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WELCOME

AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Dept. of Civil Engineering

Course No: CE-416


Course Name: PRESTRESS
CONCRETE DESIGN SESSIONAL
2

PRESENTATION
ON
Shear, Bond,
Bearing, Camber,
Deflection
In Prestressed
Concrete

Presentated By
Group : 4
Name

Student ID

Md. Zahidul Islam

10.01.03.142

Shaikh Mahfuzur Rahman

10.01.03.143

Rifath Ara Rimi

10.01.03.145

MD. Jahirul Islam

10.01.03.146

MD. Rakibul Islam

10.01.03.148

Md. Neshar Ahmed

10.01.03.151

Raiyan Fardous Ratul

10.01.03.153

Md. Shahadat Hossain

10.01.03.154

Md. Ridwan-Ur-Rahman

09.02.03.109
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SHEAR
IN
PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE
5

What Is Shear Force


Shear
forces
are
unaligned forces pushing
one part of a body in
one
direction,
and
another part the body in
the opposite direction.
Shear force acting on a
substance in a direction
perpendicular
to
the
extension
of
the
substance.
6

Shear Mechanism
In
a
simply
supported
rectangular
beam,
self weight & super
imposed loads act
downward, reaction
acts
upward.
Resultants
of
all
these vertical forces
generates
vertical

Shear
Normal Concrete Vs Pre-stressed
Concrete

Comparatively smaller sectioned member needed for load carrying, so


less self weight i.e. less shear.

D1
RCC BEAM
D2
Prestressed Concrete Member
D1>D2 i.e. for same load carrying
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Shear
Normal Concrete Vs Pre-stressed
Concrete
Sagged tendon in most case provide
additional shear but opposite direction.

Shear
Normal Concrete Vs Prestressed Concrete

Prestressing prevents the occurrence of


shrinkage cracks which could conceivably
destroy the shear resistance.

10

Modes of
Failure in
Prestressed
Beam
11

FlexureCompression (FC):
Flexure compression failures are the result of having a
beam with higher shear strength than flexural strength.
Failure occurs at the point of maximum flexural stress
where the compressive strain exceeds its capacity.

12

Flexure-Shear Failure
A flexure-shear failure, is the result of a crack which begins as a
flexural crack, but as shear increases, the crack begins to turn
over and incline towards the loading point. Failure finally occurs
when the concrete separates and the two planes of concrete
slide past one another. This mode of failure is common in beams
which do not contain web reinforcement.

13

Shear-Compression Failure
Shear compression failures, shown in Figure, typically occur in beams which contain
adequate web reinforcement. In this mode, the crack propagates through the section
until it begins to penetrate the compression zone. This crack causes a redistribution
of compressive forces in the compression zone onto a smaller area. When the
compressive strength is exceeded, a shear compression failure occurs. This type of
failure is common in deep beams, where arch action is prevalent. The compressive
strut caused by arch action prevents a diagonal tension crack from propagating into
the compression zone.

14

Web-shear Failure
Before a section cracks from flexure, it is possible to exceed the
tensile strength of the concrete at the point of maximum shear
stress. This mode is primarily observed in sections with thin webs.
Failure occurs at the location of peak shear stress, as shown in
Figure. While, the mechanics of this failure are identical to flexureshear, failure is brittle and occurs with little or no warning.

15

Factors Influencing
Shear Strength
Axial Force: Shear failures are commonly due to tensile failure of the concrete.
Axial compression can delay the onset of critical tension in the section, axial
tension can hasten the failure. Compression, such as provided by an axial force
or prestressing tendons, provides an increase in shear strength.
Tensile Strength of Concrete: As the tensile strength of the concrete is
increased, there is a corresponding increase in the shear strength of the
section.
Longitudinal Reinforcement Ratio: Low amount of steel may result in wider
flexural cracks, resulting in reduced dowel action and aggregate interlock.
Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio: High values of require a larger compression
zone, raising the amount of shear which can be transferred by the uncracked
concrete shear transfer mechanism, thus increasing shear strength

16

Shear Carrying of Concrete &


Tendon on Different Tendon Profile

17

Some Important Notes about


Shear in Prestressed Concrete
Prestressed beam never fail under direct shear or punching shear. They
fail as a result of tensile stress produced by shear.
In some rare instance the transverse component of prestress increases the
shear in concrete.
By following load balancing approach, it is theoretically possible to design
a beam with no shear in concrete under a given condition of loading.

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Development of Shear Cracking

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Steps of Shear Design


For a Simply Supported Beam Section with UDL loading

Step -1: Calculate the moment of inertia of


the section.
Step -2: Calculate Support reaction.
Step -3: Calculate Moment at desire beam
section from x distance from support.
Step -4: Calculate a and then the
eccentricity of tendon at desire (x) distance
20
from support i.e. ex

For Flexural Shear Crack


Calculate
Calculate
Calculate Flexural Cracking Moment
Calculation of cracking flexural shear
Calculation of Nominal flexural shear

21

For Web Shear Crack


Calculate
Calculation of Nominal web shear

Calculate ultimate load


Calculate factored shear at a section x distance
from support

22

Shear Reinforcement
Spacing

Smallest spacing among S1, S2, S3


should be chosen as stirrup spacing.

23

End of topic
Shear in
Prestressed
Concrete
24

BOND in
Prestressed
Concrete
25

Definition
Interlocking between two
properties e.g. pre-stressed
tendon and concrete.

26

Main Types of Internal Prestressed


Concrete
Pre-Tension Concrete: Pre-stressing steel is
tension stressed prior to the placement of the
concrete and unloaded after concrete has harden to
required strength.
Bonded post-tensioned concrete: Unstressed
pre-stressing steel is placed with in the concrete and
then tension stressed after concrete has harden to
required strength
Un-bonded post-tensioned concrete: Differs from
bonded post-tensioning by providing the pre-stressing
steel permanent freedom of movement relative to the
concrete.
27

Transfer of Prestressing
Force:
Bond between concrete
and prestressing steel.

Bearing at end anchorages.

28

Existence of
Bond in
Prestressed
concrete
1.PreTension
Concrete

2.Bonded
posttensioned
concrete
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Bond effects in Prestressed


concrete

Bond exists on two different basis:


1. Pre-tensioning system

Used as a means of transferring the prestressing force of


tendon to the concrete section.
2. Post-tensioning system
In this, bond is necessary for two purposes,
-Protection against corrosion
-Increase in ultimate strength

30

Bond effect in Pre-tensioned


construction
1.It is furnished by two factors,
-Reduction in area of cross section of steel
-Adhesive property
2.The phenomenon of recovery of lateral contraction develops
a wedge action at the end of the cable by which prestressing
force is transferred.
3.This property was discussed detail by Hoyer and is called
HOYER EFFECT.
4.Transverse reinforcement has to be provided to resist tensile
force.

31

Bond mechanisms in the


prestressing concrete :
1) Adhesion between concrete and steel
2) Mechanical bond at the concrete and steel
interface
3) Friction in presence of transverse
compression.

32

Hoyer Effect
After stretching the tendon, the diameter
reduces from the original value due to
the Poissons effect. When the prestress
is transferred after the hardening of
concrete, the ends of the tendon sink in
concrete. The prestress at the ends of
the tendon is zero. The diameter of the
tendon regains its original value towards
the end over the transmission length.
The change of diameter from the original
value (at the end) to the reduced value
(after the transmission length), creates a
wedge effect in concrete. This helps in
the transfer of prestress from the tendon
to the concrete. This is known as the
Hoyer effect.

33

Development length(Ld):

The development length (Ld) is the sum


of the transmission length (Lt) and the
bond length (Lb).
34

Transmission length:
The bond needed to transmit the complete prestressing force is called
transmission length(Lt).
The stress in the tendon is zero at the ends of the members. It increases
over the transmission length to the effective prestress (f pe) under service
loads and remains practically constant beyond it.

Fig : Variation of prestress in tendon along transmission length


35

Factors that influence the transmission


length:
1) Type of tendon
wire, strand or bar

2) Size of tendon
3) Stress in tendon
4) Surface deformations of the tendon
Plain, indented, twisted or deformed

5) Strength of concrete at transfer


6) Pace of cutting of tendons
Abrupt flame cutting or slow release of jack

7) Presence of confining reinforcement


8) Effect of creep
9) Compaction of concrete
10) Amount of concrete cover.
36

The bond length:


The bond length (Lb) is the minimum length over which, the stress in the
tendons can increase from the effective prestress(f pe) to ultimate
prestress(fpu) at critical location.

Fig : Variation of prestress in tendon at


ultimate

The expression of the bond length is


derived as,

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The bond length depends on the


following factors:
1) Surface condition of the
tendon
2) Size of tendon
3) Stress in tendon
4) Depth of concrete below
tendon
38

End zone reinforcement


The prestress and the Hoyer effect cause transverse tensile stress (t). This is largest during the
transfer of prestress.
To resist the splitting of concrete, transverse reinforcement need to be provided at each end of a
member along the transmission length. This reinforcement is known as End zone
reinforcement.
The minimum amount of end zone reinforcement is given as,

h = total depth of the section


M= moment at the horizontal plane at the level of
CGC due to the compressive stress block
above CGC
fs = allowable stress in end zone reinforcement

39

Bond in Post-tensioned
construction
Effect of bond in post-tensioned construction has two
distinct purposes;
1.Protection against stress corrosion
-Moisture enters into duct
-Cause corrosion to high tension steel
-Rusting reduces effective area of steel
-This causes splitting of wires called stress corrosion
40

2.Increase in ultimate strength


In bonded construction
-Crack at the critical section does not affect
the strain in steel
-Because of this, the compressive area is not
reduced considerably

41

Process
Concrete is casted around a curved
duct (usually corrugated), to allow room
for the Tendon to be inserted.
After the concrete has hardened the
tendons are pulled in tension and then
wedged.
The duct is then injected with grout
There are 2 layers of bonding media
in post-tensioned construct
-Bond between the steel and the
sheath or duct
-Bond between the sheath and
the concrete
42

End of this
topic

43

Bearing or Bearing plate

44

Definition
A bearing plate is a speciallydesigned metal plate used to spread
the force of a load-bearing wall or
column out over a larger area

Fig: Bearing plates


45

Some Important things to know


The end zone (or end block) of a posttensioned member is a flared region which is
subjected to high stress from the bearing plate
next to the anchorage block. It needs special
design of transverse reinforcement. The
design considerations are bursting force and
bearing stress.

46

Behavior of the local zone


The behavior of the local zone is influenced by
the anchorage device and the additional
confining spiral reinforcement

47

Behavior of the local zone (Contd.)


The transverse tensile stress is known as splitting tensile
stress. The resultant of the tensile stress in a transverse
direction is known as the bursting force(Fbst). Compared to
pre-tensioned members, the transverse tensile stress in
post-tensioned members is much higher.

48

Calculating bursting force


For calculating bursting force (Fbst) an individual
square end zone loaded bearing plate.

49

End Zone Reinforcement


The amount of end zone reinforcement in each
direction (Ast) can be calculated from the
following equation.

50

51

The bearing stress in the local


zone should be limited to the
following allowable bearing stress
(fbr,all)

52

Dispersion of bearing stress in


concrete

53

Manufacturing of an end block


specimen

Fabrication of end zone reinforcement

Anchorage block and guide


54

Manufacturing of an end block


specimen (Contd.)

End zone reinforcement


with guide and duct

End block after casting


55

End of this
topic

56

Camber & Deflection

57

Camber

Camber is the upward deflection in the beam


after release of the prestressing strands due to
the eccentricity of the force in the strands. The
camber of the beam is usually the largest
contribution to hunch.

58

Factors of camber
The ability to predict camber accurately is critical
for the design and constructions . However, this is a
complex task, since the camber is dependent on
many variables, some of which are interdependent
and change over time. Four of the most significant
variables are the properties of the concrete ,
1.
creep of the concrete,
2.
concrete temperature
3.
the magnitude
4.
location of the prestress
59

Deflecti
on
60

Definition
In general, Deflection is the degree to which a
structural element is displaced under a load.

61

Types of Deflection
Short-term deflection occurs immediately
upon the application of a load.
Long-term deflection takes into account
the long-term shrinkage and creep
movements.

62

Causes of Deflection in PSC Beams

Due to external loads

Due to prestress force


63

Tendon Profile
The deflection due to prestress depends on
the profile of the c.g.s. line

64

Methods of Calculation
Double Integration Method
Moment Area Method
Conjugate Beam Method
Principle of Virtual Load
65

Calculations of the Short-term


Deflection
The usual loading which should be
investigated in calculating
deflections are:
Prestress plus dead load
Prestress plus maximum service load
Prestress plus minimum service load

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YOU
68

ANY
QUESTION

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