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DEVELOPMENT OF

PROSENCEPHALON

PROSENCEPHALON
(FOREBRAIN)
Telencephalon: Rostral part
of forebrain
Cerebral Hemispheres
Diencephalon: Caudal &
median part
optic cup & stalk
Hypophysis/Pituitary
Thalmus
Hypothalmus
Epiphysis

DIENCEPHALON
Roof plate
Alar plates = 2
Absent floor & basal plates

ROOF PLATE & EPIPHYSIS


Roof plate
1. Choroid plexus of
3rd ventricle
2. Most caudal part of
roof plate develops
into epiphysis/
pineal body

Pineal body
Appears as epithelial thickening in the
midline, but by 7th week it begins to
evaginate
Eventually it becomes a solid organ on
the roof of mesencephalon
Function: Respond to light and
darkness & affect the endocrine and
behavioral rhythms
In adults calcium is frequently
deposited in the epiphysis and then
serve as land marks on radiographs of
skull.

ALAR PLATES
Forms lateral wall of diencephalon
A groove hypothalamic sulcus divides it
into:
1.Thalamus
2.Hypothalamus

THALAMUS
Thalamus gradually
projects into the lumen of
diencephalon due to
proliferation of cells
Frequently the expansion
is so great that two thalami
fuse in mid line forming
massa Intermedia or
Interthalamic connexus

HYPOTHALMUS
Forms the lower portions
of alar plate
Differentiate into number
of nuclear masses that
regulate visceral
functions
Mammillary body forms
a distinct protuberance
on the ventral surface of
hypothalamus on each
side of midline

Hypophysis/Pituitary GlandEctodermal
Develops from two sources:
1. An ectodermal outpocketing of the
stomodeum---- Rathkes pouch
2. Downward extension of diencephalon---the infundibulum

Cont
At 3 weeks Rathkes pouch appear as
evagination that grows dorsally towards
infundibulum.
By the end of 2nd month it loses its
connection with the oral cavity
Comes to lie in close contact with
infundibulum

Cont
Cells in the anterior wall rapidly proliferate
and form the ---- anterior lobe/
adenohypophsis.
A small extension of the lobe is pars
tuberalis that surrounds the infundibulum
The posterior wall of pouch forms the --pars Intermedia
Infundibulum give rise to stalk & pars
nervosa----posterior
lobe/Neurohypophysis

Hypophysis/Pituitary GlandEctodermal

HYPOPHYSEAL DEFECTS
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMAS

Remnant of Rathkes pouch

Cerebral Hemispheres
Arise by 5th week as bilateral evaginations of
lateral wall of forebrain
Interventricular foramen

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
Middle of 2nd month the basal
part/floor of hemispheres
begins to grow & bulges into
lumen of lateral ventricle &
into floor of foramen of Monro
In T.S this rapidly growing
region has striated
appearance therefore called
Corpus striatum
C.H become C-shaped
Choroid plexus develop in the
region where wall of
hemisphere is attached to roof
of diencephalon

CORPUS STRIATUM
As the cerebral cortex differentiates the axons passing to &
from the cortex (Internal capsule) break the nuclear masses
into:
dorsomedial portion caudate nucleus
ventrolateral portion the lentiform nucleus
Medial wall of C.H fuse with lateral wall of diencephalon

CHOROID
FISSURE
The Lateral ventricle become Cshaped due to growth & curvature
of C.H
The caudal end of each C.H turns
ventrally & then rostrally, forming
the temporal lobe & in so doing it
carries the ventricle (forming
temporal horn) & Choroid fissure
with it.

CHOROID
PLEXUS
Choroid plexus protrude in
the lateral ventricle along
the choroid fissure
The thin medial wall of the
C.H is invaginated along
the choroid fissure by
vascular pia matter to form
choroid plexus of temporal
horn

Growth of cerebral hemispheres


C.H grow in anterior, posterior
& inferior directions resulting
in formation of frontal,
occipital & temporal lobes.
As growth in the region of
corpus striatum slows the
region b/w frontal & temporal
lobes depressed & is called
insula
This region is later overgrown
by other lobes Which
completely covers it at birth.

COMMISSURES

Anterior commissure- 1st to appear


Hippocamphal commissure
Corpus callosum- 10th week
Habenular commissure
Posterior commissure
Optic chiasma

Congenital anomalies

Cranium Bifidum

Holoprosecrphaly

Schizencephaly

Anencephaly

Hydrocephalus

Arnold Chiari Malformation

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