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Organizational

Behavior

• Nokia Missed out on learning, they missed out on changing and thus missed out the

Nokia Missed out on learning, they missed out on changing and thus missed out the opportunity at hand to make it big.

The Chamba Gold Mine

The Chamba Gold Mine • You have taken a three-month option on a possible gold mine
The Chamba Gold Mine • You have taken a three-month option on a possible gold mine
The Chamba Gold Mine • You have taken a three-month option on a possible gold mine
The Chamba Gold Mine • You have taken a three-month option on a possible gold mine

You have taken a three-month option on a possible gold mine in Chamba (HP). During your trek and exploration, you have remained relatively healthy except for an injured left hand which sometimes can suddenly become quite weak. Withhave finally discovered gold in what appears to be good quantity. You have exactly two weeks to get to the claims office. If you arrive late and attempt to secure the property with the owners knowing you have visited it, they will probably hold an auction, at

which you, given your limited resources, could easily be outbid.

two weeks to go before your option expires.

The weather is only moderately favorable; a

mountain storm may be brewing.

You will

know

within 48 hours if

the storm

is coming

and

will

whether the mountain is

know

passable (if the storm comes) about one day later.

The Chamba Gold Mine

The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative one: 1. Wait three or four weeks until
The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative one: 1. Wait three or four weeks until
The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative one: 1. Wait three or four weeks until
The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative one: 1. Wait three or four weeks until
The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative one: 1. Wait three or four weeks until

Here is your alternative one:

  • 1. Wait three or four weeks until the weather warms up and enjoy a safe trip home. Take it easy

The Chamba Gold Mine

The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative two: 2. Go over the mountains. This is

Here is your alternative two:

2. Go over the mountains. This is dangerous. It is sometimes impossible. It is quick, however (usually 7 to 10 days), if you can make it without harm. If you encounter storms or are injured before you reach the top, you will probably have to turn back. In either case, you may perish, because the longest part of the journey is on the way over the top.

The Chamba Gold Mine

The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative 3:

Here is your alternative 3:

The Chamba Gold Mine

The Chamba Gold Mine Here is your alternative 4: 4. Wait two to four days ,

Here is your alternative 4:

  • 4. Wait two to four days, take #2 if the weather permits; if not take #3. (There is no advantage to waiting if you prefer #3 anyway, and waiting to take #1).

Gold Mine

(You have 14 days)

Option

Min

Max

Possible

Personal

Time

Time

Gain

Risk

(wait 3 days)

(over top)

(wait 3-4

(valley)

weeks)

#4

#3

#2

#1

Gold Mine

(You have 14 days)

#1

No $$$

None

(wait 3-4

weeks)

#2

(over top)

#3

(valley)

#4

Option

Min

Max

Possible

Personal

Time

Time

Gain

Risk

(wait 3 days)

Gold Mine

(You have 14 days)

#1

No $$$

None

(wait 3-4

weeks)

#2

7 days

10 days

For sure

Life

(over top)

$$$s

#3

(valley)

#4

Option

Min

Max

Possible

Personal

Time

Time

Gain

Risk

(wait 3 days)

Gold Mine

(You have 14 days)

#1

No $$$

None

(wait 3-4

weeks)

#2

7 days

10 days

For sure

Life

(over top)

$$$s

#3

14 days 21 days

Maybe $

None

(valley)

$$s

#4

Option

Min

Max

Possible

Personal

Time

Time

Gain

Risk

(wait 3 days)

 

Gold Mine

 

(You have 14 days)

Option

Min

Max

Possible

Personal

 

Time

Time

Gain

Risk

#1

No $$$

None

(wait 3-4

weeks)

#2

7 days

10 days

For sure

Life

(over top)

$$$s

#3

14 days 21 days

Maybe $

None

(valley)

$$s

Win if

#4

10-13

12-21

$$$, if

no storm

(wait 3 days)

days to

days to

top

Lose if

top

valley

Lose, if

storm

   

storm

 

Which Decision you will take and why?

Now divide yourself in the team of 5 and being a group take decision and why?

Does your decision changed with respect within group?

The Dynamics of people and organizations

A primary goal of management education is to develop students into managers who can think ahead, exercise good judgment, make ethical decisions, and take into consideration the implications of their proposed actions

– Jane Schmidt-Wilk

Organization

A deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish a specific purpose.

1-21

1-22

1-22

Behavior

The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.

Behavior • The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.
Behavior • The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.

Organizational behavior (OB)

Organizational behavior (OB)

A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.

Discussion Questions

Why aren’t employees as satisfied at work today as they were 30 years ago?

Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study

Intuition

A feeling not necessarily supported by research.

Systematic study

Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. Provides a means to predict behaviors.

You enter an OB course with many preconceived notions that you accept as facts.

Preconceived

Notions

The

Facts

Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study

OB not only introduces you to a comprehensive set of concepts and theories, but it also has to deal with many commonly accepted “facts” about human behavior and organizations that you have acquired over the years.

But these “facts” are not necessarily true. The field of OB is built on decades of research. This research provides a body of substantive evidence that is able to replace preconceived notions.

Can you tell how many Employees are satisfied with their Jobs?

Why Do We Study OB?

Why Do We Study OB?

To Understand Human Behavior

To Know Yourself

To Know Yourself

To Know Others

To Know Others

To become familiar with team work and maintaining work relationships

To Motivate People

To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneurs

To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneurs

Who Are Managers?

Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organization goals can be accomplished.

A manager’s job is not only about personal achievement- its about helping others do their work.

Managerial Levels

Nonmanagerial Employees Nonmanagerial Employees First-Line Managers First-Line Managers Middle Managers Middle Managers Managers Managers Top Top
Nonmanagerial Employees
Nonmanagerial Employees
First-Line Managers
First-Line Managers
Middle Managers
Middle Managers
Managers
Managers
Top
Top

The One Minute Manager

People Who Feel Good About Themselves Produce Good Results

Help People Reach Their Full Potential Catch Them Doing Something Right

The Best Minute I Spend Is The One I Invest In People

Everyone Is A Potential Winner Some People Are Disguised

As Losers, Don’t Let Their Appearances Fool You.

We Are Not Just Our Behavior, We Are The Person Managing Our Behavior

Goals Begin Behaviors, Consequences Maintain Behaviors

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

  • Henry Mintzberg studied CEOs at work and created a scheme to define what managers do on the job. These are commonly referred to as Mintzberg’s managerial roles.

  • These can be grouped into three primary headings: interpersonal, informational and decisional

50

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Henry Mintzberg studied CEOs at work and created a scheme to define what
Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large Businesses
Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large
Businesses
Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large Businesses Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo,

Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The Manager’s Self-Assessments of Managerial Roles: Small vs. Large Firms,” American Journal of Small Business (January–March 1984) pp. 61–62.

Managerial Skills

Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills

Some more important Skills (Can you please name)

Communication Skills Administrative Skills Leadership Skills Problem Solving Skills Decision Making Skills Listening Skills Analytical Skills

What Managers Do

Managers

Individuals who achieve goals through other

people.

   
 

Managerial Activities

Managerial Activities

 

Make decisions

Make decisions

Allocate Allocate resources resources

Direct Direct activities activities of of others others to to

attain goals

attain goals

   

5 ways to have Work Life Balance

Let Staff Decide work Hours

Alternate Work Options

Compressed Work Week: Sunshine Wednesday

Urge staff to pursue passion

Promote Fun activities

How Companies are Changing

“Cool” Companies

Believe titles are obsolete

Allow staff to come and go as they please

Offer all employees stock options

tape)

Let employees make decisions that

affect their work Offer assistance with childcare

Have minimal bureaucracy (red

“Old” Companies

Charge employees for perks and incentives

Have flex time: but only between 7:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m.

Hide financial results from their

employees Encourage employee input -- but

rarely act on it Employ rigid hierarchies (chain of

command) Stop at open doorpolicies

Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field

Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field

Psychology

Sociology

Social Psychology

Anthropology

Social Psychology Anthropology
Social Psychology Anthropology
Political Science

Political Science

Psychology

The science that

seeks to measure,

explain, and

sometimes change

the behavior of

humans and other

animals.

• Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.

Sociology

The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.

• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
• Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that
• Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that

Social Psychology

• Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that
• Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that

An area within psychology

that blends concepts from

psychology and sociology

and that focuses on the

influence of people on one

another.

Anthropology

The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
The study of societies to learn about human beings
and their activities.

Political Science

The study of the behavior

of individuals and groups

within a political

environment.

• Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
• Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
• Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
• Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
• Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.

Toward an OB

Discipline
Discipline
Toward an OB Discipline
Challenges and Opportunities of OB Organizational Level • Improving Quality and Productivity • • • Developing
Challenges and Opportunities of OB
Organizational Level
Improving Quality and Productivity
Developing effective employees
Global competition
Managing in the global village
Group Level
Working with others
Workforce diversity
Workplace
Individual Level
• Innovativeness
• Empowerment and Work Life Balance
Behaving ethically
Improving Skills of People
Challenges and Opportunities of OB Organizational Level • Improving Quality and Productivity • • • Developing
Challenges and Opportunities of OB
Organizational Level
Improving Quality and Productivity
Developing effective employees
Global competition
Managing in the global village
Group Level
Working with others
Workforce diversity
Workplace
Individual Level
• Innovativeness
• Empowerment and Work Life Balance
Behaving ethically
Improving Skills of People

We are developing a global talent pool that knows Ericsson's systems, products, processes and can work in any geography, and several Indian managers have recently taken on global roles contributing to the larger organisation," said Sameer Khanna, vice president & HR head,

Over the past one year, the Swedish networks vendor has transferred over 140 employees from India to overseas units and At present, almost 18% of Ericsson's 1.15 lakh-strong global workforce are Indians, including people of Indian origin.

Challenges and Opportunities of OB Organizational Level • Improving Quality and Productivity • • • Developing
Challenges and Opportunities of OB
Organizational Level
Improving Quality and Productivity
Developing effective employees
Global competition
Managing in the global village
Group Level
Working with others
Workforce diversity
Workplace
Individual Level
• Innovativeness
• Empowerment and Work Life Balance
Behaving ethically
Improving Skills of People

Workplace Demographic Trends

Increasingly affluent, with a bulging middle class The youngest population in the world 65% of population below 35 years of age

Rural population (% of total population) in India was last measured at 68.70 in 2011, according to the World Bank

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of

25

It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian

will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for

Japan

Challenges and Opportunities of OB

Group Level Improving Skills of People • • • • • • Workplace Developing effective employees
Group Level
Improving Skills of People
Workplace
Developing effective employees
Global competition
Managing in the global village
Individual Level
Working with others
Workforce diversity
Organizational Level
Improving Quality and Productivity
• Empowerment and Work Life Balance
Behaving ethically
• Innovativeness

Challenges and Opportunities for OB

1.Responding to Globalization

Increased foreign assignments Working with people from different cultures Coping with anticapitalism backlash Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor Managing people during the war on terror

2.Managing workforce diversity

Workforce diversity:

Gender, race, national origin, age, disability,

Embracing diversity Changing demographics

Workforce diversity can increase creativity and innovation

in organizations as well as improve decision making by

providing different perspective on promble.

3.Improving quality and productivity

“Almost all quality improvement comes via simplification of design, manufacturing, layout, processes, and procedures.”----Tom Peters

Today’s managers understand that success of any effort at improving quality and productivity must include their employees.

4.Improving people skills

We’ll present relevant concepts and theories that can help

you explain and predict the behavior of people at work.

Learn a ways to motivate people How to be a better communicator How to create more effective teams

5.Empowering people

Decision making is being pushed down to the operating level, where workers are being given the freedom to make choices about schedules and procedures and to solve work-related problems.

Self-management team Managers are empowering emplyees. Managers-how to give up control

Emplyees-how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions

Leading style, power relationships, the way work is designed, the way organizations are structured

6.Stimulating innovation and change

Today’s successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change or they’ll become candidate for extinction.

An organization’s employees can be the impetus for innovation and change or they can be a majors stumbling block.

The challenge for managers is to stimulate their employees’ creativity and tolerance for change.

7.Coping with “temporariness”

Managing today would be more accurately described as long periods of ongoing change, interrupted occasionally by short periods of stability!

The actual jobs that workers perform are in a permanent state of flux.

So workers need to continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements.

8.Helping employees balance work/life conflicts

A number of forces have contributed to blurring the lines between employee work and personal lives.

First, the creation of global organizations means their world never sleeps.

Second, communication technology allows employee to do their work at home, in their car, or on the beach in Tahiti.

Third, organizations are asking employees to put in longer hours. Finally, fewer families have only a single breadwinner.

9.Declining employee loyalty

Beginning in the mid-1980s, in response to global competition, unfriendly takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and the like, corporations began to discard traditional policies on job security, seniority and compensation.

An important OB challenge will be for managers to devise ways to motivate workers who feel less committed to their employers, while maintaining their organizations’ global competitiveness.

10.Improving ethical behavior

Members of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical dilemmas, situations in which they are required to define right and wrong conduct.

In recent years, the line differentiating right from wrong has become even more blurred.

Managers and their organizations are writing and distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas.

Individual

Behaviour

BIOGRAPHICAL

CHARACTERISTICS

Role of Individual Behavior

Biographical Characteristics

Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics

Some Important Biological Characteristics

Age

Sex

Race and Ethnicity

Disability

Tenure

Religion

Age

Age
Age
Age

AGE

Most common belief- as the age increases the Job performance decreases.

Positive factors that older employees bring to job-

EXPERIENCE STRONG WORK ETHICS GOOD JUDGEMENT SKILLS

But lack flexibility and are resistant to new technology. Study of Age-turnover relationship:

The older employees are less likely to quit their job. Age is inversely related to Absenteeism.

Gender

Gender

Gender

GENDER

Do women perform as well as on jobs as men do. There is no difference between

Problem solving ability

Analytical skills

Motivation

Learning Ability

Studies proved that- Women are more willing to conform to authority and men are more aggressive.

One difference is the choice of work schedules. Absenteeism rate of women is more then Men

Tenure

Positive relationship between Tenure and productivity.

Negative relationship between Tenure and Absenteeism.

Employees Will be acquainted with principles, rules,

policies and so on.

Tenure and satisfaction are positively related.

I think that God in creating Man somewhat overestimated his ability.

— Oscar Wilde

Ability

Ability

Ability

Ability © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–
Ability © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–
Ability © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

2–

Ability © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2– 116

116

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

2-117

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Dimention Description Number aptitude Ability to do speedy & accurate arithmetic. Verbal comprehension Ability to understand
Dimention
Description
Number aptitude
Ability to do speedy & accurate arithmetic.
Verbal comprehension
Ability to understand what is read or heard
and the relationship of words to each other.
Perceptual speed
Ability to identify visual similarities &
differences quickly and accurately.
Inductive reasoning
Ability to identify a logical sequence in the
problem & then solve the problem.
Deductive reasoning
Ability to use logic and access the
implications of an argument.
Spatial visualization
Ability to Imagine
Memory
Ability to retain and recall past experiences.
Physical Ability
Physical Ability

2–119

Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors Strength Factors 1. Dynamic strength 1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength
Nine Physical Abilities
Strength Factors
Strength Factors
1. Dynamic strength
1. Dynamic strength
2. Trunk strength
2. Trunk strength
3. Static strength
3. Static strength
4. Explosive strength
4. Explosive strength
Flexibility Factors
Flexibility Factors
5.
Extent flexibility
. Extent flexibility
6.
Dynamic flexibility
. Dynamic flexibility
Other Factors
Other Factors
7. Body coordination
7. Body coordination
8. Balance
8. Balance
9. Stamina
9. Stamina

The Ability-Job Fit

Ability-Job Employee’s Abilities Fit
Ability-Job
Employee’s
Abilities
Fit
Requirements Job’s Ability
Requirements
Job’s Ability
Learning • Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning
Learning
• Any relatively permanent change in behavior that
occurs as a result of experience.
Learning

Classical Conditioning

learning by association

Russian physiologist called

Ivan Pavlov, studied

salivation in dogs.

Pavlov set up an

experiment to find out if

the dogs could be trained

to salivate such as at the

sound of a bell.

Classical Conditioning • learning by association • Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov, studied salivation in dogs.

In scientific terms,

Unconditioned stimulus

A naturally occurring phenomenon.

Unconditioned response

The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus.

Conditioned stimulus

An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation.

Conditioned response

The response to the artificial stimulus.

In scientific terms, • Unconditioned stimulus • A naturally occurring phenomenon. • Unconditioned response • The

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened CS Sight of Dog UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened

UCS Dog Bite

UCR

Frightened

Classical Conditioning UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened CS Sight of Dog UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened

CS Sight of Dog

UCS Dog Bite

Classical Conditioning UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened CS Sight of Dog UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened

UCR

Frightened

Classical Conditioning UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened CS Sight of Dog UCS Dog Bite UCR Frightened

CR

Frightened

CS Sight of Dog

Menu

This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not

voluntary – not the best theory for OB learning.

Theories of Learning (cont’d)

Developed by BF Skinner,

known as Father of

Operant Conditioning

Done a experiment with

rats

2–

Theories of Learning (cont’d) • Developed by BF Skinner, known as Father of Operant Conditioning •
136
136
Menu

Menu

Theories of Learning (cont’d)

B. F. Skinner’s concept of Behaviorism: behavior follows stimuli in a

relatively unthinking manner.

Key Concepts:

Conditioned behavior: voluntary behavior that is learned, not reflexive.

Reinforcement: the consequences of behavior which can increase or

decrease the likelihood of behavior repetition. Pleasing consequences increase likelihood of repetition.

Rewards are most effective immediately after performance.

Unrewarded/punished behavior is unlikely to be repeated.

2–

139

Theories of Learning (cont’d)

Theories of Learning (cont’d)

Attentional processes

Must recognize and pay attention to critical features to learn.

Retention processes

Model’s actions must be remembered to be learned.

Motor reproduction processes

Watching the model’s behavior must be converted to doing.

Reinforcement processes

Positive incentives motivate learners.

COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY

Kohler presented two sticks to a monkey in a cage.

Cognition refers to an individual’s thoughts, knowledge,

interpretations, understandings or views about oneself

and his/her environment.

Key Concepts • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
Key Concepts
• The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and
permanence.

Schedules of Reinforcement: A Critical Issue

Two Major Types:

Continuous Reinforcement

A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated

Intermittent Reinforcement

A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated

Multiple frequencies

Schedules of Reinforcement: A Critical Issue • Two Major Types: • Continuous Reinforcement • A desired

2-

144

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 2–145
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 2–145

2–145

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)

2–146

Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio 2–147
Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio 2–147
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-ratio
2–147
What will you do

What will you do

Values

Values 3–152
Values 3–152

3–152

Values 3–152
Values 3–152

Values

are standard of your behavior.

It shows

what

exactly you stand for and do not deviate from the same.

When your actions are in line with your values, you feel

happy while when its not in line with your values, you feel

dissatisfied.

Your Goals and Values need to be congruent and as when

it happens, it gives rise to integrity.

Importance of Values

Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.

Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey

Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey
Values in the Rokeach Survey
Values in
the
Rokeach
Survey
Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d)
Values in
the
Rokeach
Survey
(cont’d)

How to Understand your values

Think of times when you are happy

Think of times when you are Proud

Think of times when you feel fulfilled

List down the value and select the top five

Tata Group Core values

Integrity.

 

...

 

...

...

Responsibility

Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior

the Organization the Organization Ethical Climate in Ethical Climate in Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders
the Organization
the Organization
Ethical Climate in
Ethical Climate in
Ethical Values and
Behaviors of
Leaders
3–163

Story

165

165

6/8/2014

It is what’s INSIDE that counts

It is what’s INSIDE that counts

"When you reach an obstacle, turn it into an opportunity.

You have the choice. You can overcome and be a winner,

or you can allow it to overcome you and be a loser. The

choice is yours and yours alone. Refuse to throw in the

towel. Go that extra mile that failures refuse to travel. It is

far better to be exhausted from success than to be rested

from failure.

- Mary Kay Ash, founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics

HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE AN

ICEBERG?

ICEBERG? 169
ICEBERG? 169
ICEBERG? 169
ICEBERG? 169

169

6/8/2014

THE ICEBERG

THE ICEBERG Only 10% of any iceberg is visible. The remaining 90% is below sea level.
Only 10% of any iceberg is visible. The remaining 90% is below sea level. 6/8/2014 170
Only
10%
of
any
iceberg
is
visible.
The
remaining 90%
is
below
sea
level.
6/8/2014
170

THE ICEBERG

90 % Below Sea Invisible LEVEL SEA Level
90 %
Below Sea
Invisible
LEVEL
SEA
Level

171

6/8/2014

The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on

human beings …

172

6/8/2014

KNOWLEDGE ATTITU Below Sea Invisible SKILLS LEVEL SEA DE Level &
KNOWLEDGE
ATTITU
Below Sea
Invisible
SKILLS
LEVEL
SEA
DE
Level
&

173

6/8/2014

In other words,

6/8/2014

UNKNOWN TO OTHERS KNOWLEDGE SKILLS & iIMPACT SEA LEVEL
UNKNOWN
TO OTHERS
KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS
&
iIMPACT
SEA
LEVEL

6/8/2014

ATTITUDE contributes to Success

A

study

attributed

to

Harvard

 
 

University found that

 

When

a

person

gets

a

job

or

a

promotion, 85%

the time

of

it

is

because of his attitude, and only

15%

of

the

time

because of

intelligence and knowledge of specific facts and figures.

ATTITUDE contributes to Success A study attributed to Harvard University found that When a person gets

They are relatively stable. Belief + Value = Attitude which guide to Behavior

Components of Attitudes:

Cognitive Cognitive Attitude Attitude Affective Affective Behavioral Behavioral 181
Cognitive
Cognitive
Attitude
Attitude
Affective
Affective
Behavioral
Behavioral
181

Components of Attitudes

COGNITIVE

The beliefs or opinion of an attitude

AFFECTIVE

The emotional or feeling of an attitude

BEHAVIORAL

An intention of behave in certain way towards something

182

Attitude Object: DENTIST

COGNITIONS

Dentists are friendly.

Dentists are expensive.

AFFECTS

Dentists make me feel anxious.

I like dentists.

BEHAVIORS

I visit the dentist twice a year.

Attitude Object: DENTIST  COGNITIONS  Dentists are friendly.  Dentists are expensive.  AFFECTS 

I am a very cooperative patient.

183

Cont…

Cognitive Component /Informational

(My pay is low)

Cognitive Component /Informational (My pay is low) Affective / Emotional Component (I’m angry over how little

Affective / Emotional Component

(I’m angry over how little I’m paid)

Cognitive Component /Informational (My pay is low) Affective / Emotional Component (I’m angry over how little

Behavioral Component

(I’m going to look for another job that pays

better)

Types of Attitudes

Types of Attitudes 3–185
Types of Attitudes 3–185

3–185

Types of Attitudes 3–185
Types of Attitudes 3–185
Types of Attitudes 3–185

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Desire to reduce dissonance
Desire to reduce dissonance

3–

186

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance 3– 186

Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?

IT DEPENDS!

187

Measuring the A-B Relationship • Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B)
Measuring the A-B Relationship
• Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A)
significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating
variables are taken into account.
Moderating Variables

An Application: Attitude Surveys

An Application: Attitude Surveys 3–189

3–189

An Application: Attitude Surveys 3–189
Sample Attitude Survey 3–190 © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample Attitude Survey
3–190
© 2003 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights
reserved.

Where do attitudes come from?

Education

Environment

Experience

How to Change Your

How to Change Your

Attitude Attitude ATTITUDE Changes happen Changes happen personally personally from the from the INSIDE OUT! INSIDE
Attitude
Attitude
ATTITUDE
Changes happen
Changes happen
personally
personally
from the
from the
INSIDE OUT!
INSIDE OUT!
ATTITUDE
ATTITUDE

So

So

. . .

. . .

Accept

Accept

Responsibility

Responsibility

I am responsible . . . for who I am for what I have for what
I am responsible
.
.
.
for who I am
for what I
have
for what I do
ATTITUDE
ATTITUDE
Values Step Step #2#2 Take Take Control Control Mission YOU Negative world view Ownership ATTITUDE ATTITUDE
Values
Step
Step #2#2 Take
Take Control
Control
Mission
YOU
Negative
world view
Ownership
ATTITUDE
ATTITUDE
FROM
FROM THE
THE INSIDE
INSIDE
.. .. ..
OUT!
OUT!
Discipline

How to Change Your

How to Change Your

Thinking Thinking THINKING Changes come Changes come from observing from observing logically logically in in every
Thinking
Thinking
THINKING
Changes come
Changes come
from observing
from observing
logically logically in in
every situation
every situation
THINKING THINKING

Observe

Observe Your

Your Thinking

Thinking

What can I do to defuse this? It sucks to be him. This is all very
What can
I do to
defuse
this?
It sucks to be him.
This is all very
Tomorrow it will look
interesting
very different.
THINKING THINKING
me! to let this
I’d like to beat the …
refuse
I hook

Manage Your

Manage

Your Self

Self--Talk

Talk

If you think you Can, or you think you Can’t… YOU’RE RIGHT! Henry Ford This is
If you think you Can, or you think you Can’t…
YOU’RE RIGHT!
Henry Ford
This is going to be
a wonderful day!
This is going to
be a crappy day!
THINKING THINKING

How to Change Your

How to Change Your

Behavior Behavior BEHAVIOR Changes take Changes take true assessment, true assessment, determination & determination & discipline
Behavior
Behavior
BEHAVIOR
Changes take
Changes take
true assessment,
true assessment,
determination &
determination &
discipline
discipline
BEHAVIOR
BEHAVIOR

Choose

Choose Your

Your Behavior

Behavior

REACTIVE Stimulus Response Response RESPONSIBLE My My My My Stimulus Choice Choice Respons Respons e e
REACTIVE
Stimulus
Response
Response
RESPONSIBLE
My
My
My
My
Stimulus
Choice
Choice
Respons
Respons
e e
BEHAVIOR
BEHAVIOR

INFLUENCE YOUR

INFLUENCE

YOUR ENVIRONMENT!

ENVIRONMENT!

Add Add POSI POSI++IVE IVE Behavior Behavior Replace Replace the the BAD BAD HABITS! HABITS! •
Add
Add POSI
POSI++IVE
IVE Behavior
Behavior
Replace
Replace the
the BAD
BAD HABITS!
HABITS!
• Spread a SMILE around
• Sprinkle some “positive” on the negatives
• Focus on the good of each day
• Stay out of the “feeding frenzies”
• Say “please” and “thank you”
• Practice EMPATHY
• Evaluate YOUR behavior
• Never miss an opportunity to complement
BEHAVIOR
BEHAVIOR
Remember to . Watch your definitions - Watch your definitions - they become thoughts they become
Remember to
.
Watch your definitions -
Watch your definitions -
they become thoughts
they become thoughts
Watch your thoughts -
Watch your thoughts -
they become words
they become words
Watch your words -
Watch your words -
they become actions
they become actions
Watch your actions -
Watch your actions -
they become your destiny
they become your destiny

BE A WINNER--ACTION STEPS

1. Be a good finder. 2. Make a habit of doing it now. 3. Develop an attitude of gratitude. 4. Get into a continuous education program. 5. Build positive self-esteem. 6. Stay away from negative influences. 7. Learn to like the things that need to be done. 8. Start your day with a positive.

The Choice

The

Choice isis YOURS

YOURS

With a Bad attitude

you can never have a

positive day

With a Positive attitude

you can never have a

bad day

BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE

The positive thinker sees the invisible, feels the

intangible, and achieves the impossible.

The man with confidence in himself gains the

confidence of others.

You will only go as far as you think you can go.

The biggest mistake of all is to avoid situations in

which you might make a mistake.

BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE

A positive attitude is like a magnet for positive

results.

Our life is a reflection of our attitudes.

Positive attitudes create a chain reaction of positive

thoughts.

Attitude, not aptitude, determines your altitude.

No man fails if he does his best.

BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE

Sooner or later, those who win are those who think

they can.

A creative attitude is the fuel of progress and

growth.

Either I will find a way, or I will make one.

Be the change you want to see in this world.

Forgive others and you will be forgiven.