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# PUSAT TUISYEN PRIMA

INTELEK
SCIENCE FORM 5
CHAPTER 8:
ELECTRONICS AND
INFORMATAION &
COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY

Characteristics of Waves:
1. A system that vibrates or oscillates such
as an oscillating pendulum will produce
waves.
2. Terms:

## a) Amplitude: the maximum displacement

of a particle from its equilibrium.
b) Wavelength: the distance of a complete
vibration, eg. The distance between two
successive crests of a wave or the
distance between two successive
troughs of a wave.
c) Frequency: the number of complete
vibrations in one second. The unit is
Hertz (Hz). [f = 1/T]
d) Wave velocity:
the
distance travelled by
Wave
=
frequency x wavelength
a wavevelocity
in one second. It can be
v = f
measured using the formula:

1.
Radio waves are one of the electromagnetic
waves.
2. Electromagnetic waves have different
wavelengths and frequencies, but they have the
same speed [].
3. Radio waves are suitable for use in
communication.
a) They can travel very far.
b) Can travel through a vacuum.
c) Not stopped or scattered by obstacles in their
way.
d) Lose very little energy when moving through air.
e) Can carry sound waves very far from their
source.

Long wave (LW)- low
frequency
Medium wave (MW)medium frequency
Short wave (SW)high frequency
Very high frequency
(VHF)
Ultra high frequency
(UHF)
Microwave

Use
locality
country
continents
distance telephone calls
Satellite communication for

Name

Symbol

Function

Transistor

## Increases the amplitude of

audio waves to increase the
electric current (amplifier) and
can act as a switch

Inductor

Capacitor

## Keeps charge and prevents a

direct current from flowing. It
allows an alternating current to
flow through it

Variable
capacitor

## Keeps charge and can change

the frequency of an alternating
current

Name

Symbol

Function

Rheostat

in the circuit

Diode

## Allows current to flow in one

direction only and changes an
alternating current into a
direct current

Transformers

## Changes the voltage value of

an alternating current

Ammeter

## Detects and measures the

magnitude of the current in
the circuit

voltmeter

circuit

## Symbols and functions of the electronic components

a) Microphone: changes sound waves into
electric signals which are called audio
waves.
b) Amplifier: amplifies audio waves before
transmitting them into the modulator.
c) Oscillator: produces radio waves of a
certain frequency that act as carrier
waves.
d) Modulator: combines audio waves with
modulation.

b) Tuner: it has variable capacitor in it;
produces a frequency which is the same
as the frequency of the chosen radio
waves.
c) Demodulator/detector: it has diode
functions to separate audio waves from
d) Amplifier: it has a transistor that
functions to increase electric signals, eg.
Audio waves, before transmitting them
to the speaker.

## Amplitude Modulation and Frequency

Modulation:
Amplitude modulation (AM)

## Amplitude modulation occurs when

the amplitude of the radio wave is
changed

## Frequency modulation takes place

when the frequency of the wave is
changed

## Produces much better quality sound

Satellite Communication

## 1. Satellite communication is used for long

distance communication.
2. The satellite communication system
consist of two systems:
a) The earth satellite station: to transmit
microwaves.
b) Geostationary satellite: functions as an
amplifier and transmits microwave
signals received from an earth satellite
station.

3. Characteristics of a communication
satellite:
a) It appears not to be moving when seen
from the Earth.
b) It is placed in orbit at the equator.
c) The time it takes to orbit the Earth once
is the same as the time the Earth takes
to revolve on its axis once (24 hours).
d) It orbits in the same direction as Earth.

## 4. For complete communication, at least

three communication satellites have to
be used.
5. Satellites generates electrical energy
from sunlight.
6. Most communication satellites are
organised by INTELSAT (International
Telecommunication Satellite
Consortium)- the international
organisation affiliated by 11 countries.
7. There are 15 satellites organised by
INTELSAT which connect 739 earth
satellite stations in 172 countries.

## 8. Advantages of using communication

satellites:
a) They do not depend on reflection of
microwaves by the atmosphere layers.
b) Not affected by changes in the weather.
c) Produce clear reception.
d) Do not need many relay stations.
e) Cover live telecasts from all over the world.
9. Other functions:
a) Weather forecast.
b) Surveillance.
c) Astronomy research.

## 10. Live telecast from Malaysia to other

countries:
a) The earth satellite station send information
such as television broadcast as a microwave
signal through its aerial to the satellite.
signal and amplifies it.
c) The satellite sends the signal to the earth
satellite station to other countries.
d) The aerial in the earth satellite station
receives the signal and changes it back into
sound and pictures.
e) These signals can reach other countries in a
few seconds.

## The Importance of Information and

Communication Technology

## 1. Malaysia makes a big step further in the

field of communication when it launched
its own satellite, MEASAT.
2. In November 1996, Malaysia launched
the MEASAT-2 whereas MEASAT-3 has
been launched in December 2006.
3. Other than that, Malaysia has launched a
micro satellite, named Tiung SAT-1 in
September 2000.
4. The use of Internet makes
communication easier.
5. We also can use Internet to get