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SEPARATELY-EXCITED DC

GENERATOR
The field winding of the generator
is excited from a separate source
usually a battery.

E VL I a Ra

Pg EI a

PL
IL
VL

where:
E = generated emf (volt)
VL = load or terminal voltage (volt)
Ia = armature current (ampere)
IL = load current (ampere)
Ra = armature equivalent resistance
(ohm)
Pg = power generated in the armature

Example:
A DC generator is rated 2000 W at
115V. Its armature circuit
resistance is 0.95 ohm and its
field coils are separately
energized. Determine the power
generated to the load.

PL
2000
IL

17.39 A
VL
115
Ia IL
E 115 17.39(0.95) 131.52V
Pg EI a 131.52(17.39 ) 2.287kW

SELF-EXCITED
GENERATOR
The field winding of the
generator is excited
from its own generated
emf.

SHUNT GENERATOR
- the armature and field coils are
connected in parallel.

VL
I sh
Rsh

PL
IL
VL

E VL I a Ra

I a I L I sh

Pg EI a

where:
Ish = shunt field current (ampere)
Rsh = shunt field resistance (ohm)

Example:
A 200 V, 20 kW shunt generator
has an equivalent armature
resistance of 0.05 ohm and a
shunt field resistance of 200
ohms. Determine the power
developed in the armature when
it delivers full load.

PL 20,000
IL

100 A
VL
200
VL 200
I sh

1A
Rsh 200
I a I L I sh 100 1 101A

E VL I a Ra 200 101 0.05 205.05V


Pg EI a 205.05101 20.71kW

Alternate solution:

Pa I a Ra 101 0.05 0.51kW


2

Psh I sh Rsh 1 200 0.2kW


2

Pg PL Pa Psh 20 0.51 0.2 20.71kW

SERIES GENERATOR
- the armature and field coils are
connected in series.

PL
IL
VL

Pg EI a

Ia I L

E VL I a Ra Rse
where:
Rse = series field resistance
(ohm)

Example:
A DC series generator is supplying
a current of 10A with armature
and series field resistances of
0.5 and 0.6 ohms. The
generated voltage is 550 volts.
Determine the voltage at the
terminals of the generator.

T !!
I
ED IS!
TH

A.
VT E I a Ra Rse

VT 550 10 0.5 0.6 539V


T !!
I
ED IS!
TH

B.
VL VT I a R feeder

VL 539 101.5 524volts

LONG SHUNT COMPOUND


GENERATOR
- the series field coil is
connected in series with the
armature coil while the shunt
field coil is connected across the
series combination.

VL
I sh
Rsh

PL
IL
VL

Pg EI a

E VL I a Ra Rse
I a I L I sh

Example:
A 20 kW, 400V long shunt
compound generator has an
armature, shunt and series field
resistances of 0.1 ohm, 80 ohms
and 0.06 ohm, respectively.
Determine the generated emf.
Assume a brush contact drop of
1V per brush.

PL 20,000
IL

50 A
VL
400
VL 400
I sh

5A
Rsh
80
I a I L I sh 50 5 55 A

E VL I a Ra Rse Vbrushdrop
E 400 55 0.1 0.06 2
E 410.8volts

SHORT-SHUNT COMPOUND
GENERATOR
- the series field coil is
connected in series with the load
while the shunt field coil is
connected in parallel with the
armature coil.

PL
IL
VL

Vsh
I sh
Rsh

Pg EI a

I a I L I sh

Vsh VL I L Rse

E VL I a Ra I L Rse

Example:
A compound dynamo supplies a load of
20kW at 400V through a feeder having
a resistance equal to 0.1 ohm. The
shunt and series field resistances are
85 ohms and 0.06 ohm respectively.
Determine the total electromotive
force when the generator is connected
short shunt. Assume a brush contact
drop of 1V per brush and an armature
resistance of 0.1 ohm.

PL 20,000
IL

50 A
VL
400

Vsh VL I L Rse R feeder

Vsh 400 50 0.06 0.1 408V


Vsh 408
I sh

4.8 A
Rsh
85
I a I L I sh 50 4.8 54.8 A
E Vsh I a Ra Vbrushdrop

E 408 54.8 0.1 2 415.48V

Seatwork:
1. A shunt generator supplies a
load of 5,500 W at 110 V
through a pair of feeder
conductors having a resistance
of 0.02 ohm each. The
armature, shunt field
resistances are 0.15 ohm and
50 ohms respectively. Find the
emf generated.
Ans: E = 117.83 V

2. A short shunt compound


generator has an armature,
series field and shunt field
resistances are 0.04 ohm, 0.03
ohm and 80 ohms respectively.
The generator serves a 20 kW,
200 V load through a feeder with
an equivalent resistance of 0.1
ohm. Solve for the power
generated by the armature.
Ans: Pg = 22.29 kW