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ABCs of HYPERTENSION

HYPERTENSION
a medical condition where the blood
pressure is chronically elevated.
commonly referred to as high blood
pressure

ASSESSMENT
Measuring Blood Pressure
inflate the cuff suitably above anticipated
systolic pressure. A stethoscope should be placed
lightly over the brachial artery.
The cuff should be at the level of the heart
and the cuff should be deflated at a rate of 2 to 3 mmHg/s.
Systolic pressure is the pressure reading
at the onset of the Korotkoff sounds
Diastolic pressure is then recorded as the pressure
at which the sounds disappear.

ASSESSMENT
Hypertensive Work-up
CBC count, serum electrolytes, serum
creatinine, serum glucose, uric acid, and
urinalysis
Lipid profile (total cholesterol, low-density
lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein
[HDL], and triglycerides)
ECG and Chest Xray

BASIC CONCEPTS
Know your blood pressure
110 mmHg - Systolic pressure
70 mmHg - Diastolic pressure

BASIC CONCEPTS
110 mmHg Systolic
pressure
pressure of
blood going out
of the heart

BASIC CONCEPTS
70 mmHg Diastolic
pressure
pressure of
blood going
back to the
heart

BASIC CONCEPTS
Types of Hypertension
Essential
Secondary

BASIC CONCEPTS
Essential Hypertension
when no specific medical cause can be found to
explain a patient's condition

Secondary Hypertension
high blood pressure is a result of (i.e. secondary to)
another condition, such as kidney disease or certain
tumors

BASIC CONCEPTS
Signs and symptoms

Mild to moderate essential


hypertension is usually
asymptomatic.
Accelerated hypertension is
associated with
headache
somnolence
confusion
visual disturbances
nausea and vomiting
(hypertensive encephalopathy)

Some signs and symptoms are


especially important in infants and
neonates such as failure to thrive,
seizure, irritability or lethargy, and
respiratory distress.
distress
While in children hypertension
may cause headache, fatigue,
blurred vision, epistaxis, and bell
palsy.
Retinas are affected with
narrowing of arterial diameter to
less than 50% of venous diameter,
copper or silver wire appearance,
exudates, hemorrhages, or
papilledema

LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION
Doctors recommend weight loss and
regular exercise as the first steps in
treating mild to moderate hypertension.

LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION
Discontinuing smoking does
not directly reduce blood
pressure, but is very
important for people with
hypertension because it
reduces the risk of many
dangerous outcomes of
hypertension, such as
stroke and heart attack.

NO SMOKING

LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION
A diet rich in fruits
and vegetables and
low fat or fat-free
dairy food and
moderate or low in
sodium