Anda di halaman 1dari 24

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

Challenges of Food Security in India

S. P. Singh
Professor of Economics, Dept of HSS, IIT Roorkee

Outline of the Presentation


Key Issues
Current State of Hunger and Malnutrition
Supply-side Challenges
Three Trade-offs
Virtual Water and Food Security
Shrinking Land and Water Resources
Food Productivity, Quality and Waste

Actionable Points

Key Issues

Food security: no less than the national security

Water, food, and livelihoodinterconnected issues

Population growth, constrained natural resources and climate change

Rising population, urbanization, industrialization, changing dietary pattern, crop


diversification

Food energy linkages

Production of wage-goods and non-wage goods

Shrinking land and water resources and their rising demand for non-agricultural
purposes and ecosystem services

Regional disparities in access to arable land and water resources (key drivers of
agricultural growth and food production)

Transfer of virtual water from water-scarce to water-rich regions

Physical and economic scarcities of water

Inefficiency in water use and food consumption

Access to safe and healthy food (organic food)


3

Concept of Food Security


FAO defines it:
Food security exists when all people, at all times have physical and
economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their
dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Three dimensions
Availability
Affordability
Absorption

State of Hunger and Malnutrition


190 million undernourished people (16% of Indian population) during 2009-11
(210.8 M in 1990-92). Indias share in the world increased from 20.78% to
23.61%
IFPRI: GHI 2014 ranks India at 55 out of 76 counties (GHI went down from
31.2 in 1990 to 17.8 in 2014)
In Global Food Security Index 2015 India ranks 68 out of 109 countries
NFHS : Aneamia among ever-married women and children has increased from
53.9% and 75.3% in 1998-99 to 58.2% and 81.2% respectively in 2005-06 in
rural areas and from 45.7% and 70.8% to 51.5% I and 72.7% n urban areas.
Inadequate and inefficient delivery of basic amenities put enormous burden of
diseases on households, especially the poor who are not able to afford to have
costly water-purifying system and other amenities
Food absorption depends on peoples access to safe drinking water, sanitation
and hygiene facilities.
5

Trend in GHI of India and


neighours
Country

1990

1995

2000

2005

2014

India

31.2

26.9

25.5

24.2

17.8

Nepal

28.4

26.8

25.2

22.2

16.4

Banglade
sh

36.6

34.4

24.0

19.8

19.1

Pakistan

26.7

23.3

22.1

21.0

19.1

Sri Lanka

22.2

20.2

17.6

16.8

15.1

Low
4.9

Modera Serious
te
10-19.9
5-9.9

Alarmin
g
20-29.9

Extreme
ly
3 0.0

Trend in per capita consumption of


food grains (kgs/months)
Year

Rural

Urban

Cereals

Pulses

Cereals

pulses

1999-00

12.72

0.84

10.42

1.0

2004-05

12.12

0.71

9.94

0.82

2011-12

11.22

0.78

9.28

0.90

Per capita consumption of Calorie, Protein


and Fats for rural and urban households in
India
Calorie (Kcl)

Protein (gms )

Fats (gms)

Rural
2151

Urban
2071

Rural
60.2

Urban
57.2

Rural
31.4

Urban
42.0

199900

2149

2156

59.1

58.5

36.1

49.6

2004-5

2047

2020

57.0

57.0

35.5

47.5

201112

2233

2206

60.7

60.3

46.1

58.0

Year

199394

Per capita calorie, protein and fats intake


across MPCE fractile classes in 2011-12
MPCE
Fractile Calorie
Class
(Kcl)
0-5
5-10
10-20
20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-80

Rural

1633
(70.4)
1816
(67.4)
1933
(65.2)
2010
(63.5)
2083
(61.0)
2158
(59.3)
2228
(58.1)
2291(56.
3)
2399

Urban

Protein
(mg)

Fats (mg)

Calorie
(Kcl)

Protein
(mg)

Fats (mg)

42.8
(72)
48.0 (69)

20.8

44.0
(68)
47.5 (63)

26.5

51.5 (67)

30.4

50.6 (60)

39.5

53.8(65)

33.8

53.3(57)

44.9

56.2 (62)

38.2

55.9(54)

50.2

58.3 (61)

42.3

57.7(51)

54.7

60.5 (59)

45.6

60.2 (51)

58.6

62.5 (57)

49.9

62.1(47)

63.4

65.8 (55)

54.7

1637
(65.5)
1754
(60.4)
1856
(58.1)
1942
(55.5)
2041
(52.8)
2117
(50.0)
2199
(49.4)
2265
(46.3)
2410

66.0(45)

69.8

26.0

34.4

Per capita monthly consumption of PDS and


non-PDS quantity of rice and wheat in India
(kgs)
Item
s

Year

Rice
Wheat
Rice+
wheat

Rural

Urban

PDS

NonPDS

Total

PDS

Non- Total
PDS

2004-05

0.84 (13.2%)

5.54

6.38

0.53 (12.7%) 4.18

4.71

2011-12

1.67 (28.5%)

4.18

5.85

0.88 (19.6%) 3.61

4.49

2004-05

0.31 (7.4%)

3.89

4.20

0.17 (4.0%)

4.19

4.36

2011-12

0.74 (17.3%)

3.54

4.28

0.41 (9.4%)

3.61

4.02

2004-05

1.15 (10.9%)

9.43

10.58

0.70 (7.7%)

8.37

9.07

2011-12

2.41(23.7%)

7.72

10.17

1.29 (15.2%) 7.22

8.51

10

Item-wise share of food expenditure in


total consumer expenditure (%)
Item

Rural

Urban

Cereal

200405
18.2

201112
12.3

199394
14.3

200405
10.2

2011-12
7.4

Pulses

3.1

3.1

3.0

2.1

2.1

Milk & milk


products

8.5

9.1

9.8

7.9

7.8

Edible oils

4.6

3.8

4.4

3.5

2.7

Egg, meat &


fish

3.3

3.6

3.4

2.7

2.8

Vegetables

6.1

4.8

5.5

4.5

3.4

Fruits & Nuts

1.9

1.9

2.7

2.1

2.3

Salt & Spices

2.5

2.4

2.0

1.7

1.7

Sugar

2.4

1.8

2.4

1.5

1.2

Beverage

4.5

5.8

7.2

6.2

7.1

Total food

55.0

48.6

54.7

42.5

38.5

11

Item-wise share of non-food


expenditure in total food consumer
expenditure
Item

Rural
2011-12
2.4

2004-05
1.6

2011-12
1.4

10.2

9.2

9.9

7.6

Clothing & footwear

5.3

7.6

4.7

6.5

Education

2.7

3.1

5.0

5.7

Medical Care

6.6

6.9

5.2

5.5

Conveyance

3.8

4.5

5.5

7.5

Consumer Services
excl. Conveyance
Rent
Entertainment

3.8

4.5

7.0

6.5

0.5
0.6

0.5
1.1

5.6
1.9

7.0
1.8

Other items

8.8

11.6

11.1

12.0

Total Non-food

45.0

51.4

57.5

61.5

Pan,
tobacco
intoxicants
Fuel & light

2004-05
& 2.7

Urban

12

Supply-Side Challenges
Trade off between Food and Fuel
Trade off between Food and Feed
Trade off between Food and Wood
Virtual Water and Food Security
Shrinking Land and Water Resources
Food Productivity, Quality and Waste

13

Trade off between Food and


Fuel
Rising energy prices affected the food security in two ways:
1. Diversion of food towards production of bio-energy (cereal required to
produce 50 litres ethanol to fill tank of car can feed one person for a yr.)
Bio-ethanol yield (L/T) barley, rice/paddy, sorghum, & wheat (434);
maize:428, potato:131; and sugarcane: 99
Arguments in favour of production of ethanol directly from sugarcane
2. Increasing energy prices make agricultural production more expensive via

raising the cost of mechanized farming

Share of mechanical and electrical energy in the total energy in agri. has
increased from 39.63% in 1971-72 to 86.6% in 2005-06. Share of tractor in
the power in agri. has increased from 7.49% to 46.70%.

Energy intensification in agri. has increased external inputs cost. Therefore, if


food prices are controlled by banning export and reducing import duties, farmers
would get disincentives to grow more food (supply side constraints).
14

Trade off between Food and


Increase in demand for high income-elastic and more water-intensive
Feed
dairy and meat products

Diversion of water, land and other resources towards these products


Implications for food security
Increase in indirect demand for cereals raises prices and affects their
availability for direct consumption for poor households, who draw 60-70%
calories from cereals.
Increase their vulnerability to external shocks as they spend large share of
their income on food
Adversely affects their other needs such as medical-care & educationlead
to low level of human capital and poor productivity
Positive impact on the livelihoods of SMF & poor livestock holders
Diversification of SMF towards F&V, Dairy & Meat as 50% food
requirement would be met from PDS
15

Trade off between Food and


Wood
Diversion of land from crop cultivation to wood farming (more remunerative and
eco-friendly than crop husbandry)

Rising GDP lead to more demand for wood for various uses, including paper
Labour shortage, low profitability in crops, and increasing absentee land owners
and assured returns are the key reasons
NSS survey on farmers: Farmers are quitting agriculture (28 million jobs lost
during 7 years); no longer a respectable & remunerative job,; 41% hh BPL; av
income of hh Rs.6426 (40% from NF activities); Rs.43 per capita per day);
86.59% farmers (SMF) 50% income from NFS; income of 69.43% MF:
Rs4718; consumption Expenditure: Rs5701 per month
The gradual shift of workers from farm to non-farm may increase more land area
under plantation, thus creating supply-side constraint to the food security.
Increasing indirect demand for cereals and declining areas under cultivation can
generate inflationary pressure and consequently the fiscal burden of food
security on the government.
16

Virtual Water and Food


Security

Water saving can take place when food exporter is water-efficient than the
importer. For example, water savings occur if exporter produces in rain-fed
condition, while importer would have used irrigation water.

Punjab contributes 36% rice and 56% wheat to the central pool

About 21 billion M3 virtual water goes out every year (76% GW). Haryana, and
western U P also contribute to the central pool.

GW has been depleting very fast in the Northern India


Punjab: 75 out of 137 blocks over exploited; GW development 145%
Haryana: 49 out of 113 blocks overexploited; GW development 109%
% share of export of virtual water: Punjab (54.5%), followed by Haryana
(47.29%), MP (24.55%), UP (21.53%), Rajasthan (17.01) and AP (10%).
% share of import of VW: Kerala (382.15%), Jharkhand (80%), Bihar (40.36%),
Gujarat (23.7%) and Maharashtra (16.5%).
Huge environmental and ecological cost of nations food security

17

Water use, virtual water flows and net import


by state (1997-2001) in million M3
State

AP
Assam
Bihar
Chhattisg
arh
Gujarat
Haryana
Jharkhan
d
Karnataka
Kerala
MP
Maharasht
ra
Orissa
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil
Nadu
UP

Wate VW Export
r Use InterInternation
state
al

VW Import

Net
Impo
rt

Interstat
e

Internation
al

66652
17812
38283
27912

4952
4
149
2835

1711
0
1
699

569
2304
14469
2544

774
155
983
558

-5319
2455
15302
-431

42678
31956
11593

3847
13006
0

3120
2105
0

9186
638
8853

941
339
430

3160
-14134
9283

43358
2897
64863
80390

3130
0
7671
5788

365
2
8254
3949

3699
10180
4933
11836

214
891
162
1461

418
11069
-10831
3560

37801
43036
60169
35496

149
19351
9852
4293

21
4095
388
285

4552
1658
5504
1397

416
914
512
967

4797
-20874
-4224
-2214

12785
5

24542

2988

4777

1953

-20800
18

Shrinking Land and Water


Resources
Due to urbanization, industrialization and rising per capita GDP, demand for land
and water for non-farm uses have been constantly increasing.
NSS 70th Round: Area under operational holdings declined from 107.65 Mha in
2002-03 to 94.48Mha in 2012-13; Av size from 1.06 ha to 0.91 ha; Owned land
from 107.23 Mha to 92.37 Mha
13-15 Mha converted into non-agricultural uses
Expansion of cities and towns means shrinking of agricultural land, water and
other natural resources, thus having serious implications for future food security
100 smart cities, equipped with all modern infrastructure, including smart
buildings, roads, sanitation, sewerage, power back up, information technology
and responsive public and private institutions
87% of total water used in agriculture
Increasing demand of water for environmental and cultural services
19

Food Productivity, Quality and Waste

Huge productivity gap between what the technologist gets in the experimental
farm and what a farmer gets on his farm.

NFSM targeted to increase the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and
2 million tons.

Potential to increase wheat output up to 40% and paddy 100% by bridging the
yield gaps.

Productivity growth in food production helps to achieve food security in two


ways: making food affordable and generating additional income and
employment opportunities.

Knowledge-deficit

How to attract educated youths in farming activities, especially in doing


innovations in agricultural practices, is a major supply-side concern.

20

Food Productivity, Quality


Promotion of sustainable agricultural practices, including organic farming, to
and
Waste
provide safe and quality food and maintain soil health, water quality, and reduce
non-point sources of pollution of water bodies.

Keeping in view of negative externalities of conventional farming,


environmentally sustainable farm practices would be more cost-effective

Inadequate food safety laws, poor food standards, and insufficient qualitytesting infrastructure are the major issues in regard of food quality and safety.

The need of hour is to enhance public investment on upgrading the existing


quality and safety management system, education and training of staff, and
quality assurance measures.

Huge post-harvest loss of food: ranging from 6% in cereals to 30% in F&V (2


lakh crores annually F&V and 12-16 MT Food grains)
21

Actionable Points
Boost investment in agriculture innovation systems, including technology transfer
and farm extension services, rural infrastructure, post-harvest R&D.
Price stability, crop insurance, reform in tenancy and lease laws, and incentives to
food processing industries .
Decentralization of procurement and distribution and involvement of PRIs.
Reduction in water use in agriculture through better technology (laser leveling,
zero tillage, sprinkler & drip irrigation), management practices and change in
cropping pattern. (water credit system and irrigation literacy)
CSR funds in training & capacity building of farmers
Policy support for sustainable and organic farming (1/3 rd Subsidies be diverted
towards organic farming)
Public investment in water, sanitation and sewerage systems (absorption)
Promotion of group farming
Set up Risk Mitigation Fund (technology, market and monsoon failures)
Develop a supply chain system that benefits both farmers and consumers
22

Thank You

23

Thank
You

24