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AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Course Name: PRESTRESS

CONCRETE DESIGN SESSIONAL

2

PRESENTATION

ON

Shear, Bond,

Bearing, Camber,

Deflection

In Prestressed

Concrete

Presentated By

Group : 4

Name

Student ID

10.01.03.142

10.01.03.143

10.01.03.145

10.01.03.146

10.01.03.148

10.01.03.151

10.01.03.153

10.01.03.154

Md. Ridwan-Ur-Rahman

09.02.03.109

4

SHEAR

IN

PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE

5

Shear

forces

are

unaligned forces pushing

one part of a body in

one

direction,

and

another part the body in

the opposite direction.

Shear force acting on a

substance in a direction

perpendicular

to

the

extension

of

the

substance.

6

Shear Mechanism

In

a

simply

supported

rectangular

beam,

self weight & super

imposed loads act

downward, reaction

acts

upward.

Resultants

of

all

these vertical forces

generates

vertical

Shear

Normal Concrete Vs Pre-stressed

Concrete

less self weight i.e. less shear.

D1

RCC BEAM

D2

Prestressed Concrete Member

D1>D2 i.e. for same load carrying

8

Shear

Normal Concrete Vs Pre-stressed

Concrete

Sagged tendon in most case provide

additional shear but opposite direction.

Shear

Normal Concrete Vs Prestressed Concrete

shrinkage cracks which could conceivably

destroy the shear resistance.

10

Modes of

Failure in

Prestressed

Beam

11

FlexureCompression (FC):

Flexure compression failures are the result of having a

beam with higher shear strength than flexural strength.

Failure occurs at the point of maximum flexural stress

where the compressive strain exceeds its capacity.

12

Flexure-Shear Failure

A flexure-shear failure, is the result of a crack which begins as a

flexural crack, but as shear increases, the crack begins to turn

over and incline towards the loading point. Failure finally occurs

when the concrete separates and the two planes of concrete

slide past one another. This mode of failure is common in beams

which do not contain web reinforcement.

13

Shear-Compression Failure

Shear compression failures, shown in Figure, typically occur in beams which contain

adequate web reinforcement. In this mode, the crack propagates through the section

until it begins to penetrate the compression zone. This crack causes a redistribution

of compressive forces in the compression zone onto a smaller area. When the

compressive strength is exceeded, a shear compression failure occurs. This type of

failure is common in deep beams, where arch action is prevalent. The compressive

strut caused by arch action prevents a diagonal tension crack from propagating into

the compression zone.

14

Web-shear Failure

Before a section cracks from flexure, it is possible to exceed the

tensile strength of the concrete at the point of maximum shear

stress. This mode is primarily observed in sections with thin webs.

Failure occurs at the location of peak shear stress, as shown in

Figure. While, the mechanics of this failure are identical to flexureshear, failure is brittle and occurs with little or no warning.

15

Factors Influencing

Shear Strength

Axial Force: Shear failures are commonly due to tensile failure of the concrete.

Axial compression can delay the onset of critical tension in the section, axial

tension can hasten the failure. Compression, such as provided by an axial force

or prestressing tendons, provides an increase in shear strength.

Tensile Strength of Concrete: As the tensile strength of the concrete is

increased, there is a corresponding increase in the shear strength of the

section.

Longitudinal Reinforcement Ratio: Low amount of steel may result in wider

flexural cracks, resulting in reduced dowel action and aggregate interlock.

Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio: High values of require a larger compression

zone, raising the amount of shear which can be transferred by the uncracked

concrete shear transfer mechanism, thus increasing shear strength

16

Tendon on Different Tendon Profile

17

Shear in Prestressed Concrete

Prestressed beam never fail under direct shear or punching shear. They

fail as a result of tensile stress produced by shear.

In some rare instance the transverse component of prestress increases the

shear in concrete.

By following load balancing approach, it is theoretically possible to design

a beam with no shear in concrete under a given condition of loading.

18

19

For a Simply Supported Beam Section with UDL loading

the section.

Step -2: Calculate Support reaction.

Step -3: Calculate Moment at desire beam

section from x distance from support.

Step -4: Calculate a and then the

eccentricity of tendon at desire (x) distance

20

from support i.e. ex

Calculate

Calculate

Calculate Flexural Cracking Moment

Calculation of cracking flexural shear

Calculation of Nominal flexural shear

21

Calculate

Calculation of Nominal web shear

Calculate factored shear at a section x distance

from support

22

Shear Reinforcement

Spacing

should be chosen as stirrup spacing.

23

End of topic

Shear in

Prestressed

Concrete

24

BOND in

Prestressed

Concrete

25

Definition

Interlocking between two

properties e.g. pre-stressed

tendon and concrete.

26

Concrete

Pre-Tension Concrete: Pre-stressing steel is

tension stressed prior to the placement of the

concrete and unloaded after concrete has harden to

required strength.

Bonded post-tensioned concrete: Unstressed

pre-stressing steel is placed with in the concrete and

then tension stressed after concrete has harden to

required strength

Un-bonded post-tensioned concrete: Differs from

bonded post-tensioning by providing the pre-stressing

steel permanent freedom of movement relative to the

concrete.

27

Transfer of Prestressing

Force:

Bond between concrete

and prestressing steel.

28

Existence of

Bond in

Prestressed

concrete

1.PreTension

Concrete

2.Bonded

posttensioned

concrete

29

concrete

1. Pre-tensioning system

tendon to the concrete section.

2. Post-tensioning system

In this, bond is necessary for two purposes,

-Protection against corrosion

-Increase in ultimate strength

30

construction

1.It is furnished by two factors,

-Reduction in area of cross section of steel

-Adhesive property

2.The phenomenon of recovery of lateral contraction develops

a wedge action at the end of the cable by which prestressing

force is transferred.

3.This property was discussed detail by Hoyer and is called

HOYER EFFECT.

4.Transverse reinforcement has to be provided to resist tensile

force.

31

prestressing concrete :

1) Adhesion between concrete and steel

2) Mechanical bond at the concrete and steel

interface

3) Friction in presence of transverse

compression.

32

Hoyer Effect

After stretching the tendon, the diameter

reduces from the original value due to

the Poissons effect. When the prestress

is transferred after the hardening of

concrete, the ends of the tendon sink in

concrete. The prestress at the ends of

the tendon is zero. The diameter of the

tendon regains its original value towards

the end over the transmission length.

The change of diameter from the original

value (at the end) to the reduced value

(after the transmission length), creates a

wedge effect in concrete. This helps in

the transfer of prestress from the tendon

to the concrete. This is known as the

Hoyer effect.

33

Development length(Ld):

of the transmission length (Lt) and the

bond length (Lb).

34

Transmission length:

The bond needed to transmit the complete prestressing force is called

transmission length(Lt).

The stress in the tendon is zero at the ends of the members. It increases

over the transmission length to the effective prestress (f pe) under service

loads and remains practically constant beyond it.

35

length:

1) Type of tendon

wire, strand or bar

2) Size of tendon

3) Stress in tendon

4) Surface deformations of the tendon

Plain, indented, twisted or deformed

6) Pace of cutting of tendons

Abrupt flame cutting or slow release of jack

8) Effect of creep

9) Compaction of concrete

10) Amount of concrete cover.

36

The bond length (Lb) is the minimum length over which, the stress in the

tendons can increase from the effective prestress(f pe) to ultimate

prestress(fpu) at critical location.

ultimate

derived as,

37

following factors:

1) Surface condition of the

tendon

2) Size of tendon

3) Stress in tendon

4) Depth of concrete below

tendon

38

The prestress and the Hoyer effect cause transverse tensile stress (t). This is largest during the

transfer of prestress.

To resist the splitting of concrete, transverse reinforcement need to be provided at each end of a

member along the transmission length. This reinforcement is known as End zone

reinforcement.

The minimum amount of end zone reinforcement is given as,

M= moment at the horizontal plane at the level of

CGC due to the compressive stress block

above CGC

fs = allowable stress in end zone reinforcement

39

Bond in Post-tensioned

construction

Effect of bond in post-tensioned construction has two

distinct purposes;

1.Protection against stress corrosion

-Moisture enters into duct

-Cause corrosion to high tension steel

-Rusting reduces effective area of steel

-This causes splitting of wires called stress corrosion

40

In bonded construction

-Crack at the critical section does not affect

the strain in steel

-Because of this, the compressive area is not

reduced considerably

41

Process

Concrete is casted around a curved

duct (usually corrugated), to allow room

for the Tendon to be inserted.

After the concrete has hardened the

tendons are pulled in tension and then

wedged.

The duct is then injected with grout

There are 2 layers of bonding media

in post-tensioned construct

-Bond between the steel and the

sheath or duct

-Bond between the sheath and

the concrete

42

End of this

topic

43

44

Definition

A bearing plate is a speciallydesigned metal plate used to spread

the force of a load-bearing wall or

column out over a larger area

45

The end zone (or end block) of a posttensioned member is a flared region which is

subjected to high stress from the bearing plate

next to the anchorage block. It needs special

design of transverse reinforcement. The

design considerations are bursting force and

bearing stress.

46

The behavior of the local zone is influenced by

the anchorage device and the additional

confining spiral reinforcement

47

The transverse tensile stress is known as splitting tensile

stress. The resultant of the tensile stress in a transverse

direction is known as the bursting force(Fbst). Compared to

pre-tensioned members, the transverse tensile stress in

post-tensioned members is much higher.

48

For calculating bursting force (Fbst) an individual

square end zone loaded bearing plate.

49

The amount of end zone reinforcement in each

direction (Ast) can be calculated from the

following equation.

50

51

zone should be limited to the

following allowable bearing stress

(fbr,all)

52

concrete

53

specimen

54

specimen (Contd.)

with guide and duct

55

End of this

topic

56

57

Camber

after release of the prestressing strands due to

the eccentricity of the force in the strands. The

camber of the beam is usually the largest

contribution to hunch.

58

Factors of camber

The ability to predict camber accurately is critical

for the design and constructions . However, this is a

complex task, since the camber is dependent on

many variables, some of which are interdependent

and change over time. Four of the most significant

variables are the properties of the concrete ,

1.

creep of the concrete,

2.

concrete temperature

3.

the magnitude

4.

location of the prestress

59

Deflecti

on

60

Definition

In general, Deflection is the degree to which a

structural element is displaced under a load.

61

Types of Deflection

Short-term deflection occurs immediately

upon the application of a load.

Long-term deflection takes into account

the long-term shrinkage and creep

movements.

62

63

Tendon Profile

The deflection due to prestress depends on

the profile of the c.g.s. line

64

Methods of Calculation

Double Integration Method

Moment Area Method

Conjugate Beam Method

Principle of Virtual Load

65

Deflection

The usual loading which should be

investigated in calculating

deflections are:

Prestress plus dead load

Prestress plus maximum service load

Prestress plus minimum service load

66

67

THANK

YOU

68

ANY

QUESTION

69

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