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# Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces

1. General Considerations
Extended Surface refers to a solid material in which energy is
transferred by conduction within its boundaries and by
convection/radiation between its boundaries and the surroundings
Fins are extended surfaces used primarily to enhance the heat
transfer rate between the solid fins and an adjoining fluid
For a constant surface temperature Ts , heat transfer rate can be
increased by increasing h or reducing the temperature T of the
surroundings. None of these measures is usually practicable
Heat transfer rate is usually increased by employing extended
surfaces to increase the heat transfer area by convection
Fin material should have high k to limit temperature variation from
its base to the tip (want T=Tbase)
T, h
T, h
A

q = hA (Ts - T)

Bare Surface
Ts, A

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Finned Surface
Ts

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Fin Examples

Liquid Flow

Gas Flow

Liquid Flow

Gas Flow

t
w
r
x

cross section

## Straight fin of nonuniform cross section

x
Annular fin

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Pin fin
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## 2. General Conduction Analysis

Consider the energy balance for a differential area of an
extended surface shown below:

dqconv
qx+dx

qx

dAs

dx

Ac(x)

Assumptions

## 1-D, S.S, conduction in the x direction with constant k

Radiation from surface negligible or qr = 0
No heat generation or g = 0
h is uniform over the entire surface

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## Energy Balance yields:

qx qx dx dqconv

where

dqconv h dA s (Ts T )

Substituting

kA c

dT
dT
d
dT
kA c
k A c
dx hdA s TS T
dx
dx
dx
dx

or

d2T

1 dA c dT 1 h dA s

(Ts T ) 0

2 A dx dx A k dx
dx
c

## General form of the energy equation for extended surfaces.

Solution is obtained by applying appropriate B.C.s to obtain
temperature distribution and subsequent heat flow

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d2T

1 dA c dT 1 h dA s

(Ts T ) 0

2 A dx dx A k dx
dx
c

Since Ac = constant dA c 0
dx
Surface area As = P x , where P is the Perimeter
dA
s P
dx
d2T hP
T T 0

(1)
Heat equation reduces to:
2 kA
dx
c
Assumptions:
= 0), and
1-D, S.S. conduction, no energy generation ( g
constant Ac
To simply (1), Define excess temperature as:

d dT

T=Constant and
dx dx

( x ) T( x ) T

d2
dx

m 0

(2)

where

m2

hP
kA c

## General Solution to (2) is ( x ) C1emx C 2e mx

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Hyperbolic functions

1 x
sinh( x ) e e x
2

cosh( x )

e x e x

sinh( x )
tanh( x ) x

x
cosh( x )
e e

1 x
e e x
2

## See table B-1 is Appendix B

of Text for values of hyperbolic
functions for x = 0 to 10

B.C.s 1. (x=0) = Tb - T = b
2. at x = L (tip condition)
This corresponds to any of the following four physical
conditions (Cases A to D):

## Case (A): Convection heat transfer from the tip.

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## Energy Balance at tip surface yields:

qconv
kA c

Tb
qf = qb

dT
dx

hA c T(L ) T

T, h
b
x=0

dT
kA c
hA c T(L ) T
dx x L

x=L
or

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d
k
h (L )
dx x L
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## From the general solution ( x ) C1emx C2e mx

At x = 0,
(0) b C1e0 C2e 0 C1 C2
d
At x = L , where h(L ) k
dx

## h C1emL C2e mL km C2e mL C1emL

(3)

(4)

Equations (3) and (4) are then solved to obtain C1 and C2.
C1 and C2 are substituted to obtain the general solution:
cosh m(L x ) h mk sinh m(L x )

b
cosh mL h mk sinh m(L x )
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## Total heat energy transferred by fin (qf) may be evaluated

from Fouriers Law:

d
qf qb kA c
dx x 0
Knowing (x), qf is estimated to be:

sinh mL h mk cosh mL
qf hPkA c b
cosh mL h mk sinh mL

or

qf M

sinh mL h mk cosh mL
cosh mL h mk sinh mL

where

M hPkA c b

## And b is the temperature difference (excess) at the base,

b = Tb - T
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## Case (B): Adiabatic condition at the tip (Negligible

Convection at tip)
Temperature Distribution is:
cosh m(L x )

b
cosh mL

qf

qL

and

x=0
qf M tanh(mL )

x=L

d
0
dx
L

where

M hPkA c b

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## Case (C): Prescribed Temperature at the Tip

Temperature Distribution is:
L

## sinh(mx ) sinh m(L x )

and

qf M

sinh(mL )
cosh mL L
sinh mL

b
b

qf
x=0

x=L
= L

where

M hPkA c b

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## Case (D): Infinite Fin ( L , L 0)

Temperature Distribution is:

e mx
b

L , (L ) 0
T T

and

qf M
where

x=0
b

T T 0

M hPkA c b

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Fin Performance
1. Fin Effectiveness (f)
f = ____Fin Heat Transfer Rate____
Heat Transfer Rate Without Fin
f

qf

hA c,b b

b= Tb-T

qf
Ac

f 0, typically 2

Etc...

## Ac,b is the fins cross-sectional area at the base.

In the case of an infinite fin (case D)
hPkA c b kP

hA c,b b
hA c,b b
hA c
qf

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2

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hPkA C b kP

hA c,b b
hA c,b b
hA c
qf

1
2

Typical h values

Process

## 1. Materials with high k (copper,

aluminum alloys, etc.)
2. High P/A ratios (example: thin, closely
space fins of compact heat
exchangers)
3. Transfer between two fluids: Fins are
used to enhance the heat transfer to
the fluid with the lower h (to give
maximum q). This is usually the gas
side.

h (W / m2 K)

Free Convection
Gases

2 -25

Liquids

50 -1000

Forced Convection
Gases

35 -250

Liquids

50 -20,000

Boiling or
Condensation

2500 -100,000

## For adiabatic tip, 98% of maximum

heat transfer is reached when mL =
2.3
Fins Length L 2.3m

hP
kA c

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b
R t,f
qf

Tb T
b
qf

R t,f
R t,f

qf

Tb
R t,f

and
b
qb
R t,b
q
f f
qb

1
R t,b
hA c,b

qb

R t,b
f
R t,f

Tb
R t,b

T
1
hA c,b

## If the fin is to enhance heat transfer, its resistance must not

exceed that of the exposed base.

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3. Fin Efficiency
q
qf
f f
qmax hA f b
b
qf
R t,f

## Where Af = surface area of fin

= PL for the straight fin

R t,f

1
hA f f

qf

Tb

T
R t,f

tanh mLtip condition,
f
M hPkA c b
where

hPLb

or

tanh mL
f
mL

sinh mL h mk cosh mL
Use simple
M
tanhfins
mL with
For straight
active
tip (convection
tip) mL h mk sinh mL
c
form and
Lc qf at thecosh
f
f
mL c
qmax
hPLb
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3.18

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3.19

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## Fins With Non-Uniform Cross Sectional Area

In an annular fin t is constant but the cross sectional area
(2 r t) varies with r.
General form of fin equation is:
d2T 1 dT 2h

T T 0
2 r dr
kt
dr
where

m2 2h

kt

d2 1 d
2

m
0
2 r dr
dr

or
and

T T

## This is the modified Bessel Equation of order zero, with

general solution of the form:
(r ) C1I0 (mr ) C2K 0 (mr )
where

## I0 = Modified zero order Bessel function of First kind

K0 = Modified zero order Bessel function of Second kind
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d
0
With (r1) = b and adiabatic tip such that
dr r2
C1 and C2 are determined and the temperature distribution
is:

I0 (mr1)K1(mr2 ) K 0 (mr1)I1(mr2 )

b I0 (mr1)K1(mr2 ) K 0 (mr1)I1(mr2 )
Where

dI0 (mr )
I1(mr )
d(mr )

dK 0 (mr )
K1(mr )
d(mr )

## Bessel functions are tabulated in appendix B (text)

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qf kA c,b

dT
dr r r1

qf k 2r1t

d
dr r r1

## K (mr )I (mr ) I (mr )K (mr )

qf 2kr1tbm 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
K 0 (mr1)I1(mr2 ) I0 (mr1)K1(mr2 )

qf

2h r22

r12 b

R t,f

1
h A f f

Table 3-5 shows the efficiency and surface area for common fin
geometries. Profile area and Volume are also shown.
V wA p
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## Actual fin heat transfer rate, qf, could be calculated from

qmax using the expression:
qf f qmax f (hA f b )
Overall Surface Efficiency For Fin Array
qt
qt
o

qmax hA t b
Where qt hA b,bare b NhA f f b = Total heat transfer rate
and

Thus:

N Af
o 1
1 f
At

## Where N = total number of fins

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r2
t
S

r1
t
S

w
L

T, h

## Representative fin arrays, Rectangular and Annular fins

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## 1. It is required to heat oil to about 350o C for frying purpose.

A laddle is used in the frying. The section of the handle is
4mm x 15 mm. the surroundings are at 35o C. The
conductivity of the material is 210 W/mK. If the
temperature at a distance of 400mm from the oil should
not reach 45o C, determine the convective heat transfer
co-efficient.
2. One end of a very long aluminum rod is connected to a
wall at 140o C, while the other end protrudes into a room
whose air temperature is 15o C. the rod is 3mm in dia and
the heat transfer coefficient between the rod and the
environment is 300W/m2K. Estimate the total heat
dissipated by the rod if the thermal conductivity of the rod
is 150 W/mK.

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3. 2 long rods of same diameter, one made of brass (k=85W/mK) and other
made of copper (k=375W/mK) have one of their ends inserted into the
furnace. Both the rods are exposed to same environment. At a distance of
105mm away from the furnace end, the temperature of the brass rod is
120oC. At what distance from the furnace end the same temperature would
be reached in the copper rod.
4. A motor body is 360mm in diameter (outside) and 240 mm long. Its surface
temperature should not exceed 55o C when dissipating 340 W. Longitudinal
fins of 15mm thickness and 40 mm height are proposed. The convection
heat transfer co-efficient is 40 W/m2K. Determine the number of fins
required. Take k= 40W/mK. Ambient air temperature = 30oC.
5. A turbine blade made of stainless steel (k= 29 W/mK) is 60 mm long. 500
mm2 cross sectional area, and 120 mm perimeter. The temperature of the
root of the blade is 480o C and it is exposed to products of combustion
passing through the turbine at 820o Cf the film co-efficient between the
blade and the combustion gases is 320 W/m2K, determine: (1) temperature
at the middle of the blade, (2) The rate of heat flow from the blade.

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6. A fin 5mm thick and 45 mm long has its base on a plane plate
which is maintained at 125oC. The ambient temperature is 25oC.
The conductivity of fin material is 55W/mK and the heat transfer
co-efficient is 145W/m2K. Determine the temperature at the end
of the fin, middle of the fin and heat dissipated by the fin (per
meter width)
7. Find the amount of heat transferred through an iron fin of length
50mm, width 100 mm and thickness 5mm. Assume k= 210
kJ/mhK, and h= 42 kJ/m2 hK for the material of the fin and the
temperature at the base of fin as 80oC. Also determine the
temperature at tip of the fin, if the atmosphere is 20oC and the tip
of the fin is insulated.
8. A longitudinal copper fin (k=380 W/mk) 600 mm long and 5 mm in
dia is exposed to air stream at 20oC. If the fin base temperature
is 150oC, and convective heat transfer co-efficient is 20 W/m2K,
determine (i) heat transferred and (ii) fin efficiency.

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## 9. A steel rod (k=32 W/mk) 60 mm long and 12 mm in dia with

insulated end is used as spine. It is exposed to air stream at
60oC. If the fin base temperature is 95oC, and convective heat
transfer co-efficient is 55 W/m2K, determine (i) heat transferred,
(ii) the temperature at the edge of the spine and (iii) fin efficiency.
10. A 25 cm dia rod connects 2 heat sources maintained at 127oC
and 227oC respectively. The curved surface of the rod is losing
heat to the surrounding air at 27oC. The heat transfer co-efficient
is 10 W/m2K. Calculate the loss of heat from the rod if it is made
of copper (k=335 W/mK) and steel (k=40W/mK).
11. One end of the copper rod (k=380 W/mK) 300 mm long is
connected to wall which is maintained at 300oC. The other end is
connected to a wall which is at 100oC. Air is blown across the rod
so that the heat transfer co-efficient of 20 W/m2K is maintained.
The dia of the rod is 15mm and temperature of air is 40oC.
Calculate the net heat transferred.

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## 12. Circumferential aluminum fins (k=200 w/mK) of rectangular

profile (L=1.5 cm t =1mm) are fitted on to a 2.5cm dia tube. The
fin base temperature is 170oC.The ambient temperature is 25oc.
Estimate the heat loss per fin if h=130 W/m2K.
13.Calulate the efficiency of the plate fin of length L=1.5 cm and
thickness =2mm for the following cases.
(1)Aluminum fin with k=210 W/mK and h=285 W/m2K.
(2)Steel fin with k=40 W/mK and h=510W/m2K.

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