESIGN


Produced by emulsifying the asphalt in water with
(essentially) soap prior to mixing with the aggregate.
While in its emulsified state the asphalt is less viscous and the
mixture is easy to work and compact.
The emulsion will break after enough water evaporates and
the cold mix will, ideally, take on the properties of cold HMAC.
Cold mix is commonly used as a patching material and on
lesser trafficked service roads.

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The End