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Modeling of Yield Strength for

the 6063 Al-Mg-Si Alloy


Supriya Nandy
and
Dr. D. Das

This investigation is a part of my


Under Graduate Project Work

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur


now
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and
Technology, Shibpur
COMPOSIT 2014

IITKGP, West Bengal, India

March 8-9, 2014

Motivation
6063 Al-Mg-Si alloy is one of the most important alloys
extensively used for structural purposes due to its remarkable
aging response, moderately good strength along with good
corrosion resistance

It is much cheaper than other age-hardenable Al-alloys (2XXX


and 7XXX series).

Motivation
Yield strength is one of the most important properties for design and
selection of structural purpose
Many of the recent studies regarding aluminum alloys are directed
to predict the yield strength of age-hardenable Al-alloys, but, no
work has been carried out in order to predict the yield strength of
Aluminum 6063 alloy

Objectives
The present work is directed to predict the yield strength of the
alloy considering non-shearable particles model
Attempt has also been made to generate the yield strength-timetemperature contour map which can be used for selection of
ageing parameters to achieve a particular level of yield strength
Studies on the age-hardening characteristics and variations of
tensile properties with ageing conditions of AA6063 is an integral
part of the work

Material
As extruded commercially available materials are used for
investigation. Those cylindrical extruded rod have 16.5 mm
diameter and have nominal composition of AA6063.

Element Weight
s
%
Si

0.4

Mg

0.7

Fe

0.15

Mn

0.1 max

Cu

0.1 max

Al

Rem.
As extruded 6063 Al-Mg-Si rods

Heat Treatments
Specimens (16.5 mm dia, 10 mm thickness) for hardness and round bar
tensile (6 mm gauge diameter, 25 mm gauge length) as per ASTM E8M
were cut from the rod and subjected to heat treatment schedules as
depicted below:

Measurements and Observations


Hardness: Heat treated specimens are polished and their hardness were
taken at 2kg load with dwell time of 10 seconds (ASTM E92). On
average 12 readings were taken and accordingly those data are plotted at
selected temperature.

Tensile Testing: Tensile specimens are machined as per ASTM E8M


standard. Then the heat treated specimens are polished and their
mechanical properties were tested by INSTRON 8801 at strain rate of
10-3 s-1. Fracture surface some selected tensile specimens were observed
under scanning electron microscope.

Hardness

Tensile Properties

Fracture Surfaces

Highly UnderAged

Highly OverAged

Fundamentals of Modeling
Considerations:
The precipitation strengthening associated with this strength
model is derived with the basic interaction of unshearable
particles and dislocations
Main strengthening precipitate is considered to be (Mg5Si6,
rod shaped and oriented in {100}||<100> with matrix)
Aspect ratio is weekly dependent on state of ageing

Marioara, C.D; Anderson, S.J.; Jansen, J. and Zandbergen, H.W.; Acta Mater., 49 (2001), pp. 321
Edward, G.A; Stiller, K.; Dunlop, G.L. and Couper, M.J.; Acta Mater., 46 (1998), pp. 3893
Liu, G.; Zhang, G.J.; Ding, X.D.; Sun, J. and Chen, K.H.; Mater. Sci. and Eng. A, 344 (2003), pp. 113

Fundamentals of Modeling

Precipitation strengthening
+
Grain boundary strengthening
Yield strength =

+
Solid Solution strengthening
+
Dislocation strengthening

Fundamentals of Modeling
Precipitation strengthening

0.158r
0.13MG
f v 0.75 A f v 0.14 Af v ln

ppt
r
2r A
0

1
2

3
2

This equation of precipitation strengthening consists of parameter like vol. fraction ),


radius of precipitate ( are calculated using HCC theory and Becker-Doring Law.

2
r
3
fv

Dt

G *
2 r 3
*

A0 Z exp
t
Avat
RT

Zhu, A.W. and Starke, E.A.Jr.; Acta Mater., 47 (1999), pp. 3263
Liu, G.; Zhang, G.J.; Ding, X.D.; Sun, J. and Chen, K.H.; Mater. Sci. and Eng. A, 344 (2003), pp. 113

Fundamentals of Modeling
Grain boundary strengthening

gb

i K *d

1
2

Solid Solution strengthening

ss

3
02
i

Ki * C
i

Dislocation strengthening

Gb
ds M L

Fundamentals of Modeling

gb

i K *d

y .s.

gb

ss

ppt

1
2

0.158r
0.13MG
f v 0.75 A f v 0.14 Af v ln

ppt
r
2r A
0

1
2

ss

3
02
i

Ki * C
i

Gb
ds M L

3
2

ds

Nomenclature and Values


Parameter

Symbol

Nominal concentration of Magnesium (at. %)

Value(s) / Expression(s)
0.7766

Nominal concentration of Silicon (at. %)

0.3883

Standard enthalpy of the reversible Mg2Si


dissolution/precipitation reaction (kJ/mol)
Standard entropy of the reversible Mg2Si
dissolution/precipitation reaction (J/mol)

H0

94

S0

112

Equilibrium solute concentration at the particle/matrix


interface (at. %)
Pre-exponential term in expression for diffusivity
(m2/s)
Activation energy for diffusion (kJ/mol)

D0

2.2x10-4

Qd

130

Molar Volume(mol/m3)
Particle/matrix interfacial energy (J/m2)

at

7.62x10-5
0.26

Dislocation core radius


Scaling factor in solid solution hardening model (Pa/wt
%2/3)
Growth Parameter

r0

0.6 nm
KMg= 29.0
KSi= 66.3

Ki

Zeldovichs factor
Critical radius for precipitate

Z
r*

Critical parameter for nucleation

Lattice Parameter of precipitate

0.05

0.639 nm

Grong, ., Metallurgical Modelling of Welding, 2nd ed. The Inst. of Mater., London, pp. 1997.
Hatch, J. E.; AluminiumProperties and Physical Metallurgy, ASM, Metals Park, OH, pp. 1984.
Myhr, O.R.; Grong, .; Anderson, S.J.; Acta Mater., 49 (2001), pp. 65.
Cavazos, J.L. and Colas, R.; Mater. Char., 47 (2001), pp. 175.

Calibration Procedure

The strength of the alloy is calibrated with respect to nucleation barrier and
aspect ratio at 125 OC, 175 OC and 225 OCtemperature using experimented values.

In this calibration the maximum volume fraction of precipitate is considered to be


1.5%. Also, aspect ratio is considered between 4 to 8.

Then, nucleation barrier is plotted against temperature to find out the relationship
between nucleation barrier and temperature, which is afterwards used to obtain
and compare predicted data at other three temperature of aging (150 OC, 200 OC
and 250 OC) with experimented data and to create the yield strength mapping.

Roven, J.H.; Liu, M. and Werenskiold, C. J.; Mater. Sci. and Eng. A, 483 (2008), pp. 54.
Panigrahi, S. K. and Jayaganthan, R.; Met. and Mater. Trans. A, 41A (2010), pp. 2675
Liu, G.; Zhang, G.J.; Ding, X.D.; Sun, J. and Chen, K.H.; Mater. Sci. and Eng. A, 344 (2003), pp. 113

Calibration Procedure

Calibrated Values

Calibration Result

The above curve, when fitted linearly, can be represented by empirical relationship of
*

G 324.85 T 95027.8

Predicted Values

Contribution Curve

Yield Strength Mapping

Conclusion

The forgoing attempt can be concluded as:


1. Age-hardening characteristics of the 6063 AlMg-Si alloy has been rigorously carried out.
2. The model can successfully predict the yield
strength values at any state of aging which may
be used to determine parameters regarding
artificial aging of 6063 Al-Mg-Si alloy.