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In the early 1900s, there was a young engineer

Working For Buffalo Forge Company that received


a 'flash of genius' while waiting for a train.
It was a foggy night and he was going over in his
mind the problem of temperature and humidity
control. By the time the train arrived, Carrier had
an understanding of the relationship between
temperature, humidity and dew point.

That young engineer was


Willis H. Carrier

What Mr. Carriers 'flash of


genius' that day came to be
known as Psychrometry...

the study of air and


water vapor in
mixture.

COMFORT
Comfort describes a delicate balance of pleasant feelings in
the body produced by its surrounding
Comfort involves
Temperature
Humidity
Air movement
Air cleanliness
The human body makes adjustments to comfort conditions
by its circulatory and respiratory systems

FOOD, ENERGY, AND THE BODY


The body uses food to produce energy
The body energy
Some stored as fatty tissue
Some leaves as waste
Some leaves as heat
Some is used to keep the body functioning

BODY TEMPERATURE
Humans are comfortable when the heat is transferring to
the surroundings at the correct rate
The body gives off and absorb heat by conduction,
convection and radiation
Surroundings must be cooler than the body for the body to
be comfortable
The body is close to being comfortable when it is at rest
and in surroundings of 75 F and 50% humidity with slight
air movement
Comfort conditions in winter and in summer are different

BODY TEMPERATURE
OF 98.6F

Heat travels from the


body to the ambient
air

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE 75F at
50% HUMIDITY

Outside ambient
temperature
100F

The body cannot give up heat


readily

THE COMFORT CHART


Can be used to compare one comfort
situation or condition with another
Shows the different combinations of
temperature and humidity for summer and
winter
The closer the plot falls to the middle of the
chart, the more people would be comfortable
Different charts for summer and winter
conditions

Psychrometric
Chart...
graphically shows
the Properties of Air.

10

Psychrometric
Chart used...
to model conditions
inside buildings by
system designers.
11

Psychrometric
Chart used...
to monitor conditions in
commercial refrigeration
plants and manufacturing
environments.
12

Psychrometric
Chart used...
to evaluate problems
in air conditioned
environments.
13

Structure
P
E
T
P
S
E
IN ST
IN

SOLE

H
E
E
L

14

Seven Properties of Air

6
1
15

Seven Properties of Air...

Dry bulb temperature taken with


a standard thermometer.

SOLE

800 F DB

16

Dry Bulb Temperature


Measured with a dry-bulb thermometer
Measures the level of heat intensity of a
substance
Used to measure and calculate sensible heat
and changes in sensible heat levels
Does not take into account the latent heat
aspect
Room thermostats measure the level of heat
intensity in an occupied space

DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE SCALE


As we move up and down, the
dry bulb temperature does not
change

As we move from left to


right, the dry bulb
temperature increases

As we move from right


to left, the dry bulb
temperature decreases

DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE

PROPERTY
OF AIR
DRY BULB
TEMP

SYMBOL

DB

EXPRESSED
BY

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

19

Seven Properties of Air...

2. Wet Bulb Temperature

taken with a thermometer


with a wetted wick.

660 F WB

Instep
SLING
PSYCHROMETER
20

Wet Bulb Temperature


Measured with a wet-bulb thermometer
Temperature reading is affected by the
moisture content of the air
Takes the latent heat aspect into account
Used in conjunction with the dry-bulb
temperature reading to obtain relative
humidity readings and other pertinent
information regarding an air sample

WET-BULB TEMPERATURE SCALE


As we move up and down along a
wet-bulb temperature line, the wet
bulb temperature does not change
The red arrow indicates an
increase in the wet bulb
temperature reading
The blue arrow
indicates a decreaseURE
T
in the wet bulb ERA
P
temperature Treading
EM
ET
W

LB
U
B

W
E
T

B
UL
B

T
EM
PE
RA
TU
R
E

WET-BULB, DRY-BULB COMBO

DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE

PROPERTY
OF AIR

SYMBOL

EXPRESSED
BY

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

24

Seven Properties of Air...

3.Dew Point Temperature

temperature at which
moisture condenses on
a surface.

25

PROPERTY
OF AIR

SYMBOL

EXPRESSED
BY

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

DEW POINT
TEMP

DP

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

INSTEP

HORIZONTAL
TO LEFT

26

DEW POINT TEMPERATURE


The temperature at which the moisture in the air
begins to condense out of the air
The temperature at which water forms on objects
from the air is called the dew point temperature of
the air
The evaporator in an air conditioning or
refrigeration system operates below the dew point
temperature, so, as air comes in contact with the
coil, moisture begins to condense out of the air

Glass of ice water (45F)


Dew point
temperature of the
surrounding air 55F
Droplets of moisture
begin to form on the
surface of the glass

Seven Properties of Air...

4. Specific Humidity
Absolute Humidity or Humidity
Ratio

amount of water vapor in


dry air. Measured in grains
per pound of dry air.
77 gr/lb

Heel
29

OF AIR

BY

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

DEW POINT
TEMP

SPECIFIC
HUMIDITY

DP

GR/LB

LOCATION

DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

INSTEP

HORIZONTAL
TO LEFT

HEEL
RIGHT VERT

HORIZONTAL
TO RIGHT

30

---- HUMIDITY ---ABSOLUTELY RELATIVE


There are two types of humidity
ABSOLUTE
RELATIVE

AH and RH are not the same


Cannot be used interchangeably
All humidities are not created equal

ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY
Amount of moisture present in an air
sample
60
Measured in grains
per pound of air
GRAINS
7,000 grains of moisture = 1 pound

1 POUND

The moisture scale on the


right-hand side of the chart
provides information regarding
the absolute humidity of an air
sample

As we move from side to


side, the moisture content
does not change
As we move up, the moisture
content increases
As we move down, the
moisture content decreases

MOISTURE CONTENT
(BTU/LB AIR)

MOISTURE CONTENT SCALE

Seven Properties of Air...

5. Relative Humidity
the amount of moisture
vapor the air is holding
compared to what it could
hold at the same DB
temperature.

Curved Lines

Saturation Point
Curve = 100% RH
35

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Amount of moisture present in an air sample
relative to the maximum moisture capacity of
the air sample
Expressed as a percentage
Can be described as the absolute humidity
divided by the maximum moisture-holding
capacity of the air

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Example #1

HOW FULL IS THE PARKING


LOT?

#10
ofCARS
CARS

100%
X
% FULL
=
% FULL = 0.5 X 100%
#20
ofSPACES
SPACES

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Example #2

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Example #3

60
GRAINS

If capacity is 120 grains, then the relative humidity


will be:

RH = (60 grains 120 grains) x 100% =


50%

RELATIVE HUMIDITY SCALE


As we move along a relative
humidity line, the relative
humidity remains the same
As we move up, the relative
humidity increases
As we move down, the
relative humidity decreases

PROPERTY
OF AIR

SYMBOL

EXPRESSED
BY

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

HEEL
RIGHT VERT

HORIZONTAL
TO RIGHT

INSTEP

HORIZONTAL
TO LEFT

%RH

CURVED

CURVED

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

SPECIFIC
HUMIDITY

DEW POINT
TEMP

DP

RELATIVE
HUMIDITY

RH

GR/LB

41

Seven Properties of Air...

6. Specific Volume

- Space that one pound of


dry air takes up
- Steeply slanted lines
- Expressed in Cubic Feet
per Pound ( ft3/lb )

42

SPECIFIC VOLUME & DENSITY


Specific volume and density are reciprocals
of each other
Density = lb/ft3
Specific volume = ft3/lb
Density x Specific Volume = 1
Specific volume can be determined from
the psychrometric chart, density must be
calculated

LINES OF SPECIFIC VOLUME


As we move along a line of
constant specific volume, the
specific volume remains
unchanged
As we move to the right, the
specific volume increases
As we move to the left,
the specific volume
decreases

3 lb
ft /

PROPERTY
OF AIR

SYMBOL

EXPRESSED
BY

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

HEEL
RIGHT VERT

HORIZONTAL
TO RIGHT

INSTEP

HORIZONTAL
TO LEFT

%RH

CURVED

CURVED

FT3/LB

STEEPLY
SLANTED

STEEPLY
SLANTED

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

SPECIFIC
HUMIDITY

DEW POINT
TEMP

DP

RELATIVE
HUMIDITY

RH

SPECIFIC
VOLUME

GR/LB

45

Seven Properties of Air...

7. Enthalpy
- Total amount of heat
energy (sensible and
latent) in one pound
of air.

46

The lines that represent


constant wet-bulb temperature
also represent the enthalpy of
the air

ENTHALPY SCALE
As we move up and down
along an enthalpy line, the
enthalpy does not change
The red arrow
indicates an increase
in enthalpy
The blue arrow
indicates a decrease
in enthalpy

PROPERTY
OF AIR

SYMBOL

EXPRESSED
BY

SCALE
LOCATION

LINE
DRAWN

SOLE
BOTTOM

STRAIGHT
UP

INSTEP

SLANTED

HEEL
RIGHT VERT

HORIZONTAL
TO RIGHT

INSTEP

HORIZONTAL
TO LEFT

%RH

CURVED

CURVED

STEEPLY
SLANTED

STEEPLY
SLANTED

ABOVE
INSTEP

EXTENSION
OF WB LINE
49

DRY BULB
TEMP

DB

WET BULB
TEMP

WB

SPECIFIC
HUMIDITY

DEW POINT
TEMP

DP

RELATIVE
HUMIDITY

RH

GR/LB

SPECIFIC
VOLUME

FT3/LB

ENTHALPY

BTU/LB

Making a Sling Psychrometer for reading


WB: Need: 1 ea. Athletic Shoe Lace
Cut Shoe Lace

Poke Pocket Thermometer into long piece of Shoe Lace

To use: Wet short end and sling while


holding on to long end.
Short piece taped or rubber-banded to Thermometer

50

Return Air: 75FDB,


50% r.h.
Supply Air: 55FDB,
90% r.h.

Airflow: 1200 cfm

SUPPLY
AIR

RETURN
AIR

T = Return Air Temp Supply Air


Temp
T = 75F - 55F = 20F
W = Return grains/lbAIR Supply
grains/lbAIR

Return Air: 75FDB,


50% r.h.
Airflow: 1200 cfm

W = 64 Grains 60 Grains = 4 grains/lbAIR


h = Return btu/lbAIR Supply btu/lbAIR

Supply Air: 55FDB, 90% r.h.

h = 28.1 btu/lbAIR
h = 21.6 Btu/lbAIR

h = 28.1 btu/lbAIR - 21.6 btu/lbAIR = 6.5


btu/lbAIR

RETURN
AIR

SUPPLY
AIR

64
grains/lb
60
grains/lb

55F

75F

54

Air Conditioning Processes...


Transition
Evap Coil
Blower Section
Supply Air
Plenum

SA

Heat
Section

Psychrometric
changes take
place between
RA and SA

Return Air
Plenum

RA
55

Heating only

Sensible
change

Process Line moves

horizonally to right

Initial Point
0 GR
(Return Air reading)

56

Cooling only

Sensible
change

Process Line moves


horizonally to left

0 GR

57

Humidifying only

Process Line moves


straight up

GR

Latent
change

0T

58

Dehumidifying only
Process Line moves
straight down
Latent

GR

change

0T

59

Other AC Processes...
Sensible and Latent change

Cooling &
Humidifying

Cooling &
Dehumidifying

Heating &
Humidifying

Heating &
Dehumidifying
60

What we need
for evaluating
AC Processes...
H
SA
80% RH

es
c
o
r
P

60 F DB
0

RA
50%
RH
e
n
i
L
s

GR

800 F DB

Prof. Koldenhott's FUNdamentals


of Cocktailmetrics

61

AIR FORMULAE
QT = QS + QL
QT = 4.5 x Cfm X h
Qs = 1.1 x Cfm X T
QL = 0.68 x Cfm x W

Air Side Equations

Sensible Load:

Qs = 1.1 X CFM X T
A constant based
on the Density of
Air and a time
conversion factor

Determined from
the Condensing
Unit model number

QS is expressed in BTUH
63

Air Side Equations


Latent Load:

QL = .68 X CFM X GR
A constant
including a time
conversion factor

Same as that used


for QS

QL is expressed in BTUH
64

Air Side Equations


Total Load:

QT = 4.45 X CFM X H
A constant
including a time
conversion factor

Same as that used


for QS

QT is expressed in BTUH
65

66

Sensible Heat
Ratio
LATENT SENSIBLE

the ratio of Sensible


Load (QS) to
Total Load (QT)
67

Sensible Heat
Ratio
SHR =

QS
QT
68

Sensible Heat Ratio

Example:
SHR =

29,060 btuh
36,325 btuh

.80 SHR
69

Sensible Heat Ratio


The way Engineers Plot SHR
on the Psychrometric Chart

Permanent
Index Point

.80 SHR

Note: Any Process Line


parallel to this line will
maintain the SHR
Prof. Koldenhott's FUNdamentals
of Cocktailmetrics

70

HL

Latent
change in
Enthalpy

Hs
Sensible
change in
Enthalpy

GR
Latent
change

T
Sensible change

71

RETURN AIR

SUPPLY AIR

Water Vapor at 75F


Water at
50F

TOTAL HEAT
The capacity of a heating and cooling unit
may be field checked with the total heat
feature of the psychrometric chart
Total heat = sensible heat + latent heat
Sensible heat formula: Qs = 1.08 x cfm x T
Total heat formula: Qt = 4.5 x cfm x total heat
difference
CFM formula: ______Qs______
1.08 x T

SUMMARY
Comfort is affected by air movement, humidity,
air cleanliness and temperature
Humans are considered to be comfortable when
heat is transferred from the body to its
surroundings at the proper rate
The body is close to being comfortable when it is
at rest and in surroundings of 75F and 50%
humidity with slight air movement
The comfort chart is used to compare one
comfort situation or condition with another

SUMMARY
Psychrometrics is the study of air and its
properties
Density indicates how many pounds one cubic
foot of a substance weighs
Specific volume is the reciprocal of density
Moisture in air is referred to as humidity
Dry bulb temperature is the sensible heat level
of air
Wet bulb temperatures take the moisture
content of the air into account

SUMMARY
The dew point temperature is the point at
which moisture in the air begins to
condense out of the air
The psychrometric chart provides a
graphical representation of an air sample as
well as a means to calculate other
properties of the air
Total heat = sensible heat + latent heat

LAW OF THE TEE FOR MIXED AIR

OUTSIDE AIR

RETURN AIR

MIXED
AIR

AIR
HANDLER

LAW OF THE TEE FOR MIXED AIR


PERCENTAGE OF RETURN AIR +
PERCENTAGE OF OUTSIDE AIR

100% of MIXED AIR


OUTSIDE
RETURN

LAW OF THE TEE FOR MIXED AIR


SAMPLE PROBLEM
AIR CONDITIONS:

RETURN AIR (80%): 75FDB, 50%RH


OUTSIDE AIR (20%): 85FDB, 60%RH

MIXED AIR = 80% RETURN AIR + 20% OUTSIDE AIR


MIXED AIR = (.80) RETURN AIR + (.20) OUTSIDE AIR
MIXED AIR = (.80) (75FDB, 50%RH) + (.20) (85FDB, 60%RH)
MIXED AIR = 60FDB, 40%RH + 17FDB, 12%RH
MIXED AIR = 77FDB, 52%RH

Return Air: 75FDB,


50% r.h.
Outside Air: 85FDB,
60% r.h.
Mixed Air: 77FDB, 52%
r.h.

OUTSIDE AIR

SUPPLY AIR

MIXED AIR
RETURN AIR