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Form , Source and function in Plant

Element
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfur

Nutrient Form
++
Ca
++
Mg
-SO4

1. Essential Nutrietns of Plants


Chemical
dry
Element
symbol
concentration_____

Atomic
weight

Ionic forms
Absorbed by plants

Approximate
____

Mccronutrients
Nitrogen
N
14.01
NO3-, NH4+
4.0 %
Phosphorus
P
30.98
PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO40.5 %
Potassium
K
39.10
K+
4.0 %
Magnesium
Mg
24.32
Mg2+
0.5 %
Sulfur
S
32.07
SO420.5 %
Calcium
Ca
40.08
Ca2+
1.0 %
Micronutrients
Iron
Fe
55.85
Fe2+, Fe3+
200 ppm
Manganese
Mn
54.94
Mn2+
200 ppm
Zinc
Zn
65.38
Zn2+
30 ppm
Copper
Cu
63.54
Cu2+
10 ppm
Boron
B
10.82
BO32-, B4O7260 ppm
Molybdenum
Mo
95.95 MoO422 ppm
Chlorine
Cl
35.46
Cl
3000 ppm

MACRONUTRIENTS
SECONDARY
Element Main Function

Primary
Source

Approx.
Conc. in
Plants

Calcium
(Ca)

Structural
component of
cell walls; cell
elongation;
affects cell
permeability

Soil minerals,
limestone

0.1-3%

Magnesiu
m (Mg)

Component of
chlorophyll;
enzyme
activator; cell
division

Soil minerals,
dolomitic
limestone

0.05-1%

Sulfur

Constituent of

Soil organic

0.05-

Form , Source and function in


Plant

KALSIU
M (Ca)

Penyusun lamela tengah dinding


sel.
Kofaktor bbrp ensim dlm hidrolisis
ATP & fosfolipida.
Berperan sbg messenger ke 2 dlm
pengaturan metabolisme.

1) Soil Relations
- Present in large quantities in earths surface (~1% in US top soils)
- Influences availability of other ions from soil

2) Plant Functions
- Component of cell wall
- Involved in cell membrane function
- Largely present as calcium pectate in meddle lamela
Calcium pectate is immobile in plant tissues

3) Deficiency and Toxicity


- Deficiency symptoms in young leaves and new shoots (Ca is
immobile)
Stunted growth, leaf distortion, necrotic spots, shoot tip death
Blossom-end rot in tomato

- No Ca toxicity symptoms have been observed

4) Fertilizers
- Agricultural meal (finely ground CaCO 3MgCO3)
- Lime (CaCO3), Gypsum (CaSO4)
- Superphosphate
- Bone meal-organic P source

Calcium (Ca)
Plant available form: Ca+2
Plant immobile, very limited soil mobility
Functions: Cell membrane integrity, co-enzyme
Excess:
Mg uptake interference

Deficiency:
Inhibited bud growth, root tip death, mature leaf cupping, weak
growth, blossom end rot and pits on fruits

Notes:
Usually corrected with pH, Water stress affects Ca relationships.

Calcium
Is mobile in the soil
Moves to root by mass flow
Can be leached particularly sandy soils
Deficiency sometimes seen in dry soils
when there isnt enough water to transport
Ca

Is held on the cation exchange


Low pH soils likely to be low in Ca

Factors Affecting Ca Availability


Total Ca supply & % Ca saturation of CEC
Low CEC soil with 1000 ppm Ca supply more Ca to
plants than high CEC soil with 2000 ppm Ca
Soil pH
Low soil pH impedes Ca uptake
Type of soil clay
2:1 clays require > Ca saturation of CEC compared to
1:1 clays to supply adequate Ca
Ratio of solution Ca2+ to other cations
Uptake depressed by NH4+, K+, Mg+, Mn2+, Al2+
Absorption increased by NO3-

Calcium Deficiency Tip leaves small,


rolled and scorched

Growth fairly good;


young leaves chlorotic,
forward roll and marginal
scorch.
This plant failed to form
tubers of appreciable size.

Potato Plant in Sand Culture

Blossom End Rot of Tomato


Calcium Deficiency

Right-Hydroponic tomatoes grown in the greenhouse, Left-Blossom end


rot of tomato fruits induced by calcium (Ca++) deficiency

Influence of Calcium on Root Induction


on Rose Cuttings

Form , Source and function in


Plant

FUNGSI HARA
Dibutuhkan oleh beberapa
MAGNESIUM
MAGNE
SI- UM
(Mg)

ensim yg terlibat dlm


pemindahan fosfat.
Penyusun molekul klorofil.

Magnesium (Mg)
1) Soil Relations
- Present in soil as an exchangeable cation (Mg 2+)
- Similar to Ca2+ as a cation

2) Plant Functions
- Core component of chlorophyll molecule
- Catalyst for certain enzyme activity

3) Deficiency and Toxicity


- Deficiency: Interveinal chlorosis on mature leaves
(Mg is highly mobile)
- Excess:
Causes deficiency symptoms of Ca, K

4) Fertilizers
- Dolomite (mixture of CaCO3MgCO3)
- Epsom salt (MgSO4)
- Magnesium nitrate [Mg(NO3)2]
- Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)

Magnesium (Mg)
Plant available form: Mg+2
Plant mobile, limited soil mobility
Functions:
Chlorophyll compound, co-enzyme, seed germination

Excess:
Ca uptake interference

Deficiency:
Growth Reduction, marginal chlorosis, interveinal chlorosis in
mid and lower leaves, reduced seed production, cupped leaves

Notes:
leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with Lime in fields,
chelates and sulfates in pots

Magnesium
Moves to root via mass flow & diffusion
Leaches somewhat more than Ca

Held on the cation exchange


Deficiency occurs in low pH soils

Factors Affecting Mg Availability


Total Mg supply
CEC
pH
Excess K applications on sandy soil
Cause Mg leaching
K interferes with Mg uptake

Continuous use of high Ca lime increases Ca:Mg ratio


May induce Mg deficiency in certain crops

NH4+ induced Mg deficiency


High rates of NH4+ on soils with low exchangeable Mg

Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency on Poinsettia

Interveinal Chlorosis on Mature Leaves

Magnesium Deficiency
Chlorosis and necrosis of leaves
defoliation
Growth fairly good
foliage chlorotic and with intervenal necrosis
death of older foliage

Magnesium Deficiency
Purple tinting
intervenal necrosis developing
from marginal areas.

Apple Leaves

Calcium & Magnesium Cycle

From Havlin et al., 2005

Form , Source and function in


Plant

FUNGSI HARA BELERANG


Penyusun asam amino sistein, sistin,
metionin & protein. Penyusun asam
BELERANG
lipoat, koensim A, tiamin, pirofosfat,
(S)
glutation, biotin, adenosine-5fosfosulfat & 3-fosfoadenosin.

Sulfur (S)
1) Soil Relations
- Present in mineral pyrite (FeS2, fools gold), sulfides (S-mineral complex),
sulfates (involving SO4-2)
- Mostly contained in organic matter
- Acid rain provides sulfur

2) Plant Functions
- Component of amino acids (methionine, cysteine)
- Constituent of coenzymes and vitamins
- Responsible for pungency and flavbor (onion, garlic, mustard)

3) Deficiency and Toxicity


- Deficiency:

light green or yellowing on new growth (S is immobile)

- Toxicity: not commonly seen

4) Fertilizers
- Gypsum (CaSO4)
- Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
- Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]
- Elemental sulfur (S)

Sulfur (S)
Plant available form: SO4 Plant immobile, very soil mobile
Functions:
structural compound of AAs, etc. and chlorophyll production

Excess: very limited information


Deficiency:
Rarely deficient due to pollution and impurities: symptoms
include growth reduction, overall chlorosis

Notes:
leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with other nutrients, true
toxicity is rare and difficult to control, very high levels in low pH
soils

Sulfur Forms in Soils


Inorganic S
Sulfate dominates (SO42-)
Sulfides (flooded conditions)
Elemental S
Thiosulfates
Range in oxidation states (-2 to +6)

> 90% of total S in most soils is organic


Carbon-bonded S
Ester sulfates (organic sulfates)
30 to 75% of organic S

Volatile S
CS2
CH3SH
CH3SCH3

Volatilization

Sulfur Mineralization

Biological
Cleavage of C-S bonds to produce S2 Cysteine desulfhydolase
Driven by need for C
Biochemical
Cleavage of C-O-S (ester) bonds to produce SO42 Sulfohydrolases (sulfatases), associated with microbial cell
walls
Driven by need for S, regulated by SO42C:S ratio
C: S < 200, net S mineralization; > 400 immobilization
Volatilization
Anaerobic mineralization

Immobilization of S
(assimilation)Serine
SO32-

PAP + Tr(ox)
ATP

SO

24

SO

24

PPi

S2-

Cysteine

3NADPH 3NADP

APS
ATP

Tr(red)

PAPS

COS
Cysteine

ADP
GSH

APS

Pi

AMP + H+

GSSO3-

6Fd(red) +7H+

O-acetyl-serine Acetate + H2O

GSSH
6Fd(ox) +3H2O

Cysteine
GS

Microbial
S
Oxidation

S2O322e-

S2-

4e-

S0

2e-

SO32-

SO42-

AMP
2e-

ADP

APS

Chemoautotrophic (Lithotrophic)
Energy generated (-189.9 kcal mol-1 S22-; -139.8 kcal mol-1 S0)
Acidifying (2H+ per S0)
Generally aerobic; attached to S granules
Photoautotrophic (Lithotrophic)
Chemoheterotrophic (Organotrophic)
No energy produced; dominant in neutral to alkaline soils
Many bacteria (Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas)

Many fungi (Aspergillus, Mucor, Trichoderma)

Pi

Sulfur Deficiency in Corn.


Overall light green color, worse
on new leaves during rapid
growth.

AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS
INFLUENCES GROWTH AND
PRODUCTIVITY

MATURNUWUN

Form , Source and function in


Plant

Chemical
dry
Element
symbol
concentration_____

Mccronutrients
Nitrogen
N
4.0 %
Phosphorus
P
0.5 %
Potassium
K
4.0 %
Magnesium
Mg
0.5 %
Sulfur
S
0.5 %
Calcium
Ca

Atomic

Ionic forms

weight

Approximate

Absorbed by plants____

14.01

NO3-, NH4+

30.98

PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO4-

39.10

K+

24.32

Mg2+

32.07

SO42-

40.08

Micronutrients
Iron
Fe
55.85
200 ppm
Manganese
Mn 54.94
200 ppm
Zinc
Zn
65.38
ppm
Copper
Cu
63.54
Boron
B
10.82
60 ppm
Molybdenum
Mo
95.95
ppm
Chlorine
Cl
35.46
Essential But Not Applied
Carbon
C
12.01
Hydrogen
H
1.01

Ca2+

1.0 %

Fe2+, Fe3+
Mn2+
Zn2+
Cu2+

BO3 , B4O
2-

30
10 ppm
27

MoO42Cl-

CO2

H O

2
3000 ppm

40 %

SOIL pH AND MINERAL


NUTRITION

Different types of plants have different soil pH requirements


(truffle link)

UNSUR MIKRO
Menjadi perhatian sebab :
1. Diangkut Tanaman
2. Penggunaan varietas unggul & pupuk makro
3. Penggunaan pupuk makro analisis tinggi
4. Kemampuan mengenal gejala kekahatan unsur

Keadaan unsur mikro dapat membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman :


1. Tanah Pasir
2. Tanah organik/Gambut
3. Tanah ber-pH tinggi
4. Tanah yang terus menerus ditanami dan dipupuk berat

Besi (Fe)
Di kerak bumi + 5 %
Fe dalam tanah + 3,8 %
Mineral mengandung Fe : olivin, pirit, siderit,
hematit, geotit, magnetit, limonit
Kahat Fe : - Tanah pasiran
- Tanah organik
Larutan Fe tanah - diserap sebagai Fe+2
- dapat ditransportasi ke akar sebagai kelat
- diserap secara mass flow & difusi
- tidak mobil dalam tanaman

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketersediaan Fe


1. Keseimbangan ion
Pengaruh keseimbangan ion-ion Cu, Fe & Mn
Rasio Fe / (Cu + Mn) rendah kahat Fe
2. pH
Kahat Fe pada daerah pH tinggi ( pada tanah calcareus)
tanah masam dengan total Fe

Kelarutan Fe minimum pada pH 7,4 8,5


3. Daerah dingin, curah hujan tinggi, kelembaban tinggi, aerasi
kurang kahat Fe
4. Penambahan b.o. Mengatasi kekurangan Fe
5. Hubungan dengan unsur lain
Nutrisi N mempengaruhi klorosis Fe

Kahat Fe atau Zn menggaggu pergerakan Fe dalam tanaman

Peran dan Defisiensi Fe

Peran Fe :

Mengaktifkan sistem enzim-enzim (fumarie, hidrogenase,


katalase, oksidase & sitokrom)
Sintesa protein kloroplas

Defisiensi Fe ;

Nampak pada daun muda


Klorosis di antara tulang daun muda menyebar ke helai daun
daun putih

Mangan (Mn)
Mangan (Mn)
Di kerak bumi + 1.000 ppm
Dalam tanah 20 3.000 ppm (rata-rata 600 ppm)
Terkandung dalam feromagnesium, pirolusit,
hausmanit, manganit, rodokrosit, rodonit
Daerah yang kurang Mn :
Tanah gambut di atas calcareus
Aluvial debuan, tanah lempungan
Tanah calcareus drainase jelek
Tanah pasiran dengan mineral masam

Bentuk Mn tanah
Larutan Mn+2
Organik Mn
Mn oksida

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketersediaan Mn

1. Keseimbangan dengan ion logam berat lain


2. pH dan karbonat
pengapuran Mn rendah
3. Bahan organik, Menambah Mn
4. Korelasi dengan unsur lain
Sumber N mempengaruhi ketersediaan Mn
`

Penambahan

NH4Cl
(NH4)2SO4
NH4NO3
NH4H2PO4
CO(NH2)2

5. Musim & iklim


6. Mikroorganisme

Penyerapan Mn meningkat

Larutan Mn
Sebagai larutan ion
Konsentrasi berkurang dengan naiknya pH
[Mn] larutan 0,01 13 ppm pada tanah masam netral
(Umumnya 0,01 1 ppm)

Peranan Mn :

Mengaktifkan enzim-enzim

Defisiensi Mn :

Klorosis di antara tulang daun

Seng (Zn)
Litosfer + 80 ppm
Tanah 10 300 ppm (rata-rata 50 ppm
Daerah kurang Zn :
Tanah berpasir masam
Tanah netral / basa
Tanah calcareus
>>> lempung & debu
>>> P tersedia
>>> tanah organik

Bentuk Zn :
Larutan Zn+2
Zn dapat ditukarkan
Zn diadsorbsi
Zn organik
Zn yang mensubstitusi Mg di kisi krist

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketersedian Zn :


1. pH -> pH tinggi Zn rendah
2. Adsorbsi oleh mineral oksida
3. Adsorbsi oleh mineral lempung
4. Adsorbsi oleh mineral karbonat
5. Membentuk kompleks dengan b.o.
6. Interaksi dengan unsur lain

P >> kahat Zn

Sulfat / gipsum >>> Mn <<< Zn tinggi

N pupuk N meningkatkan kebutuhan Zn

Jumlah dan sifat sumber N berhubungan dengan ketersediaan Zn

Pupuk N masam meningkatkan penyerapan Zn

netral / basa Zn turun

7. Penggenangan Anaerob kahat Zn


8. Iklim yang dingin kahat Zn

Peranan Zn :
Aktifator enzinm-enzim
Defisiensi Zn :
Pada daun muda
Klorosis di antara tulang daun
Pertumbuhan tunas terhambat
Pada jagung dan sorghum pita putih sebelah,
menyebelah tulang daun

Boron (B)
Unsur hara mikro non esensial
valensi +3
Radius ion sangat kecil
[B] dalam tanah 2 200 ppm (rata-rata 7 80 ppm)
Hanya < 5 % yang tersedia bagi tanaman

Bentuk B dalam tanah

1. Dalam batuan dan mineral


2. Diadsorbsi di permukaan lempung dan Fe hidrous & oksida Al
3. Bergabung dengan b.o.
4. Sebagai H3BO3 dan B(OH4)- bebas dalam larutan tanah

B diserap dalam bentuk BO3-3

melalui mass flow & difusi

tidak mobil

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketersediaan B :


1.

Tekstur tanah
Tekstur kasar, drainase baik, tanah pasiran B <<<

2.

Jumlah dan tipe lempung


[B] tersedia >>> pada tanah berat dp tanah kasar

3.

Illit, montmorilonit adsorbsi B > kaolinit


pH tanah dan pengapuran
pH tinggi B rendah
Penyerapan B tinggi pada pH 6,3 6,5
Pengapuran tinggi B rendah sebab Al(OH)3 mengadsorbsi B lebih banyak

4.

5.

Bahan organik
B dan b.o. kompleks (sumber B pada tanah masam)
Pemberian b.o. Meningkatkan B tanah
Hubungan dengan unsur lain
Ca, Ca rendah B rendah demikian juga dengan Overlime B terbatas
K, Pada tanah B sangat rendah, dengan pemberian K maka gejala kahat B menonjol

6.

N, Pemberian N mengontrol kelebihan B dalam jeruk tanaman lain


Kelembaban tanah
Kahat B pada musim kering / kelembaban renda
h

Faktor tanaman tiap tanaman berbeda-beda kebutuhan B


Bit gula
Apel, asparagus, brokoli, kubis perlu B banyak
Peran B dalam tanaman :
Metabolisme karbohidrat dan pergerakan gula
Perkembangan sel
Berperan dalam sistem enzim

Kekurangan B :
Pada pucuk-pucuk muda
Daun muda hijau pucat (terutama dasarnya)
Jaringan pada pangkal daun pecah, bila tumbuh seakan terpilin

Tembaga (Cu)

Di kerak bumi 55 70 ppm


Batuan beku 10 100 ppm
Batuan sedimen 4 45 ppm
Dalam tanah 1 40 ppm (rata-rata 9 pmm)
1 2 pmm kahat

Mineral yang mengandung Cu :


Kalkoporit (CuFeS2)
Kalkosit (Cu2S)
Bornit (CuFeS4)
Mineral sekunder yang mengandung Cu dalam bentuk-bentuk oksida,
karbonat, silikat, sulfat, clorit
Kahat Cu : histosol

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketersediaan Cu :


1. Tekstur
Tanah pasir podsol Cu rendah
Tanah pasir calcareus Cu rendah
2. pH
pH tinggi adsorbsi koloid tinggi Cu rendah
3. Interaksi dengan unsur hara lain

Aplikasi pupuk N defisiensi Cu lebih buruk

Tingginya konsentrasi Al dan Zn akan menekan penyerapan Cu


oleh tanaman lain

4. Penanaman tanaman pada residu tanaman lain


5. Faktor tanaman

Bentuk Cu dalam tanah :


Larutan ion dalam tanah
Kisi pertukaran lempung dan ikatan dengan b.o.
Akumulasi dalam bahan oksida tanah
Kisi adsorbsi spesifik
Sisa-sisa biologis & organisme hidup

Larutan Cu tanah :
Cudd

Cu adsorbsi

Cu b.o.

Peran Cu :
Sebagai aktivator berbagai enzim (tirosinase, laktose,
oksidase asam askorbat, polifenol oksidase)
Gejala defisiensi Cu :
Daun menggulung
Daun mengalami distorsi berkembang tidak normal
Layu daun muda

Molibdenum (Mo)
Di kerak bumi <<<
Di tanah 0,2 5 ppm (rata-rata 2 ppm)
Bentuk Mo :
Tak tertukarkan
Anion tertukarkan
Ikatan dengan Fe & Al oksida
Ikatan dengan b.o.

Kahat Mo :
Tanah berpasir
Tanah masam
Larutan Mo :
pH 4,2 MoO4= diserap tanaman

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi :


1. pH
2. Jumlah Al & Fe oksida
3. Korelasi denagn unsur lain
P meningkatkan absorbsi dan translokasi Mo
SO4= >>> Mo turun
Transport Mo :

- mass flow
- difusi

Faktor tanaman : - legum sensitif terhadap Mo


- padi-padian toleran terhadap Mo <<<
Peran Mo :
Fikasai N2 legum

Asimilasi
Reduksi nitrat
Sintesa asam amino & protein

Defisiensi Mo klorosis di antara tulang daun

Cobalt (Co)
Co esensial dalam simbiose fiksasi N2
Dalam hewan, Co makanan ternak. Perlu Co untuk sintesa B12
[Co] di kerak bumi 40 ppm

Granit, feromagnesian Co rendah (1 10 pmm)

Sandstone, shale Co < 5 ppm

Batuan sedimen 20 40 ppm

[Co] dalam tanah 1 70 ppm (rata-rata 8 ppm)


< 5 ppm kahat
Perangai Co dalam tanah :

Adsorbsi (muskovit > hematit > bentonit = kaolinit)

Kompleks dengan b.o. (membentuk kelat)

Clor (Cl)
Sebagai anion Cl- dalam tanah, pada pH cukup masam sampai
mendekati netral
Pada kemasaman tinggi diikat / diadsorbsi oleh kaolinit
Cl dalam tanah sangat mobil
Perpindahan dan akumulasi Cl tergantung sirkulasi air
Cl dalam air bawah tanah dapat berpindah secara kapiler ke daerah
perakaran
Masalah :
1. Jumlah dalam air irigasi
2. Akumulasi di daerah perakaran
3. Sifat fisik tanah & drainase
4. Tingginya water table dan kapiler ke akar
Cl < 2 ppm rendah

Crop Yield

Crop Response
Curves

Nutrient Level

TERIMAKSIH