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# The Nature of

Electricity
Chapter 1

## Structure of the Atom

MATTER
anything that has mass and
occupies space.
composed of very small
particles called atoms.

MATTER
elements
- all the
atoms are
the same

compoun
ds
combinatio
n of
elements.

MATTER
elements
aluminum
copper
carbon
germanium
silicon

compoun
ds
Water
hydrogen
and
oxygen

ATOM

proto
n( + )

neutro
(neutra
n
l)
electro
n(-)

number
of
protons

protons

=
=

atomic
number

neutron

IN
BALANCE

## Structure of the Atom

Electrons and
nucleus of
an atom

Examples
Describe the two simplest atoms.
Atom

proton/s

electron/s

hydrogen

helium

Examples
Describe the two simplest atoms.
Hydrogen
Atom

Number of
orbiting electrons
Orbiting electron

1P
+

Shell

Nucleus
(1 proton)

Examples
Helium
Atom

2P
2N
+

Nucleus
(2 protons,
2 neutrons)

Silicon
Atom

- -

14
P
14
N
+

third shell

4
8

second
shell

First shell

- -

Nucleus
(14 protons,
14

fourth
shell
Copper
Atom

- - -

29
P
34
N+

1
18
8

third shell

- -

second
shell

-First shell

- -

Nucleus
(29 protons,
34

Q
P
O
N
M
L
K
2
Nucleu
s

(+)

(+)

LIKE
CHARGES
(-)

(-)

(+)

(-)

UNLIKE
CHARGES

## The Law of Electric Charge

Like charges repel each
other;
unlike charges attract
each other.

Like charges
repel

+
+
Like+ charges
repel

+ unlike charges
attract

The Coulomb
Chapter 1

The Coulomb

## A charge of one negative coulomb, -Q,

means a body contains a charge of
6.25 x 101818 more electrons than protons.
6.25 x 10

Example
1.

## What is the meaning of +Q?

Ans:
A charge of one positive
coulomb means a body contains
a
charge
1018 more
18 6.25
6.25
x 10of
morex protons
than
protons
than electron.
electron.

Example
2.

## A dielectric material has a negative

charge of 12.5 x 1018 electrons.
What is its charge in coulombs?

Ans:

## Since the number of electrons

is double the charge of I C
(1 C = 6.25 x 1018 electrons)
-Q = 2C

The Electrostatic
Field

## The Electrostatic Field

when two objects of opposite polarity
are brought near each other, the EF is
concentrated in the area between them.

## The Electrostatic Field

The electric field is indicated by lines
of force drawn between the two
objects.

## If an electron is released at point

A in this field, it will be repelled by
the negative charge and will be
attracted to the positive one.

Potential Difference

Potential Difference
the ability of the charge to do
work is called its potential.

## when one charge is different from the

other, there must be a difference be a
difference in potential between them.

## the sum of the differences of potential of

all the charges in the electrostatic field is
referred to as electromotive force (emf).

Potential Difference
The basic unit of potential
difference is the volt (V).

## The symbol for potential difference

is V, indicating the ability to do the
work of forcing electrons to move.

## potential difference is called

voltage.

Example
1. What is the meaning of a battery
voltage output of 6 V?
Ans:
A

## voltage output of 6V means that the

potential difference between the two
terminals of the battery is 6 V.
Thus, voltage is fundamentally the
potential difference between two points.

Current

Current

## To produce current, the electrons must

be moved by a potential difference.

## Current is represented by the

letter symbol I.

Current
The basic unit in which current is
measured is the ampere (A)

## One ampere of current is defined as the

movement of one coulomb past any point
of a conductor during one second of time.

Example

## 1. If a current of 2 A flows through a

meter for 1 minute (min), how many
coulombs pass through the meter?

Ans:
1 A is 1C per second (C/s).
2 A is 2 C/s.

## 60 x 2C = 120 C pass through

the meter in 1 min.

Example
Current can be expressed as an equation:

I=

Q
T

1 = current, A.

Q = charge, C
T = time, s

Current Flow

Current Flow
Conventional Current Flow

Electron Flow

Sources of Electricity
Chapter 1

Sources of Electricity
Chemical
Battery
Generator

Thermal Energy

## Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Conversion

Thermionic Emission

Solar Cells
Piezoelectric Effect
Photoelectric Effect

Sources of Electricity

Thermocouples

Chemical
Battery
A
voltaic chemical cell is a combination of materials which
are used for converting chemical energy into electric
energy.
A battery is formed when two or more cells are connected.
A chemical reaction produces opposite charges on two
dissimilar metals, which serve as the negative and positive
terminals
The metals are in contact with an electrolyte.

Generator

## The generator is a machine in which electromagnetic

inductance is used to produce a voltage by
rotating coils of wire through a stationary magnetic
field or by rotating a magnetic field through
stationary coils of wire.
Today more than 95 percent of the world's energy is
produced by
generators.

Thermal Energy
Coal, oil, or natural gas can be burned to release large
quantities of heat.
Once heat energy is available, conversion to
mechanical energy is the next step.
Water is heated to produce steam, which is then used
to turn the turbines that drive the electric generators.
A direct conversion from heat energy to electric
energy will increase efficiency and reduce thermal
pollution of water resources and the
atmosphere.

## Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Conversion

In an MHD converter, gases are ionized by very high
temperatures, approximately 3000 degrees
Fahrenheit (3000F), or 1650 degrees Celsius
(1650C).
The hot gases pass through a strong
magnetic field with current resulting. The exhausted
gases are then moved back to the heat source
to form a complete cycle.
MHD converters have no mechanical moving parts.

Thermionic Emission
The thermionic energy converter is a
device that consists of two electrodes
in a vacuum.
The emitter electrode is heated and
produces free electrons.
The collector electrode is maintained
at a much lower temperature and
receives the electrons released at the
emitter.

Solar Cells

## Solar cells convert light energy directly

into electric energy.
They consist of semiconductor material
like silicon and are used in large arrays
in spacecraft to recharge batteries.
Solar cells are also used in home
heating.

Piezoelectric Effect
Certain crystals, such as quartz and Rochelle
salts, generate a voltage when they are
vibrated
mechanically. This action is known as the
piezoelectric effect.
One example is the crystal phonograph
cartridge, which contains a Rochelle salt
crystal to which a needle is fastened. As the
needle moves in the grooves of a record, it
swings from side to side. This mechanical
motion is applied to the crystal, and a
voltage is then generated.

Photoelectric Effect
Some materials, such as zinc,
potassium, and cesium oxide, emit
electrons when light strikes their
surfaces.
This action is known as the
photoelectric effect. Common
applications of photoelectricity are
television camera tubes and
photoelectric cells.

Thermocouples
If wires of two different metals, such as
iron and copper, are welded together
and the joint is heated, the difference
in electron activity in the two metals
produces an emf across the
joint.
Thermocouple junctions can be used to
measure the amount of current
because current acts to heat the
junction.

## Direct and Alternating

Currents and Voltages
Chapter 1

Direct Current
current that moves through a conductor
or circuit in one direction only.

## voltage sources such as cells and batteries

maintain the same polarity of output voltage

## The voltage supplied by these sources is

called direct-current voltage, or simply
dc voltage.

## A dc voltage source can change the

amount of its output voltage.

Direct Current

Alternating Current
source periodically reverses or
alternates in polarity

In

## terms of conventional flow, the

current flows from the positive
terminal of the voltage source,
through the circuit, and back to the
negative terminal, but when the
generator alternates in polarity, the
current must reverse its direction.

Alternating Current
The

## voltage and current direction go through

many reversals each second in these
systems.