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Investigating Control

Techniques in Microgrids
Operation
Presented by Osama Hamdy, Bassem Saleh and Omar Elattar

Introduction

Contents:
Why Microgrids?
Microgrid Construction
- Distribution Generation: CHP, Distributed storage
- PCC
Microgrids Mode of Operation
Microgrids Protection: Challenges and Solutions

Microgrids

Traditional
power
system

Why microgrids ?
Environmental friendly
Reducing load on transmission line
Increasing reliability of overall
system
Plug and Play functionality
Cost efficient

Microgrid construction

Microgrid

Microsource
s

Distributed
generation

Point of
common
coupling

Distributed
storage

Control
system

PV cells

Wind
turbines

Fuel cells

DG
Combined
heat and
power

Microturbin
-es

Microturbines
Compact size
Small number of moving
parts
High efficiency (80%)
Ability to utilize waste
Light weight

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

Fuel cells

http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm

Batteries

D
S
Flywheel

Supercapac
itors

Point of common coupling


The microgrid can be connected or disconnected from
the main grid (macrogrid) through interconnection
switch the point where the switch is connected is
normally known as point of common coupling.

islanded
mode

microgrid
s
gridconnected
mode

Protection of microgrids

Fault
current
limitation

Protection
challenges
bidirectiona
l power flow

Proposed solutions for


microgrid protection
challenges

Voltage
Distance
based
protection
protection
Differential
adaptive
protection
protecion

Microgrids Protection Solutions (1)


Adaptive
protection
scheme
Differential
protection
scheme
Distance
protection
scheme

Adjust relay settings when mode of operation


changes.
Numerical Directional over-current relays.

Compare between the two currents entering the


protected zone (Differential relays)
Not sensitive to fault current reduction and
bidirectional power flow (advantage).

Impedance inversely proportional with length


(Distance relays)
Using admittance relays, GC and IS protection are
satisfied.

Microgrids Protection Solutions (2)


Voltage based
protection scheme

Depend on the voltage measurements.


Possibility of voltage drop design dependent.

Protection schemes Fault Current Limiters Hard to calculate its


impedance.
with the deployment Energy storage devices provide supplementary
of external devices
S.C level.
Protection schemes
based on overcurrent and
symmetrical
components

Using zero and negative sequence currents


Necessity of a communication system

Voltage Based protection

Voltage scheme method

Voltage scheme method

Al-Nasseri, H., M. A. Redfern, and R. O'Gorman. "Protecting micro-grid systems containing solid-state converter generation."
2005 international conference on future power systems. IEEE, 2005.

Differential current method

CERTS microgrid (Consortium for


Electric Reliability Technology
Solutions)

https://certs.lbl.gov/initiatives/certs-microgrid-test-bed

Differential current method (SLG


fault)

Differential current method (SLG


fault)

Differential current method (SLG


fault)

Nikkhajoei, Hassan, and Robert H. Lasseter. "Microgrid fault protection based on symmetrical and differential current
components." Power System Engineering Research Center (2006): 71-74.

Practical considerations in differential


current method

ABB RED670

Microgrid Control

Contents:
Control challenges: Grid-connected Islanded
Control Strategies
Control Architecture
Control Components
Practical Considerations: MGCC, Metering and Islanded
system
Decentralized vs Centralized Control
Control techniques Classification

Control Challenge: Grid-Connected


Mode
Microgrid acts as: Controllable Load/Source

PCC power Quality: Synchronization

DG only controls P and Q

Disconnecting the microgrid if needed

Control Challenge: Islanded Mode


Voltage and frequency control of the microgrid

Prevent voltage and reactive power oscillation

Balance between supply and demand

Communication between microgrid components

Microgrid Control Strategies


Master-Slave
Control
Peer-to-Peer
Multi-Agent
Control

Combining PQ control for slaves


VF Droop-based for master

No Hierarchy
Plug-and-play capability
No communication

MGCC
Microsource controller
Load controller

Summary of Microgrid Control


Architecture
Overall
Control
(Supervisor
y)

GC: Commands
of power share

IS: Operating V
& F values,
load shedding

Implemented
in the MGCC

Local
Control

GC:
Synchronizatio
n

IS: Supply =
Demand,
correct load
share

Faster, more
reliable ,
Decentralized
(recom)

Control Components
MGCC

MC

DMS

Coordination
between MCs
Interface with
any actor

DER Control
Separate or
embedded in
EM
DSO-ESCOMicrogrid
operator
Platform in
MGCC required

AMI/AMR: Collects the EM readings +


costs

Practical considerations MGCC


By ABB
MGC600

Model
Model

Features
Features

Communication
Communication

Manufacturer
independent
Flexible, can be
developed using
MATLAB
Diesel, PV, Wind

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet


CAN module

Practical considerations EasYgen


Woodward : 3000 series
Genset Controller
Applicable with DG
Measuring Capabilities: RMS Voltage & current
Role:
Synchronization
Asynchronous control of IM
Load sharing

Practical considerations Islanded

Model

Components

By Schneider
VILLASOL/VILLASMART
2kW to 24kW AC Micro
Grid solution for
electrification of offgrid

24 V battery bank
MPPT Charge Controller
Advanced three stage
battery
Protection against short
circuit, over current, over
voltage and lightning

Practical considerations Metering


Smart
Meters

Example:
PMU

Products

Two-way
communication

Phasor
measurement

PowerLogic
ION7550 by
Schneider

Open Smart Grid


Protocol (OSGP)

RMS Values,
Positive
sequence,
Frequency,
ROCOF

RES670 by ABB

Centralized vs Decentralized (1)


Centralized Mode
MGCC determines the amount of power MG should
import
Optimizing by controlling MC and loads

Decentralized Mode
MCs take the tasks of MGCC
No Communication needed

Centralized vs Decentralized (2)

Selection of mode
of control

Goal of the
control

Available
Resources

Communications
requirements

Control Techniques: Classification

Droop-based

methods

Dynamic Model based methods:


- Linear Quadratic Regulator
- H Control
- TF controllers

State Estimation based methods


- Kalman filter optimal state estimation

Technical Background

Contents:
Load Sharing
Definition
Active Power Sharing
Reactive Power Sharing

Inverters
VSI vs CSI

Park-Clarke Transformation

Load Sharing

Definition:

Its the proportional division of total load active and reactive power among the
generating units to prevent overloading and stability problems.

Load Sharing

Active Power Sharing:

depends on speed control and fuel rate control between generating units.

Standalone operation Vs. parallel system

Reactive Power sharing:

depends on field excitation system.

Standalone operation Vs. parallel system

Inverters

Definition

VSI

CSI

Park-Clarke Transformation

Introduction:

Voltage and current equations of three-phase machines have coefficients


which are time varying flux linkages, voltages and currents are change
continuously using common reference frame

Well-known transformations:
Clarke transformation
Park transformation

Park-Clarke Transformation

Clarke Transformation:

Park Transformation:

Microgrid Control
Techniques

Contents:
PQ inverter control:
Concept
Current regulation
Voltage regulation
VSC inverter control:
Conventional droop control
Modified droop control

PQ inverter control
Concept:
Used in grid connected mode only
Active and reactive inverter power based on certain
set-point for load sharing.
Voltage and frequency are according to main grid
Set-point values are based on: MPPT, max system
efficiency or from energy manager

PQ inverter control

Independent control of active and reactive power of VSC:

For the three-phase system:

+
Then power balance will be:

PQ inverter control

Conclusion:

The active power is controlled using d-axis control variable while the reactive
power is controlled using q-axis control variable.

Control variable is determined based on the implementation of PQ controller

PQ inverter control

Power flow control using current regulation:

Here, we use d-q frame currents to control active and reactive power

Controller will be as current controlled voltage source

If unity power factor:

PQ inverter control

Phase locked loop (PLL):

Control system generates a signal whose phase is matched to the input signal

consists of a variable frequency oscillator and phase detector

PLL can be used to track the input frequency

PQ inverter control

Current Controller:

Its role

PQ inverter control

Consider
the three phase system:

Applying KVL and KCL

Cross-coupling terms

PQ inverter control

Decoupling methods:

Feedforward method

Feedback method

PQ inverter control

Power flow using current regulation:

If we need the active and reactive power:

PQ inverter control

Power flow control using voltage regulation:

Here, we control active and reactive power based on DG voltage

PQ inverter control

Current Regulation Vs. Voltage Regulation:

voltage regulation is more sensitive to line impedance between DG and PCC


as:

another point of view, voltage regulation has an advantage that its similar to
the droop technique which is used in islanded mode of Microgrid; And this will
lead to smooth transients during operation transitions between grid
connected mode and islanded mode.

Voltage Source inverter Control


Used in islanded mode only
Supply certain voltage and frequency so that
appropriate powers are shared
Based on VF droop characteristics

VF droop Control

AC general Power flow :

Using Euler:

VF droop Control

For
high voltage transmission
lines:

If delta is small:

= 0 Kp x (P P0)
V = V0 Kv x (Q Q0)

Droop Control Modification

For

LV lines:

R/X cant be neglected

Conventional Method Vs. Modified


Method

Case Study Description

Case study selection

Simple
Common load
Ease of mode switch

Overall System
Main Grid

Active Generator
model

Shared Load

Active Generator Model (1)

Active Generator Model (2)

C Link

3 Inverter

LC Filter

Transformer

DC source

Breaker

Active Generator Model (3)


Three Phase Bridge and PWM unit: Achieve bidirectional active and reactive power delivery based
on PWM signal.
PLL : Used to get the grid frequency, voltage and
phase angle information, which is used in the control
system
LC Filter: Reduce the harmonics of output waveform
DC source: Providing the required power to the
system.
Control System: Current controller implement the
independent control of active and reactive power
delivery of inverter, based on PQ reference and V, f

Active Generator Model (4) - Notes


DC capacitor link are used to maintain a stiff dc-link
voltage.
All measurements are done in the measurements
block of SIMULINK.
To use values of the measurements, Labels are used.
A transformer is used to change the potential level.
A three phase Circuit Breaker is used to switch at the
PCC.

Voltage Source Inverter Control (1)

Voltage Source Inverter Control (2)

PLL
Measurements
Current Controller
PWM Generation

PLL Measurements
Phase angle
Per
unit
gain

Current Controller (1) - Feedforward

Current Controller (2)

Implementation of PQ controller (1)

Implementation of PQ controller (2)

Implementation of VF controller (1)

Implementation of VFcontroller (2)

Initial reference values of P and Q are set to the required values.


Some additional reference active power can be added according
to frequency deviation of the grid.
Some additional reference reactive power can be added
according to voltage deviation of PCC

Implementation of VFcontroller (3)

Results PQ mode only

Results VF mode (1)

Results VF mode (2)

Future work
Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
Work in islanded mode of operation
Use large number of DGs and include special
models for: batteries, microgenerators.