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The System Development Cycle

The system development orsoftware
development process, orSoftware Development
Life Cycleinsystems engineering,information
systemsandsoftware engineering, is a process of
creating or altering information systems, and the
models andmethodologies that people use to
develop these systems.

A Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are essential for developers, such as:

And implementation

Stages can be characterized and divided up in

different ways, including the following:
Preliminary Analysis
Systems analysis, requirements definition
Systems design
Integration and testing
Acceptance, installation, deployment

System analysis
The goal ofsystem analysisis to determine where the problem
is in an attempt to fix the system. This step
involvesbreaking downthe system in different pieces to
analyze the situation, analyzing project goals, breaking
down what needs to be created and attempting to engage
users so that definite requirements can be defined.

Insystems designthe design functions and operations are
described in detail, including screen layouts, business rules,
process diagrams and other documentation. The output of
this stage will describe the new system as a collection of
modules or subsystems.
The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements
identified in the approved requirements document. For each
requirement, a set of one or more design elements will be
produced as a result of interviews, workshops, and/or
prototype efforts.

The code is tested at various levels insoftware testing. Unit,
system and user acceptance testing are often performed.
This is a grey area as many different

Baselines in the

functional baseline
Allocated baseline
product baseline
updated product baseline

Complementary to SDLC
Software prototyping
Joint applications development(JAD)
Rapid application development(RAD)
Extreme programming(XP); extension of earlier work in

Prototyping and RAD.

End-user development
Object-oriented programming

Strengths and

Strength and Weaknesses of SDLC




Increased development time.

Monitor large projects.

Increased development cost.

Detailed steps.

Systems must be defined up front.

Evaluate costs and completion targets.



Hard to estimate costs, project overruns.

Well defined user input.

User input is sometimes limited.

Ease of maintenance.
Development and design standards.
Tolerates changes in MIS staffing.


The process of prototyping involves the

following steps
Identify basicrequirements
Determine basic requirements including the input and

output information desired. Details, such as security, can

typically be ignored.
Develop Initial Prototype
The initial prototype is developed that includes only user
The customers, including end-users, examine the
prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes.
Revise and Enhance the Prototype

The various dimensions of

Horizontal Prototype
Vertical Prototype
Throwaway prototyping

Advantages of prototyping

Reduced time and costs

Improved and increased user involvement

Disadvantages of prototyping
Insufficient analysis
User confusion of prototype and finished system
Developer misunderstanding of user objectives
Developer attachment to prototype
Excessive development time of the prototype
Expense of implementing prototyping

Dynamic Systems

The four categories of prototypes as

recommended by DSDM are:
Business prototypes
Usability prototypes
Performance and capacity prototypes
Capability/technique prototypes

Computer-aided software
engineering (CASE)

Is the scientific application of a set of tools

and methods to a software system with the
desired end result of high-quality, defectfree, and maintainable software products.

Supporting software
Alfonso Fuggetta classified CASE into 3 categories:


Project Management

The objectives of the systems development and project management
audit/ assurance review are to:

Provide management with an independent assessment of the progress,

quality and attainment of project/program objectives at defined
milestones within the project/program
Provide management with an evaluation of the internal controls of

proposed business processes at a point in the development cycle where

enhancements can be easily implemented and processes adapted
Satisfy process audit/assurance objectives in reviewing the process

before it goes live, place future reliance on the process based upon the
assurance work performed while the application is under development,
and implement integrated computer-assisted audit techniques (CAATs)
as part of the design of the application

Corporative project management system


The main goal of project management system

development is the realization of projects

according to the companies strategy

Project management
information system

The task of the information project management

system is the automation of project management

process in the company. In the course of
information system implementation project we
fulfill the settings of the specialized software in
accordance with the requirements of the company
and the project management methodology

Project management corporate


The competence and the quality of the

personnel are the key factors of success in

project management.