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Group Members

Syed Salman Ahmad

13PWIND0261

Aftab Hussain

13PWIND0284

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Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING
Chapters:
2. Manufacturing Operations
3. Manufacturing Models and Metrics

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Ch 2 Manufacturing Operations
Sections:
1. Manufacturing Industries and Products
2. Manufacturing Operations
3. Production Facilities
4. Product/Production Relationships
5. Lean Production

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Manufacturing Defined Technological Definition


Application of physical and chemical processes to
alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of
a given starting material to make parts or products
Manufacturing also includes the joining of multiple
parts to make assembled products
Accomplished by a combination of machinery, tools,
power, and manual labor.
Almost always carried out as a sequence of
operations

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Manufacturing Defined Technological Definition


Fig. 2.1.a

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Manufacturing Defined Economic Definition


Transformation of materials into items of greater value
by means of one or more processing and/or assembly
operations
Manufacturing adds value to the material
Examples:
Converting iron ore to steel adds value
Transforming sand into glass adds value
Refining petroleum into plastic adds value

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Manufacturing Defined Economic Definition


Fig. 2.1.b

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Classification of Industries
1. Primary industries cultivate and exploit natural
resources
Examples: agriculture, mining
2. Secondary industries convert output of primary
industries into products
Examples: manufacturing, power generation,
construction
3. Tertiary industries service sector
Examples: banking, education, government, legal
services, retail trade, transportation
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Manufacturing Industries

ISIC Code
Food, beverages, tobacco
31
Textiles, apparel, leather and fur products
32
Wood and wood products, cork
33
Paper, printing, publishing, bookbinding
34
Chemicals, coal, petroleum and their products 35
Ceramics, glass, mineral products
36
Basic metals, e.g., steel, aluminum
37
Fabricated products, e.g., cars, machines, etc. 38
Other products, e.g., jewelry, toys
39

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10

More Industry Classifications


Process industries, e.g., chemicals, petroleum, basic
metals, foods and beverages, power generation
Continuous production
Batch production
Discrete product (and part) industries, e.g., cars, aircraft,
appliances, machinery, and their component parts
Continuous production
Batch production

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11

Process Industries and


Discrete Manufacturing Industries

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12

Manufacturing Operations

There are certain basic activities that must be carried out


in a factory to convert raw materials into finished products
For discrete products:
1. Processing and assembly operations
2. Material handling
3. Inspection and testing
4. Coordination and control
A processing operation transforms a work material from one state of
completion to a more advanced state using energy to alter its shape,
properties or appearance to add value to the material.
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13

Fig. 2.3

Classification of
manufacturing
processes

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14

Processing Operations

Shaping operations
1. Solidification processes
2. Particulate processing
3. Deformation processes
4. Material removal processes
Property-enhancing operations (heat treatments)
Surface processing operations
Cleaning and surface treatments
Coating and thin-film deposition

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15

Assembly Operations
Joining processes
Welding
Brazing and soldering
Adhesive bonding
Mechanical assembly
Threaded fasteners (e.g., bolts and nuts, screws)
Rivets
Interference fits (e.g., press fitting, shrink fits)
Other
An assembly operation joins two or more components to create
a new entity which is called an assembly, subassembly, etc.
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16

Other Factory Operations


Material handling and storage
Inspection and testing
Coordination and control

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17

Material Handling
A means of moving and storing materials between processing and/or
assembly operations
Material transport
Vehicles, e.g., forklift trucks, AGVs, monorails
Conveyors
Hoists and cranes
Storage systems
Unitizing equipment
Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC)
Bar codes
RFID
Other AIDC equipment
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18

Time Spent in Material Handling


Fig. 2.4

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19

Inspection and Testing


Inspection examination of the product and its
components to determine whether they conform to
design specifications
Inspection for variables - measuring
Inspection of attributes gaging
Testing observing the product (or part, material,
subassembly) during actual operation or under
conditions that might occur during operation

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20

Coordination and Control


Regulation of the individual processing and assembly
operations
Process control
Quality control
Management of plant level activities
Production planning and control
Quality control

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21

Production Facilities
A manufacturing company attempts to organize its
facilities in the most efficient way to serve the particular
mission of the plant
Certain types of plants are recognized as the most
appropriate way to organize for a given type of
manufacturing
The most appropriate type depends on:
Types of products made
Production quantity
Product variety
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22

Production Quantity

Number of units of a given part or product produced


annually by the plant
Three quantity ranges:
1. Low production 1 to 100 units
2. Medium production 100 to 10,000 units
3. High production 10,000 to millions of units

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23

Product Variety
Refers to the number of different product or part
designs or types produced in the plant
Inverse relationship between production quantity and
product variety in factory operations
Product variety is more complicated than a number
Hard product variety products differ greatly
Few common components in an assembly
Soft product variety small differences between
products
Many common components in an assembly
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24

Product Variety vs.


Production Quantity
Fig. 2.5

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25

Example
A company specializes in consumers photographic
products. It produces only cameras and projectors. Thus
P1 = 2 in its cameras line it offers 15 different models and
in its projectors line it offers five models.Thus for camers
p21 = 15 & for projectors P22 = 5.Determine the total of
products model.
Sol:
P = P2
P = 15+5
P= 20

P2 = P21 + P22

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26

Low Production Quantity

Job shop makes low quantities of specialized and


customized products
Also includes production of components for these
products
Products are typically complex (e.g., specialized
machinery, prototypes, space capsules)
Equipment is general purpose
Plant layouts:
Fixed position
Process layout

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27

Fixed-Position Layout
Fig. 2.6 (a)

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28

Process Layout
Fig. 2.6 (b)

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29

Medium Production Quantities


1. Batch production A batch of a given product is
produced, and then the facility is changed over to
produce another product
Changeover takes time setup time
Typical layout process layout
Hard product variety
2. Cellular manufacturing A mixture of products is made
without significant changeover time between products
Typical layout cellular layout
Soft product variety
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30

Cellular Layout
Fig. 2.6 (c)

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31

High Production (mass production)


1. Quantity production Equipment is dedicated to the
manufacture of one product
Standard machines tooled for high production (e.g.,
stamping presses, molding machines)
Typical layout process layout
2. Flow line production Multiple workstations arranged in
sequence
Product requires multiple processing or assembly
steps
Product layout is most common
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32

Product Layout
Fig. 2.6 (d)

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33

Relationships between Plant Layout


and Type of Production Facility
Fig. 2.7

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34

Product/Production Relationships
P

Total number of product units = Qf = Q j


j 1
Product variety
Hard product variety = differences between
products
Soft product variety = differences between models
of products
Product and part complexity
Product complexity np = number of parts in product
Part complexity no = number of operations per part
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35

Factory Operations Model


Simplified for purposes of conceptualization:
Total number of product units Qf = PQ
Total number of parts produced npf = PQnp
Total number of operations nof = PQnpno

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36

Example
Suppose a company has designed a new product line and
is planning to build a new plant to manufacture this
product line. The new line consists of 100 different product
types, and for each product type the company wants to
produce 10,000 units annually. The products average 1000
components each, and the average number of processing
steps required for each component is 10. All parts will be
made in the factory. Each processing step takes an
average of 1min. Determine: (a) how many products. (b)
how many parts, and

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37

(c) how many production operations will be required each


year, and (d) how many workers will be needed for the
plant, if it operates one shift for 250 day/yr?

Solution:
(a) The total number of units to be produced by the factory
Q = PQ = lO0X 10,000 = 1,000,000 products annually.
(b) The total number of parts produced is:
npf = PQnp = 1,000,000 x 1000 = 1,000,000,000 parts
annually.
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38

(c) The number of distinct production operations is:


nof = PQnpno =
1000,000,000 * 10
10,000,000,000 operations.
(d) Let us try to estimate the number of workers required.
First consider the total time to perform these operations. If
each operation takes 1min (1/60 hr),
Total time = 10,000,000.000 X 1/60 = 166,666,667 hr
If each worker works 2000 hr/yr (40 hr/wk x 50 wk/yr), then
the total nurnber of workers required is:
w = 166666667/2000= 83,333 workers.
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39

Limitations and Capabilities of a


Manufacturing Plant

Manufacturing capability - the technical and physical


limitations of a manufacturing firm and each of its plants
Three dimensions of manufacturing capability:
1. Technological processing capability - the available set
of manufacturing processes
2. Physical size and weight of product
3. Production capacity (plant capacity) max production
quantity that can be made in a given time under
assumed operating conditions

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40

Lean Production
Operating the factory with the minimum possible
resources and yet maximizing the amount of work
accomplished
Resources include workers, equipment, time, space,
materials
Also implies completing products in the minimum possible
time and achieving a very high quality level to completely
satisfy the customer
In short, lean production means doing more with less, and
doing it better
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41

Lean Production and


Manufacturing Activities
Manufacturing activities can be divided into three categories:
1. Value-adding activities - contribute real value to the work
unit
2. Auxiliary activities - support the value-adding activities but
do not contribute value to the product
3. Wasteful activities - do not add value nor do they support
the value adding activities
If not performed, there would be no adverse effect on
the product ELIMINATE !

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42

Programs Associated with


Lean Production

Just-in-time delivery of parts


Worker involvement
Continuous improvement
Reduced setup times
Stop the process when something is wrong
Error prevention
Total productive maintenance

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43

PRODUCTION CONCEPTS AND


MATHEMATICAL MODELS
Production Rate
The production rate for an individual
processing or assembly operation is usually
expressed as an hourly rate, that is, parts or
products per hour.
operation cycle time:
defined as the time that one work unit spends being
processed or assembled. It is the time between when
one work unit begins processing (or assembly) and
when the next unit begins.
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44

Tc = To + Th + Tth -------------------1
where Tc = cycle time, min/pc
To = processing time for the operation, min/pc
Th = handling time (e.g., loading and unloading the
production machine), min/pc and
Tth = tool handling time (e.g., time to change tools),

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45

Production rate for batch production


Production rate for batch production
Time to process one batch(Q units) = Setup time +
processing time, i.e.,
Tb = Tsu + QTc------------------2
where Tb = Batch processing time in min
Tsu = Setup time required for one batch in min

Q = Batch quantity,
Tc = operation cycle time per work unit (min/cycle).
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46

If more than one part is produced each cycle, then


average production time per work unit Tp for Ihe given
machine
Tp = Tb/Q
The average production rate for the machine is simply the
reciprocal of production time. It is usually expressed as an
hourly rate:
Rp = 60/Tp
where Rp hourly production rate tpc/hr),
Tp = average production time per minute (min/pc)
and the constant 60 converts minutes to hours.
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47

For job shop production


when quantity Q = I, the production time per work unit is
the sum of setup and operation cycle times:
Tp = Tsu+Tc

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48

Production Capacity
The maximum rate of output that a production facility (or production
line, work center, or group of work centers) is able to produce under a
given set 01 assumed operating conditions.
Mathematically
PC = (n.S.H.Rp)
Where
PC = production capacity of the facility (output units/wk),
n = number of work centers producing in the facility
S = number of shifts per period (shift/wk),
H = hr/shift (hr),
Rp= hourly production rate of each work center (output units/hr).

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49

Example.
The turret lathe section has six machines. all devoted to
the production of the same part. The section operate 10
shift/wk. The number of hours per shift averages 8.0.
Average production rate of each machine is 17 unit/hr.
Determine the weekly production capacity of the turret
lathe section.
Solution
PC =6(10)(8.0)(17) = 8160 output unit/wk

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Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

50

Utilization and Availability


Utilization referers to the amount of output of a production
facility relative to its capacity.

Mathematically
U = Q/PC
where
U = utilization of the facility,
Q = actual quantity produced by the facility during a given
time period(i.c.,pc/wk),
PC - production capacity for the same period

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51

Example
A production machine operates 80 hr /wk (two shifts, 5days) at full
capacity. Its production rate is 20 unit/hr. During a certain week, the
machine produced 1000 parts and was idle the remaining time. (a)
Determine the production capacity of the machine. (b) What was the
utilization of the machine during the week under consideration?
Solution
(a) The capacity of the machine can be determined using the
assumed 80-hr week as follows:
PC = 80(20) = 1600 unit/wk
(b) Utilization can be determined as the ratio of the number of parts
made by the machine relative to its capacity.
U = 1000/1600 = 0.625 (62.5%)
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

52

Availability
Availability is defined using two other reliability terms,
mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to
repair (MTTR).
A =( MTBF MTTR)/MTBF

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

53

Manufacturing Lead Time


Manufacturing lead time (MLT) as the total time required to
process a given part or product through the plant.
Mathematically
MLT = n(Tsu + QTc + Tno)
Example
A certain part is produced in a batch size of 100 units. The
batch must be routed through five operations to complete
the processing of the parts. Average setup time is 3
hr/operation, and average operation time is 6 min (0.1
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

54

hr).Avcrage nonoperation time due to handling, delays,


inspections, etc., is 7 hours for each operation. Determine
how many days it will take to complete the batch.
assuming the plant runs one 8-hr shift/day.
Solution:
MLT = 5(3 + 100 X 0.1 + 7) = 100 hours
At 8 hr/day, this amounts to 100/8 = 12.5 days

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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55

Work-in-Process
Work inprocess (WIP) is the quantity of parts or products
currently located in the factory that are either being
processed or are between processing operations.
WIP=AU(PC)(WLT)/SH1
WIP = work-in-process in the facility (pc),
A = availability, U = utilization, PC = production capacity of the facility
(pc/wk),
MLT = manufacturing lead time, (wk),
S = number of shifts per week (shift/wk),
H = hours per shift (hr/shift).
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

56

COSTS OF MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS

Manufacturing costs can be classified into two major


categories: (1) fixed costs and (2) variable costs.
A fixed cost is one that remains constant for any level of
production output. Examples include the cost of the factory
building and production equipment, insurance, and
property taxes.
A variable cost is one that varies in proportion to the level
of production output. As output increases, variable cost
increases. Examples include direct labor, raw materials,
and electric power to operate the production equipment.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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57

When fixed cost and variable cost are added, we have the
following total cost equation:
TC == FC + VC(Q)
where
TC = total annual cost
FC = fixed annual cost
VC = variable cost
Q = annual quantity produced

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

58

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

59