Anda di halaman 1dari 29 Normal Distribution  #  Use Normal Distribution in an inferential fashion  # derived from model or estimated from data  #  Example: Sampling distribution of the mean  # The normal distribution and its properties are well known, and if our variable of interest is normally distributed, we can apply what we know about the normal distribution to our situation, and find the probabilities associated with particular outcomes  # f(X)  1
2 (e) (X ) 2

#   # The area under the curve tells us about the probability- in other words we can obtain a p-value for our result (data) by treating it as a normally distributed data set.  # Key Areas under the Curve # For normal distributions + 1 SD ~ 68% + 2 SD ~ 95% + 3 SD ~ 99.9%  # Example IQ mean = 100 s = 15   # Each normal distribution with its own values of  and  would need its own calculation of the area under various points on the curve  # Standard Normal Distribution – N(0,1) We agree to use the
standard normal
distribution
Bell shaped
=0
=1
Note: not all bell
shaped distributions are
normal distributions  # Normal Probability Distribution # Curve has area or probability = 1  #  How do we apply the standard normal distribution to our data?  # z  #   # Z = (X-)/ then X = Z +  [equation of the general form Y = mX+c]  #  Always helps to draw a sketch!  # Probabilities are depicted by areas under the curve # Since the properties of the normal distribution are known, areas can be looked up on tables or calculated on computer.  #  Look up the areas using the table.  Do the necessary addition and subtraction.  # Suppose Z has standard normal distribution Find p(0<Z<1.23)   # Find p(-1.57<Z<0)   # Find p(Z>.78)  # Z is standard normal Calculate p(-1.2<Z<.78)   #  15.9% fall above 13  #  A common example is IQ  IQ scores are theoretically normally distributed.  Mean of 100  Standard deviation of 15  # .3413  # Result: The probability of randomly getting a score of 620 is ~.12  # lowest scores that are retained?  # Examples of standard scores: IQ, GRE, SAT  