power amplifiers

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power amplifiers

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Anda di halaman 1dari 77

de Vreede, 2015

Power Amplifiers

Leo de Vreede

Introduction

As final stage in the transmit chain the PA is typically the most power hungry component and the limiting function block for the

linearity performance.

Efficiency & Linearity are the design key parameters.

Introduction (cont)

Base Stations

Handset

Standby-time

High linearity

Low DC power cons.

Conv. RF front-end

Expensive

Large form factor

Switch losses

Operation Costs

High Efficiency

Trends

High Linearity

Higher bandwidths & operational frequency

Higher peak-to-average ratios

Multi-band Multi-mode operation!!!

Talk Time

High Efficiency

High Linearity

Outline

Introduction

Figures of Merit of PAs

Efficiency, and Power Added Efficiency (PAE)

Compression and Saturation power

AM/AM & AM/PM distortion

EVM and ACPR

Amplifier Classes

High Efficiency Amplifier Concepts

Conclusions

4

Efficiency () &

Power Added Efficiency (PAE)

it provides information on the talk time for a handset or operating cost of a

basestation amplifier.

P

RF output power (W)

out

consumed DC power (W) PDC

1

consumed

DC

power

(W)

P

G

DC

p

into

The PAE is a more realistic measure of the amplifier since it also takes

account the that is delivered to the input of the amplifier

Typical relation between output power

and efficiency for a linear amplifier (e.g.

class-B)

PA provides highest efficiency when

providing maximum output power

Note that a modern complex modulated

signal only occasionally reaches its peak

output power conditions

Average efficiency is therefore much

lower.

The basic amplifier classes only result in

different peak efficiencies & linearity

performance, they provide no solution for

the efficiency drop versus power back-off

OFDM constellation diagram

Amplifier must be able to handle the peak powers of the broadcast signal.

Most of the time the amplifier will operate at lower output power levels yielding a significantly lower

efficiency than the peak efficiency.

Amplitude fluctuations in the broadcast signal require the PA to be linear (low AM-AM distortion)

Also the phase transfer of the amplifier should not change with the power level (low AM-PM distortion)

Gain expansion

Gain compression

When reaching the compression point the gain and phase transfer of the PA will start to

fluctuate

This yields distortion of the to be broadcasted signal

8

Pre-match

fundamental

Square-Law Optimization LDMOS

PA

Before optimization

2

-10

-20

-30

-2

-40

IM3

-4

-50

-6

-60

-8

-70

-5

15

25

35

IM3 [dBc]

45

Pout [dBm]

Harmonic terminations

@ fIF and f2nd

LDMOS amplifier with trans-conductance

shaping using VG-offsets

Variations in S21 vs. power is equivalent

9 to:

AM-AM & AM-PM distortion

-10

-20

-30

-2

-40

20dB imp.

-50

-4

IM3

-60

-6

-70

-8

-5

15

25

Pout [dBm]

35

45

After optimization

Active devices

(reduced gain in when

in compression)

In this example, the signal clipping also changes the phase of the output signal

(phase change is measured

at the zero crossings)

10

constellation point and the point received by the receiver.

EVM = average power of the error vector, normalized to signal power

11

The error vector magnitude is equal to the ratio of the power of the

error vector to the root mean square (RMS) power of the reference. It

is defined in dB as:

or

where Perror is the RMS power of the error vector. For single carrier

modulations, Preference is, by convention, the power of the outermost

(highest power) point in the reference signal constellation. More

recently, for multi-carrier modulations, Preference is defined as the

reference constellation average power.

In the case of a set of values

12

ACPR or ACLR

The adjacent channel power ratio, or adjacent channel leakage ratio

defines the ratio between the total power in the adjacent channel

(intermodulation signal) to the main channel's power (useful signal).

broadcasting PAs since its bounded

by strict regulations to avoid channel

to channel interference

13

Ideal Device operation

The Amplifier Classes

Current source operation active device

Class-A, AB, B, C & Class F

Class E

Class D

Inverse classes

14

Current source like behavior of the active device

Ohmic loading conditions for the device at the Intrinsic reference

plane.

Reference plane output

Intrinsic device (L)

Reference plane

external circuit (Lext)

vin

gm.vin

Loading conditions at f , 2f ,

3f0,4f0 etc. determine the

waveform shape at the output

0

0 with output parasitics

Ideal current source like device

15

When the input drive of the active

device (FET) for a part of the cycle is

below Vt the related Id of the FET

device goes to zero.

Consequently, the devices conducts

only a part of the sinusoidal angle. [1]

t = angular frequency

= conduction angle

Vg= gate voltage

Vt = threshold voltage of the FET

Vq= quiescent gate voltage

Iq = quiescent drain current

Imax = maximum drain current

Class

A

AB

B

C

0.5

0-0.5

0

<0

Quiescent

current

0.5

0-0.5

0

0

Conduction angle

2pi

Pi-2pi

pi

0-pi

angle of different classes (the

signal voltage and current swing

are normalized to 1)

16

Vsupply

Relation between output bias current and the bias input voltage for the various amplifier classes.

The lower the quiescent current (ICE,q) the higher the potential power added efficiency, but linearity

decreases.

Proper device optimization combined with harmonic termination might improve the linearity in classAB / class-B

17

Chock

inductor

v (t ) L

For class-A, -AB,-C, the

voltage swing goes up

to twice the supply

voltage

Vdd normalized to 1

di (t )

dt

(Harmonic)

Matching

Network

ZL

In class A (harmonic

terminations are equal to Zfund)

In class-AB, B and C (harmonic

terminations are shorted)

higher for other classes

using non-shorted

conditions for the

harmonics. E.g.:

class-E or class-J.

This yields higher

voltage stress for the

active device

18

Class-A operation

Transistor is always on (conduction

angle = 2, transistor acts as a current

source all the time, yielding the

highest linearity of all classes.

Swing drain current for class-A

operation should be between zero and

Imax (Imax = saturation current

transistor). The voltage swing of the

drain should be between zero and the

device breakdown voltage.

Since there is always a combination of

voltage and current over the device, it

is consuming power all the time low

efficiency.

class-A operation

19

using an ideal device

Class-A amplifier

The gm of this device = 10

The maximum input voltage of the device (Vmax = 1V) beyond this value the output current will saturate to 10A (IMax=10A)

In class A the quicent current is set to 0.5 x Imax = 5A

Since the device is biased at 10V at its output terminal, the amplitude of the aimed voltage swing is also 10V

Consequently, the optimum loading resistance for max power out is Ropt= 10V/5A=2ohm

VDC

I_Probe

IDCsource

HARMONIC BALANCE

HarmonicBalance

HB1

Freq[1]=1.0 GHz

Order[1]=9

SweepVar="Vin"

Start=0

Stop=1

Pt=

DC_Feed

DC_Feed1

vload

I_Probe

vdev

Idev

V_1Tone

SRC3

V=polar(Vin,0) V

Freq=1 GHz

V_DC

SRC4

Vdc=0.5 V

V_ DC

SRC2

Vdc=10.0 V

Var

Eqn

DC_Block

DC_Block2

I_Probe

iload

R

R1

R=2 Ohm

ideal_device

X1

gm=10

VAR

VAR1

Vin=1

20

Eqn PDC=real(VDC[0]*IDCsource.i[0])

Eqn Pout=0.5*real(vload[1]*conj(iload.i[1]))

Eqn eff =Pout/PDC

10.000

50

8.333

DC power is const.

40

6.667

Pout

PDC

30

5.000

20

3.333

10

1.667

0.000

0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

ts(vdev)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Vin

25

0.8

m1

Vin=0.500

eff =0.500

20

0.6

should be aware of Vmin

(Vknee), Vmax, Imax and

Pdis max

m1

15

eff

ts(vdev), V

0.5

device overdriven

output volage and

current no longer

pure sinewaves

0.4

10

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

time, nsec

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Vin

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

21

Class-B Operation

drain current waveform and the drain

voltage waveform is full-sine wave.

Compared to class A the overlap of

the drain current and voltage is less,

yielding lower DC dissipation and

therefore higher efficiency.

with, pworse

id (t ).vds (t )

good but is in general

dis ( t ) than

that of class-A.

All higher harmonics are shorted!

current of class-B operation

22

using an ideal device

Class-B amplifier

In this example an ideal device is used for the active device.

The gm of this device = 10

The maximum input voltage of the device (Vmax = 1V) beyond this value the output current will saturate to 10A (IMax=10A)

In class B the quicent current is set to 0A

Since the device is biased at 10V at its output terminal, the amplitude of the aimed voltage swing is also 10V

In this situation the output power is set through the value of the load resistance for the fundamental, all higher harmonics are shorted.

The maximum output power is set by the maximum output current of this ideal device (10A), trying to get more output power will lower the efficiency.

The optimum resistance for maximum power out (limited by Imax) and efficiency = 2 ohm for the fundamental load

HARMONIC BALANCE

HarmonicBalance

HB1

Freq[1]=1.0 GHz

Order[1]=15

SweepVar="Vin"

Start=0

Stop=0.6

Pt=

V_1Tone

SRC3

V=polar(Vin,0) V

Freq=1 GHz

V_DC

SRC4

Vdc=0.0 V

Var

E qn

VDC

I_Probe

IDCsource

V_DC

SRC2

Vdc=10.0 V

DC_Feed

DC_Feed1

vload

ideal_device

X1

gm=10

VAR

VAR1

Vin=1

output are shorted!

vdevI_Probe

Idev

DC_Block

DC_Block2

Var

E qn

Var

E qn

VAR

VAR4

Vsup=10V

Imaxdev=10A

I_Probe

iload

VAR

VAR3

ffund=1.0GHz

Ropt=2*Vsup/Imaxdev

Xfund=0

Xsecond=0

zfund=Ropt+j*Xfund

zsecond=Xsecond*j

zthird=0

Z1P_Eqn

Z1P1

Z[1,1]=if (freq<=ffund) then zfund else if (freq<=2*ffund) then zsecond else zthird endif endif

23

using an ideal device

14

25

12

0.6

ts(vdev), V

8

6

4

15

eff

ts(Idev.i), A

m1

Vin=0.500

eff=0.784

20

10

10

0.4

0.2

0

0

-2

-5

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

time, nsec

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

time, nsec

14

35

12

30

10

25

Pout

PDC

ts(Idev.i)

m1

0.8

20

15

DC

4

10

-2

0.4

0.5

Eqn P DC=real(VDC[0]*IDCsource.i[0])

Eqn P out=0.5*real(vload[1]*conj(iload.i[1]))

Pout increases

quadratic

0

-2

10

12

ts(vdev)

14

16

18

20

22

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Vin

0.6

Vin

ies

r

va

r

e

w

po

0.3

24

Class-A, AB, B, C

id ( ) (1)

Iq Ipk . cos , / 2 / 2

0, for / 2

and

/2

With: Id =

draincurrent,

Iq =

quiescent current,

Ipk =

Imax =

Note that

and

Iq

cos( / 2)

Ipk

Substitution in (1) yields Iafter

some

pk

manipulation

I max Iq

Imax

i

d

(

cos(

/ 2)) the related DC current, as

Using a Fourier decomposition.(cos

we can

calculate

1 and

cos(harmonic

/ 2)

well the fundamental

current components

25

Derivation id()

Derive the equation for id() in terms of the conduction angle and Imax:

2

We can write that:

Yielding:

Using Iq=-Ipk.cos(/2)

I pk cos( / 2) I max I pk I q

I max

I pk

(1 cos( / 2))

I max

id ( )

. cos cos

(1 cos( / 2))

2

26

Class-A, AB, B, C

The DC component is

/2

I max

1

Idc

.

.(cos cos( / 2))d

2 / 2 1 cos( / 2)

Idc

.

2

1 cos( / 2)

/2

I max

1

In .

.(cos cos( / 2)).cos( n ) d

/ 2 1 cos( / 2)

I fund

I max sin

.

2 1 cos( / 2)

27

Spectral Components

Class-A, AB, B, C

Depending on the

conduction angle the

amplitude of the DC,

fundamental and

harmonic components

of the drain / collector

current can be

influenced

28

Efficiency Class-A,

Consequently, for class-A (=2)

I DC

I max

Vmax

VDC

The DC dissipation power of class-A operation power amplitude:

2

The output power for class-A operation:

I fund

Vfund

I max

2

Vmax

2

Vmax . I max

4

V .I

1

Pout V fund .I fund max max

2 drain efficiency 50%.

8

So, for class-A operation, the maximum

Pout 1

50%

Pdc 2

29

Class-B Operation

Ic

Class-B

Load line

Foerier components current

Vcc

2Vcc

an cos( nt )]

n 2,even

(1) n 1 1

with: an 1/

n2 1

Theoretical efficiency = /4

(ignoring knee voltage)

pure sine wave for V

Efficiency Class-B,

Consequently, for class-B(= )

(Using the eq. of page 27)

I DC

I max

VDC

V max

2

I max

2

V max

I fund

Vfund

dc Vdc . Idc

The output power for class-BPoperation:

Vmax . I max

2

V .I

1

The maximum drain efficiency

Poutofclass-B

V operation:

.I

max max

2

fund

fund

Pout

78.5%

Pdc 4

31

Class AB:

Class AB is a compromise between class A and

B. is between and 2. Typically, the larger

, the better the linearity, however the lower

the efficiency and vice versa. So, its theoretical

maximum drain efficiency is between 50% and

78.5%.

Class C:

In Class C operation is between 0 and .

Theoretically 100% drain efficiency can be

reached (=0). However, this also means that

there is no power deliver to the load. So, a

trade off between efficiency and output power

must be made.

Drain voltage and Drain current

32

of class-C operation [1]

Perfect class-B operation, yields no 3rd order

distortion (zero), in practice often class-AB is

preferred for manipulating the IM3 sweet spot

close to the 1dB compression point

Therefore also the choice of the Gate bias point /

quiescence current is used in this linearity

optimization

Shorted condition for harmonics and baseband

yields lower memory effects.

33

LDMOS behavior (1)

2

4

5

IDS (VGS ) g mv gs g m 2v gs

g m 3v g3s g m 4v gs

g m 5v gs

K g mnv gns

0,4

0,6

Class AB

(optimum)

0,4

This sets Iq

gm

0,3

0,2

IDS

0,2

0,1

gm3

-0,2

-0,1

3

VGS [V]

IDS [A]

0,8

v gs VS cos t

or

v gs VS (cos 1t cos 2t )

One or two tone excitation

LDMOS behavior (2)

Single-tone response

Two-tone response

at 2 GHz

at 2 GHz

IM3 [dBc]

Mag(S21) [dB]

100

14

:

60

12

:

40

10

mA-5

-10

AM-AM

Increasing IDQ

16

G

p

-10

-20

Increasing

IDQ

-30

-40

-50

IM

3

-60

0

10

15

20

3

5

g m 3VS2 g m 5VS4

4

8

Linear gain

IM 3

12

10

8

6

4

10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Pin-NWA [dBm]

AM-AM S21(VS ) g m

14

Gp [dB]

16

Po,IM 3

Po,FUND

Pout-avg [dBm]

3

25

g m 3VS3

g m 5VS5

4

8

9

25

g mVS g m 3VS3

g m 5VS5

4

4

Plotting the gain vs. input power gives info on the AM-AM and IM3 behavior

Class-F

The major difference with class-B is the open conditions of the odd higher harmonics, this yields

squaring of the output voltage wave

This reduces the overlap between the voltage and current waveforms at the device output improved

eff.

36

using an ideal device

In this design there are 7 harmonics controlled at the output of the device

Clas s -F amplifier

In this example an ideal devic e is us ed for the ac tive devic e.

The gm of this devic e = 10

The maximum input voltage of the devic e (Vmax = 1V) beyond this value the output c urrent will s aturate to 10A (IM ax=10A)

In c las s -F the quic ent c urrent is s et to 0A

In Clas s -F the even harmonic s are s horted the odd harmonic s are open

Sinc e the voltage waveform approximates a s quare wave maximum voltage at full power the fundamental amplitude will be

higher then the s upply voltage with a maximum of 4*Vs upply/pi=1.27*Vs upply

Var

Eqn

HARMONIC B ALANCE

VDC

Harmonic Balanc e

SRC3

V=polar(Vin,0) V

Freq=1 GHz

V_ DC

SRC4

Vdc =-0 V

Var

Eqn

Vs up=10V

Imaxdev=10A

Var

Eqn

Vdc =Vs up

L1

L =100.0 nH

R=

Start=0

Stop=1

Pt=

V_ 1Tone

V_ DC

SRC2

I_ Probe

IDCs ourc e

L

HB1

Freq[1]=1.0 GHz

Order[1]=7

SweepVar="Vin"

VAR

VAR4

vdev

ideal_ devic e

X1

gm=10

I_ Probe

Idev

z fund=RoptB*(1)

z 2=0

z 3=100

z 4=0

z 5=100

z 6=0

z 7=100

vload

DC_ Bloc k

DC_ Bloc k2

VAR

VAR4

ffund=1.0GHz

RoptB=2.0*Vs up/Imaxdev

I_ Probe

iload

Z1P_ Eqn

z 8=0

Z1P1

Z[1,1]=if (freq<=ffund) then z fund els e if (freq<=2*ffund) then z 2 els e if (freq<=3*ffund) then z 3 els e

VAR

VAR1

Vin=1

37

using an ideal device

In this design there are 7 harmonics controlled at the output of the device

EqnPDC=real(VDC[0]*IDCsource.i[0])

Eqneff=Pout/PDC

EqnPout=0.5*real(vload[1]*conj(iload.i[1]))

Eqnzload=vload/iload.i

14

50

100

12

Drain current

6

4

80

real(zload)

mag(vdev[::,1])

Pout

PDC

ts(Idev.i), A

m3

Vin=0.710

mag(vdev[::,1])=12.321

40

10

30

20

m3

2

10

60

m2

nothing= <invalid>

real(zload)=<invalid>

40

zload

20

m2

-2

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

-20

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

time, nsec

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

25

freq, GHz

m1

1.0

14

12

20

0.8

10

0.6

10

eff

ts(Idev.i)

15

eff

ts(vdev), V

Vin

m1

Vin=0.630

eff=0.962

0.4

5

loadline

8

6

4

2

0.2

Drain Voltage

-5

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

time, nsec

1.2

1.4

1.6

0

0.0

1.8

2.0

-2

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Vin

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

-2

10

12

ts(vdev)

14

16

18

20

22

38

Class-F

More than 3 harmonics are difficult to control in practice,

three controlled harmonics yields 90% eff. as practical limit

The control of more harmonics tends to make the design

narrowband

39

Class-E

The essence of class-E is a transistor in switch-mode driving a tuned LC tank circuit

device up to 100% efficiency

o Resonator at the load filters out the harmonic components

o Soft switching: No charge/discharge losses during switching

PRO Simple hardware implementation

CONT Higher voltage swing on active device

No modulation of Pout possible without additional measures

40

Class-E

The first condition is needed to obtain the highest efficiency (ideal case, with ideal

components)

This second condition is mainly used to get sufficient boundary conditions to solve

the system of differential eq. (note that when this derivative is zero there is no current

41

flowing. There are some papers that claim that using this solution that it yields a

lower sensitivity of the circuit on component spread)

using an ideal device

Class-E amplifier

In this example an ideal device is used for the active device.

The gmof this device = 10

The maximuminput voltage of the device (Vmax= 1V) beyond this value the output current will saturate to 10A (IMax=10A)

In class E the quicent current is set to 0A

The voltage amplitude in class-E is significantlyhigher than the supplyvoltage e.g. up to 4 times

All harmonics are reactively(inductively) terminated

HARMONIC BALANCE

DC_Feed

DC_Feed1

HarmonicBalance

HB1

Freq[1]=1.0 GHz

Order[1]=32

SweepVar="Vin"

Start=0.2

Stop=0.3

Pt=

V_DC

SRC2

Vdc=10.0 V

vload

vin

V_DC

SRC4

Vdc=0.0 V

VDC

I_Probe

IDCsource

Vf_Pulse

SRC5

Vpeak=Vin V

Vdc=0 V

Freq=1 GHz

Width=0.5 nsec

Rise=0.01 nsec

Fall=0.01 nsec

Delay=0 nsec

Weight=no

Harmonics=16

ideal_device

X1

gm=10

Var

Eqn

VAR

VAR1

Vin=1

vdevI_Probe

Idev

L

C

L1

C2

C=3.2 pF {t} L=8.7 nH {t}

C

R=

C1

C=5.34 pF {t}

I_Probe

iload

Var

Eqn

R

R1

R=Ropt Ohm

VAR

VAR4

Vsup=10V

Imaxdev=10A

Var

Eqn

VAR

VAR3

ffund=1.0GHz

Ropt=4.95 {t}

42

using an ideal device

Eqn P DC=real(VDC[0]*IDCsource.i[0])

Eqn Zinternal=vdev/Idev.i

Eqn P out=0.5*real(vload[1]*conj(iload.i[1]))

Eqn RL=4.95

Eqn Gammainternal=(Zinternal-RL)/(Zinternal+RL)

60

350

300

48

m2

ts(vdev), V

200

150

100

50

4.8

36

3.6

24

2.4

12

1.2

secondharm

freq=2.000GHz

Gammainternal=1.006 / 30.621

Vin=0.300000

impedance =Z0 * (-0.046 +j3.652)

ts(Idev.i), A

ts(vin), mV

250

thridharmonic

freq=3.000GHz

Gammainternal=1.002 / 49.849

Vin=0.300000

impedance =Z0 * (-0.005 +j2.152)

6.0

m2

time=685.5psec

ts(vdev)=38.829

Vin=0.240000

thridharmonic

0

0

-50

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.0

0.0

2.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

secondharm

2.0

time, nsec

time, nsec

4

14.9

14.8

14.7

1.0

Gammainternal

0.0

0.9

0.8

Pout

PDC

0.6

0.5

14.6

14.5

-1

14.4

0.4

eff

ts(Idev.i)

0.7

fund

fund

freq=0.0000Hz

Gammainternal=0.154 / 0.000

Vin=0.300000

impedance =Z0 * (1.365 +j0.000)

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

10

15

20

ts(vdev)

25

30

35

40

0.0

0.20

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30

Vin

43

using bondwire based matching

networks

44

Wideband PA operation

High efficiency operation requires well controlled

harmonics vs. frequency

This proves to be difficult over a large bandwidth,

e.g. class-B with transmission line stubs to

implement the 2nd harmonic short circuit

conditions

However there seems to be also a continuous

solution for high efficiency (78.5%) operation

using the fundamental and second harmonic

termination only

45

Class-J

harmonic, namely:

Z Fund _ J RFund _ B (1 j ) ,

with

Z Sec _ J mj

3

RFund _ B

8

Higher voltage swing

2 2 Vds on the active device

Exactly the same efficiency as class-B

There proofs to be a continuum of high efficiency

operation from class-J through class-B to class-J*

46

(Solution I)

class-J

class-J*

Class B

class-B

Class B

class-J*

47

class-J

(Solution II, more practical)

48

all yield a class-B like efficiency (78.5%)

class-J*

class-J

3.0

b=-1 Class-J

b=-0.75

b=-0.5

b=-0.25

b= 0 Class-B

b=0.25

b=0.5

b=0.75

b= 1 Class-J

Voltage (V)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

class-B

49

Voltage and current wave forms

V

are interchanged

out

Iout

Pure sinusoidal current

& rectified sin wave as voltage

wave.

Class-B operation

This inverse mode can be

Iout

achieved by using open harmonic Vout

loads in stead of shorted

harmonics.

Comparable conditions can be

found for inverse class-F etc.

Inv class-B operation

50

High Efficiency Principles

Load modulation concepts

Doherty

Outphasing

Dynamic load line

Supply voltage modulation concepts

Envelope Tracking (KANN)

Envelope Elimination and Restoration

Other techniques

51

Remember for

class-B

In power back-off a

conventional PA drops in

efficiency since for the given

output power level the output

voltage swing with respect to

the supply voltage is

reduced.

High efficiency amplifier

concepts maximize their

voltage swing with respect to

the supply voltage in power

back-off by dynamically

changing their load line or

their supply voltage.

Vout 2

Pout

2.R fund

Pdc Vdc. Idc ( Pout )

Vmax . I DC ( Pout )

2

Class-B

Load line modulation

different currents

still result in the

maximum voltage

swing

Supply voltage

modulation ensures that

the output stage is

always at its maximum

voltage swing

52

Invented in 1936 by W.H.Doherty;

Dynamic loading main PA yields two efficiency peaks vs. power back-off.

First 50kW DPA implemented in radio broadcast transmitter in 1938 based on vacuum

tubes; At 6-dB back off, the efficiency improved from 33% to 60%

Always on (class-B)

main

pp. 1163-1182, Nov.1936

53

Perfectly inphase

This peaking amplifier is only active

for the higher output power levels

(class-C)

Z1 decreases to Z0

Main PA

Maximum voltage

swing is maintained

Doherty Only!!!

The impedance of the main PA is modulated by the current ratio I2/I1

When I2 =0 the RL is high and main PA reaches voltage saturation

quickly.

After reaching this point I2>0 and the effective loading of the main PA

reduces

Note that the constrains are given for symmetric DPA only, for

asymmetric DPAs I2 can be larger than I1

4

54

m a g (V in _ _ p e a k[::,1 ])

m a g (V in _ _ m a in [::,1 ])

Voltage sat. main PA

@ Pback-off

1.0

Imain

0.8

device vs. normalized input

voltage,indicates at which back-off

condition the Main device turns on.

0.6

Ipeak

0.4

0.5

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

m a g (V p e a k [::,1 ])

m a g (V m a in [::,1 ])

Vin

0.5

10

Vmain

Vpeak

0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Vin

m a g (Z p e a k )

m a g ( Z m a in )

10

Zpeak

Zmain

Resulting impedances

0

0.0

55

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Vin

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

0.5

Efficiency Vs. Output Power

0.8

Efficiency

0.6

Main

DPA

0.4

Peak

Voltage sat.

main PA

0.2

0.0

-20

Amplifier ( = 0.5)

-15

-10

-5

Efficiency Vs. Output Power

0.8

Efficiency

0.6

Doherty Amplifier ( = 0.5)

with the efficiency as provided by a single

line-up class-B amplifier

DPA

0.4

Class-B

0.2

0.0

-20

-15

-10

-5

Given:

Supply voltage main and peaking device (Vsup)

Class-B device operation

Maximum output power (Pmax)

Power back-off ratio high efficiency point (Pratio)

Step 1: Calculate power at high efficiency power back-off point, at this point the

Peak device is still switched off, so:

Pmax

10 Ratio _ in _ dB /10

Note that Imain increases linearly with the normalized input, while the related

output power increases quadratic, so the factor can be calculated as,

Consequently Imain@max can be derived from the power in back-off, using:

57

Step 2: Calculate Ipeak_max

Pmain @ max

2

Yielding:

I peak @ max

2 Ppeak @ max

Vsup

With Imain_max and Ipeak_max known, we can solve for the other unknown circuit

Conditions, namely; Ro and RL

58

Step 3: Calculate Ro and RL

Consider load conditions Main PA

at Pback and Pmax

Z main @ back

Ro 2

Z1

Z1 '

Vsup 2

2 Pmain @ back

with:

Z main @ max

RL

Main PA

Vsup 2

2 Pmain @ max

I2

Z1 ' (1 ) RL

I1 '

and using the fact that at Pmax the voltage swing is equal to Vsup for both

the main and peaking device one can solve for Ro and RL

59

Advanced implementations

12dB back-off

In the mixed signal

approach each input is

driven individually by

using coherent RF input

signals.

Two-way DPA

desired current profile

versus power for each

stage.

No manipulation of the

bias points of the active

devices is now required

for Doherty operation.

The bias points are now

optimized for efficiency

only!

August 10, 2016

Three-way DPA

60

drive of an ideal class-B operated

twoway and three-way Doherty PA, which

are both optimized for max. efficiency

at 12dB Power back-off

Three-Way Doherty,

Mixed signal testing

61

Measured Results

M. Pelk & E. Neo,

IEEE trans. on MTT, July

2008

62

Basic concept

Two Anti-phase PM Signals

PA devices.

the PA devices should not affect the

linearity of the output.

linearity of PA devices (LINC)

yielding improved efficiency.

Linearity considerations assume the

use of isolating power combiner

yielding a poor system efficiency!!!

Can be class-E

Input signal with

varying envelope

S1 t

Sin t V t .cos[c t (t )]

Sin t

Vmax

cosct t t

2

Signals with a

constant envelope

G

Signal

Component

Separator

Non-Linear

RF PAs

S out t

Amplified replica of

input signal with

varying envelope

V t

Vmax

t cos 1

S2 t

Vmax

cosct t t

2

S t

1

t

t

Sin t

t

S t

2

Remember:

cos( x) cos( y )

cos( x y ) cos( x y )

2

yields improved efficiency in power backoff, due to the complex load modulation

of the active devices in the PA output

stage

PA devices is assumed.

real at a particular outphasing angle

resulting in efficiency peaking.

Overall:

suseptance compensation is applied

2sin 2 ( )

sin(2 )

Y1

j

RL

RL

2sin 2 ( )

sin(2 )

Y2

j

RL

RL

when branch signals are in opposite phase

Y1

Y1

Y1,2

Y2

2cos 2

sin 2

Z 02

mj

with RL

RL

RL

RL

h = hB cos(Y) = hB cos f

Y2

with transmissionline based power

combiner. The susceptances Cc, Lc

compensate the complex loading of

the PA stages at the specified

compensation angle

2cos 2

sin 2 sin 2c

Z 02

Y1,2

mj

with RL

RL

RL

RL

where c is the compensation angle

h= hB cos(Y ) = hB

delivered when branch signals are in phase

2cos 2 f

2

Loading of PA stages

2cos 2

sin 2

Y1,2 ( ) G ( ) mjB( )

mj

RL

RL

2

Z

with RL 0

RL

h = h cos(Y) = h

Highest

output

power

Highest

output

power

G

2

G +B

= h cos f

Loading of PA stages

2 cos2

sin 2 sin 2c

G '( ) jB '( )

Y1,2

mj

RL

RL

Efficiency of PA stages

(with compensation)

h= h cos(Y ) = h

=h

G'

2

( G ') +( B ')

2 cos 2 f

2

Highest

output

power

The output powers are independent of the compensation

2

2

2cos

f

Z

Pout = Vdc 2

where RL= 0

RL

RL

needed for a reasonable

output power control range

Load modulation

Since for small output powers, two large vectors need to be subtracted, this concept is quite

sensitive for imperfections (inaccuracies) in the branch amplifier paths. Also the efficiency tends

to drop at large out-phasing angles due to the complex loading conditions, therefore restricting

the outphasing angle and using a combination of outphasing and input power modulation can

yield higher performance and less sensitivity of the final implementation (mixed-mode operation)

Practical Implementations,

90 Watts GaN Amplifier

Practical Implementations,

90 Watts GaN Amplifier

Test setup

Practical Implementations,

90 Watts GaN Amplifier

Restoration (EER)

In this (Kahn) concept the PA is typically a saturated switch mode PA, the output power

modulation comes in through the DC supply.

Very high efficiency has been reported for this approach.

Large RF bandwidth

Video bandwidth of the DC-DC converter limits average efficiency for truly wideband signals.

73

DC modulator, this makes the system difficult to implement

A simpler approach is the Envelop Tracking concept where the

amplitude information is still handled by the PA itself. The efficiency

improvement is achieved by the DC modulator that somewhat

tracks the slow envelope variations, keeping the PA stage close to

(but not in) voltage saturation

74

Conclusion 1)

In 2009 Wireless networks alone are responsible for

0.5% of the worldwide C02 emission and their

contributions are expected to grow, if no appropriate

actions are taken

75

Conclusion 2)

high efficiency concept, since there are many trade-offs in terms of:

Efficiency

bandwidth,

voltage stress active device,

linearity,

memory effects,

system complexity,

form factor,

and costs!

76

Conclusion 3)

During the lectures you have been confronted with some basic as

well more advanced techniques, in order to shape you as a good

microwave engineer / scientist

For this purpose we have tried to give you a selection of the most

relevant information, homework problems and principle

understanding of the phenomena in microwave / RF circuits.

negativeas a whole or on specific parts

77

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