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PUSAT TUISYEN PRIMA

INTELEK
SCIENCE FORM 5
CHAPTER 8:
ELECTRONICS AND
INFORMATAION &
COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY

Radio Waves

Characteristics of Waves:
1. A system that vibrates or oscillates such
as an oscillating pendulum will produce
waves.
2. Terms:

a) Amplitude: the maximum displacement


of a particle from its equilibrium.
b) Wavelength: the distance of a complete
vibration, eg. The distance between two
successive crests of a wave or the
distance between two successive
troughs of a wave.
c) Frequency: the number of complete
vibrations in one second. The unit is
Hertz (Hz). [f = 1/T]
d) Wave velocity:
the
distance travelled by
Wave
=
frequency x wavelength
a wavevelocity
in one second. It can be
v = f
measured using the formula:

Radio Waves:

1.
Radio waves are one of the electromagnetic
waves.
2. Electromagnetic waves have different
wavelengths and frequencies, but they have the
same speed [].
3. Radio waves are suitable for use in
communication.
4. Properties of radio waves:
a) They can travel very far.
b) Can travel through a vacuum.
c) Not stopped or scattered by obstacles in their
way.
d) Lose very little energy when moving through air.
e) Can carry sound waves very far from their
source.

Radio waves
Long wave (LW)- low
frequency
Medium wave (MW)medium frequency
Short wave (SW)high frequency
Very high frequency
(VHF)
Ultra high frequency
(UHF)
Microwave

Use
Radio broadcasting for close-by
locality
Radio broadcasting within the
country
Radio broadcasting to other
continents
F.M. radio and television
broadcasting
Television broadcasting and long
distance telephone calls
Satellite communication for
television, radio, telephone and fax

Radio waves and their uses

Radio Communication

Name

Symbol

Function

Battery (dry cell)

Supplies electric current

Transistor

Increases the amplitude of


audio waves to increase the
electric current (amplifier) and
can act as a switch

Inductor

To induce a magnetic field

Capacitor

Keeps charge and prevents a


direct current from flowing. It
allows an alternating current to
flow through it

Variable
capacitor

Keeps charge and can change


the frequency of an alternating
current

Name

Symbol

Function

Rheostat

Controls the size of the current


in the circuit

Diode

Allows current to flow in one


direction only and changes an
alternating current into a
direct current

Transformers

Changes the voltage value of


an alternating current

Ammeter

Detects and measures the


magnitude of the current in
the circuit

voltmeter

Measure the voltage in a


circuit

Symbols and functions of the electronic components

Radio Communication System:


1. Radio transmission system:
a) Microphone: changes sound waves into
electric signals which are called audio
waves.
b) Amplifier: amplifies audio waves before
transmitting them into the modulator.
c) Oscillator: produces radio waves of a
certain frequency that act as carrier
waves.
d) Modulator: combines audio waves with
radio waves through process of
modulation.

2. Radio receiver system:


a) Aerial: receives modulated radio waves.
b) Tuner: it has variable capacitor in it;
produces a frequency which is the same
as the frequency of the chosen radio
waves.
c) Demodulator/detector: it has diode
functions to separate audio waves from
radio waves.
d) Amplifier: it has a transistor that
functions to increase electric signals, eg.
Audio waves, before transmitting them
to the speaker.

Amplitude Modulation and Frequency


Modulation:
Amplitude modulation (AM)

Frequency modulation (FM)

Amplitude modulation occurs when


the amplitude of the radio wave is
changed

Frequency modulation takes place


when the frequency of the wave is
changed

Produces lower quality of sound

Produces much better quality sound

Satellite Communication

1. Satellite communication is used for long


distance communication.
2. The satellite communication system
consist of two systems:
a) The earth satellite station: to transmit
and receive information by using
microwaves.
b) Geostationary satellite: functions as an
amplifier and transmits microwave
signals received from an earth satellite
station.

3. Characteristics of a communication
satellite:
a) It appears not to be moving when seen
from the Earth.
b) It is placed in orbit at the equator.
c) The time it takes to orbit the Earth once
is the same as the time the Earth takes
to revolve on its axis once (24 hours).
d) It orbits in the same direction as Earth.

4. For complete communication, at least


three communication satellites have to
be used.
5. Satellites generates electrical energy
from sunlight.
6. Most communication satellites are
organised by INTELSAT (International
Telecommunication Satellite
Consortium)- the international
organisation affiliated by 11 countries.
7. There are 15 satellites organised by
INTELSAT which connect 739 earth
satellite stations in 172 countries.

8. Advantages of using communication


satellites:
a) They do not depend on reflection of
microwaves by the atmosphere layers.
b) Not affected by changes in the weather.
c) Produce clear reception.
d) Do not need many relay stations.
e) Cover live telecasts from all over the world.
9. Other functions:
a) Weather forecast.
b) Surveillance.
c) Astronomy research.

10. Live telecast from Malaysia to other


countries:
a) The earth satellite station send information
such as television broadcast as a microwave
signal through its aerial to the satellite.
b) The receiver on the satellite receives the
signal and amplifies it.
c) The satellite sends the signal to the earth
satellite station to other countries.
d) The aerial in the earth satellite station
receives the signal and changes it back into
sound and pictures.
e) These signals can reach other countries in a
few seconds.

The Importance of Information and


Communication Technology

1. Malaysia makes a big step further in the


field of communication when it launched
its own satellite, MEASAT.
2. In November 1996, Malaysia launched
the MEASAT-2 whereas MEASAT-3 has
been launched in December 2006.
3. Other than that, Malaysia has launched a
micro satellite, named Tiung SAT-1 in
September 2000.
4. The use of Internet makes
communication easier.
5. We also can use Internet to get
information about many things.

END OF CHAPTER 8
ANY QUESTIONS???