Anda di halaman 1dari 44

MANAJEMEN PERAWATAN

(MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT)

Vocational Program
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

PENGERTIAN
MAINTAIN:

Keep in an existing state (Webster dictionary)


melakukan
perlindungan
(preserving)
terhadap

sesuatu.
Cause to continue (Oxford dictionary)
melakukan suatu modifikasi / perubahan
MAINTENANCE:

Menjamin / menjaga agar suatu equipment /

physical assets dapat melakukaan fungsinya secara berkelanjutan


seperti yang dinginkan oleh users. Maintenance ini mecakup aktivitas
yang diperlukan untuk menjaga agar equipment berada dalam as-built
condition sehingga equipment

dapat memberi original productive

capacity secara berkelanjutan.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

DUA ELEMEN PENTING DALAM PERAWATAN


a. PERLINDUNGAN (maintain)
b. MODIFIKASI (change)
Kapan kita harus memberi perlindungan terhadap equipment dan apa
kondisi awal (existing state) yang harus dipertahankan / dilindungi
Keinginan user: tergantung pada DIMANA dan BAGAIMANA equipment tersebut
(operating context). Hal ini berhubungan dengan Reliability-centered Maintenance
(RCM).
RCM: proses / sistem yang dapat menjamin bahwa tiap equipment dapat melakukan
fungsinya secara berkelanjutan seperti dikehendaki oleh user dalam operating
context yang telah ditetapkan.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

TUJUAN PERAWATAN
1. Produksi maksimum dengan harga murah dan kualitas tinggi sesuai
safety standard
2. Identifikasi dan implementasi harga murah (cost reductions)
3. Mendapatkan records perawatan equipment secara akurat.
4. Mengumpulkan informasi yang diperlukan tentang biaya perawatan.
5. Mengoptimalkan maintenance resources
6. Mengoptimalkan equipment life
7. Meminimumkan pemakaian energi

Maintenance Philosophies

8. Meminimumkan inventory on hand

Reactive Maintenance

9. Dll.

Corrective Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance
Maintenance Prevention

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

INDUSTRY TRENDS
TECHNOLOGY a. increasing Utilization
b. Increasing Complexity
c. Desire for production data across the enterprise

08/24/16

MARKET

a. Consolidation, Globalization, and Competition


b. Emerging markets become opportunities and threats

ECONOMIC

a. Pressure to improve productivity while spending less


b. Stretching the life span of capital equipment

PERSONEL

a. Reducing Staffing
b. Aging Workforce
c. Competency erosion

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

Trends Specific to Maintenance


18% of Maintenance Work Unnecessary
(ARC Advisory Group)
$100 Billion Spent Annually on Maintenance
(Maintenance Technology survey)
30-40% of Downtime is caused by Poor Design or Maintenance
(MCP Consulting)
Every 10 Retiring Workers are Replaced by 3 to 7
(Plant Services)
Downtime Costs as much as $50k Per Hour
(Customer survey)

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
Bagaimana mengelola (manage) semua equipment / asset yang dimiliki
suatu perusahaan agar dapat memberi hasil maksimal dari investasi
yang telah dikeluarkan untuk asset tersebut
ELEMEN MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT meliputi:

INTEGRATED
MAINTENANCE
SYSTEM

08/24/16

1. Preventive Maintenance (PM)


2. Inventory and Procurement
3. Work Order System
4. Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)
5. Technical and Interpersonal Training
6. Operational Involvement
7. Predictive Maintenance
8. Reliability-Centered Maintenance
9. Total Productive Maintenance
10. Statistical Financial Optimization
11. Continuous Improvement
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
(PM)
Aktivitas PM dikatakan efektif bila mencapai rasio 80 % antara
proactive maintenance dan reactive maintenance. Dari segi finansial,
reactive maintenance lebih mahal 2 4 kali dari proactive maintenance.
Dalam hal ini program reactive maintenance tidak efisien diterapkan.
Kenaikan biaya ini akan mempunyai dampak terhadap ROI (Return on
Investment). Proses asset management yang berfokus pada ROI akan
mengharuskan suatu perusahaan untuk menempatkan kesuksesan
program PM sebagai suatu keharusan.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

Preventive Maintenance Source


Computerized
Maintenance
Management
Systems

Contractor
Schedules

Vendor
Maintenance
Manuals

Operator
Rounds
Condition
Monitoring
Rounds
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE

Standard
Operating
Procedures

Memory
and
Tradition

Lubrication
Rounds

INVENTORY AND PROCUREMENT


Inventory dan Procurement berfokus pada the right parts on the right time
baik untuk repairs maupun maintenance. Dalam hal ini harus tersedia
spare parts yang cukup (tanpa terlalu banyak spare parts tersedia).
Tidak ada proses inventory dan procurement yang dapat efektif melayani
proses reactive maintenance.
Dalam hal personel Inventory dan Precurement harus tahu dengan pasti:
1. Jenis atau tipe spare parts (spesifikasi) yang disediakan / stock.
2. Jumlah spare parts yang diperlukan
3. Kapan diperlukan (kapan memesan, kemana dipesan, kapan diterima)

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

10

WORK ORDER SYSTEMS


Meliputi: tracking (alur pelaksanaan), recording dan documenting
semua aktivitas maintenance
Dalam hal ini dibutuhkan
a.
b.
c.
d.

Planned maintenance
Scheduled maintenance
Performed maintenance
Recorded maintenance and Documentation

MAINTENANCE PROCESS dapat direalisasikan dengan suatu


loop dari komponen:
1. PLAN
2. SCHEDULE
3. EXECUTE
4. ANALYSE
5. IMPROVE
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

11

WORK ORDER SYSTEMS (cont.)


PLAN DAN SCHEDULE
1. Harus menjamin bahwa setiap kebijakan dan strategi yang diambil
(termasuk perawatan) saling terkait (coherent) dan terintegrasi satu
dengan yang lain.
2. Plan menentukan target dan identifikasi resources tersedia
3. Plan mengidentifikasi kebutuhan apa yang ingin dicapai dan kerangka
waktu untuk mencapainya

EXECUTION
1. Merupakan implementasi / realisasi phisik dari aktivitas plan dan schedule
yang telah digariskan.
2. Merupakan bagian dari proses yang menunjukkan outcome dari aktivitas
dan juga resiko yang mungkin terjadi.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

12

WORK ORDER SYSTEMS (cont.)


ANALYSE
1. Semua hasil yang diperoleh selama tahap EXECUTION dicatat dan
dianalisis.
2. Hasil yang diperoleh tersebut dibandingkan denan hasil yang
dicanangkan pada PLAN.
3. Hal ini menjadi dasar untuk tahap IMPROVEMENT selanjutnya.
IMPROVEMENT
Tahap ini merupakan identifikasi langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk
meningkatkan / mengembangkan apa yang perusahaan telah capai.
Dalam hal ini langkah-langkah baru dapat muncul untuk mencapai
performance lebih baik.
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

13

WORK ORDER BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

14

COMPUTERIZED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


(CMMS)
Komputerisasi dapat mempercepat pengumpulan data, processing data dan
analisis data dengan menggunakan Software tertentu. CMMS dapat menjadi
bank data untuk setiap equipment, yang dapat setiap saat diambil untuk
mengetahui performance setiap equipment, termasuk gangguan-gangguan
yang pernah terjadi.

TECHNICAL and INTERPERSONAL TRAINING


Training berfungsi memberi pengetahuan tambahan / skills pada teknisi /
operator agar dapat mengerti dan mengoperasikan / merawat suatu
peralatan. Skills tambahan ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan fungsi
maintenance. Teknisi diharapkan juga dapat bekerja dalam satu team.
Banyak perusahaan belakangan ini lack the technical skills
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

15

OPERASIONAL INVOLVEMENT
Menyangkut keterkaitan / kerjasama antar satu departemen dengan departemen
lainnya dalam suatu perusahaan.
Departemen production, operation, atau
departemen maintenance and engineering

facilities

dapat

mendukung

Kerjasama antar departemen ini tergantung pada kompleksnya suatu equipment,


individual skills atau kesepakatan bersama.

Operational Involvement meliputi


1. Inspeksi equipment terutama saat start up
2. Menyusun work requests untuk maintenance
3. Me-record data breakdown atau data malfunction dari equipment
4. Melaksanakan bebrapa service dasar equipment seperti lubrication
5. Melaksanakan adjustment rutin pada equipment
6. Melaksanakan aktivitas pearawatan (didukung oleh centrall maintenance)
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

16

Predictive Maintenance PdM


(Condition-based Maintenance)
Merupakan metode pengamatan apakah suatu equipment bekerja dengan
baik.
Pengamatan / monitoring secara kontinu dan selanjutnya dilakukan
diagnosa. Monitoring ini umumnya dilakukan dengan non-destructive test.
PdM diharapkan mampu memprediksi kapan terjadi kerusakan (failure)
sehingga diperlukan alat alat monitoring dan diagnosa yang dapat bekerja
dengan tingkat akurasi tinggi.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

17

Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)


RCM terutama digunakan setelah dicapai suatu level of maturity
sehingga dapat menjamin data asset yang akurat dan komplit.

TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE


a. TPM mengandung suatu filosofi operasional dimana setiap personal
dalam suatu perusahaan mengerti dan menyadari bahwa prestasi/
performance

yang

dia

hasilkan

mempunyai

dampak

terhadap

performace dari asset yang ada.


b. Setiap personal mempunyai rasa memiliki aset /equipment
c. Setiap operator dipersiapkan juga sebagai personal maintenance
Pada intinya: personal dan equipment (man-machine) dioptimalkan
sebaik mungkin
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

18

TPM (cont.)
TPM membantu dalam mengeliminir tiga tipe kerugian:
a. Down time losses yang disebabkan breakdown yang tidak
diharapkan atau set-up dan pengaturan yang lain,
b. Speed losses yang disebabkan idling dan minor stoppages dan
perbedaan kecepatan design dan kecepatan kerja aktual dari suatu
equipment,
c. Defect losses yang disebabkan oleh time gap antara start of
production dan stabilised production.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

19

STATISCAL FINANSIAL OPTIMISATION


Merupakan suatu metode statistik yang mengkombinasikan semua data relevan yang
menyangkut asset yang ada seperti
a. Downtime cost,
b. Maintenance cost,
c. Lost efficiency cost dan
d. Quality cost. ?
Teknik financially balances decisions ini didasarkan pada total cost terendah,
dengan demikian dibutuhkan data akurat. Teknik ini tidak didasarkan pada apa
yang diperlukan, tetapi pada cost terendah dari tiap departemen. Teknik ini
meliputi:
a. Kapan asset offline untuk maintenance
b. Apa yang di-repair atau replace
c. Berapa banyak critical spare parts yang ditangani / dimiliki
d. Level maximum-minimum untuk routine spare parts
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

20

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
Filosofi: Best is the Enemy of Better. Continuous Improvement dalam
pengelolaan asset merupakan ongoing program evaluation, secara cermat
mengamati hal-hal besar / kecil yang dapat membuat perusahaan lebih
kompetitif.
Perlu benchmarking: menganalisis proses spesifik dan membandingkannya
dengan

master

plan

serta

mengadakan

perbaikan-perbaikan

yang

diperlukan.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

21

IMPROVEMENT PROCESS

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

22

Struktur Maintenance Management


CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT
TOTAL
PRODUCTIVE
MAINTENANCE

PREDICTIVE
MAINTENANCE
STORES
AND
PROCUREMENT

OPERATIONS
INVOLVEMENT

WORK FLOW
SYSTEM

PREVENTIVE

08/24/16

FINANCIAL
OPTIMIZATION

CMMS

RELIABILITY
CENTERED
MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL AND
INTERPERSONAL
TRAINING

MAI N TE NAN C E

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

23

Maintenance / asset management strategy


CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT
TOTAL
PRODUCTIVE
MAINTENANCE

PREDICTIVE
MAINTENANCE
STORES
AND
PROCUREMENT

OPERATIONS
INVOLVEMENT
WORK FLOW
SYSTEM

PREVENTIVE

08/24/16

FINANCIAL
OPTIMIZATION

CMMS

RELIABILITY
CENTERED
MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL AND
INTERPERSONAL
TRAINING

MAI N TE NAN C E

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

24

Maintenance Core KPIs

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

25

REACT
Characteristics of Purely Reactive Maintenance:
a. Run till it breaks
b. No routine tasks to perform
c. Equipment repaired or replaced only when obvious problems
occur
Advantages of a Reactive Approach:
Dont spend money until you have to
Disadvantages of a Reactive Approach:
a. Most expensive approach
b. Reduced equipment (Short) Mean Time Between Failure
c. Frequent component replacement resulting in higher capital
costs
d. Downtime events are longer and often unplanned
Manufacturers spend 40% of their time on reactive maintenance vs. their 12% ideal
(Maintenance Technology)
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

26

PREVENT
Characteristics of purely Preventive Maintenance:
a. Is a time base strategy where actions are performed on a
predetermined periodic basis
b. Anticipates and prepares for planned downtime
Advantages of a Preventive Approach:
a. Improves resource planning
b. Reduces number of downtime events, increases MTBF
c. Improves and validates spare parts inventory
d. Stabilizes maintenance budget
Disadvantages of a Preventive Approach:
a. Activities are performed regardless of need
b. Takes time commitment and is commonly missed
c. Introduces possibility of human error
60% of preventive maintenance activities are considered unnecessary
(ARC Advisory Group)
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

27

PREDICT
Characteristics of purely Predictive Maintenance:
a. Maintenance actions performed when a need is identified
b. Uses comparative data to assess probability of future events
and performance
Advantages of Predictive Maintenance:
a. Predict catastrophic failures
b. Lowers total cost of ownership
i. Maximize equipment life, lowers average cost per event
ii. Minimize spare parts inventory
c. Maximize maintenance personnel efficiency
d. Assists in the identification of root causes
Disadvantages of Predictive Maintenance:
a. Requires upfront investment and commitment
b. Requires additional skills and knowledge
c. One size does not fit all needs
Manufacturers would like to spend 33% of their time on predictive maintenance, but only spend
15% (Maintenance Technology)
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

28

END1

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

29

RCM Strategy

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

30

Major Losses
Major Equipment Losses
In reality, there are six major losses that impact asset utilization:
1. Breakdowns
2. Setups and adjustments
3. Idling and minor stoppages
4. Reduced speed or capacity losses
5. Quality defects and rework
6. Startup and shutdown losses.
Zero breakdown strategies can be categorized into five activities:
1. Maintaining basic conditions
2. Maintaining operating standards
3. Restoring or preventing deterioration
4. Improving or eliminating design weaknesses
5. Preventing human error.

Zero Breakdown1
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

31

Typical Maintenance-Centric Organizational Structure


PLANT MANAGER

PRODUCTION MANAGER

08/24/16

MAINTENANCE MANAGER

SUPERVISORS

PLANNERS

CLERKS

CLERKS

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

ENGINEERING MANAGER

32

Typical Production-Centric Organizational Structure


PLANT MANAGER

PRODUCTION MANAGER

ENGINEERING MANAGER

MAINTENANCE MANAGER

08/24/16

SUPERVISORS

PLANNERS

CLERKS

CLERKS

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

33

Typical Engineering-Centric Organizational Staff


PLANT MANAGER

PRODUCTION MANAGER

ENGINEERING MANAGER
MAINTENANCE MANAGER

08/24/16

SUPERVISORS

PLANNERS

CLERKS

CLERKS

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

34

OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENANCE
MANAGEMENT
1. Maximum production at the lowest cost, the highest quality, and
within optimum safety standards
2. Identify and implement cost reductions
3. Provide accurate equipment maintenance records
4. Collect necessary maintenance cost information
5. Optimize maintenance resources
6. Optimize capital equipment life
7. Minimize energy usage
8. Minimize inventory on hand
Maintenance Philosophies

Maintenance Staffing Options


Complete In-House Staff
Combined In-House/Contract Staff
Contract Maintenance Staff
Complete Contract Maintenance

08/24/16

Reactive Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance
Maintenance Prevention

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

35

END2

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

36

Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

37

Failures Classifies
Thornton classifies failures into three categories: Safety, Functional and
Ancillary. Within these categories, failures are further classified into five
general areas as design deficiencies, construction deficiencies, material
deficiencies, administrative deficiencies and maintenance deficiencies. The
paper further states that as much as 52% of the failures is due to design
deficiencies, 25% due to construction, and 18% due to materials deficiencies.

Thornton, C.H., Reducing failures of engineered facilities, in Combined Workshop of the


National Science Foundation and the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1985. p. 1423.
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

38

Failures Classifies
Svalbonas classifies failure into five general groups as design,
material selection, material imperfection, material fabrication and
service environment.

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

39

Failure Modes by Collins

08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

40

Corrosion :High-cycle Fatigue Impact Fatigue


Low-Cycle Fatigue Fretting Fretting Fatigue
Thermal Fatigue Fretting Wear
Surface Fatigue Fretting Corrosion
Impact Fatigue Creep
Corrosion Fatigue Thermal relaxation
Fretting Fatigue Stress Rupture
Direct Chemical Attack Thermal Shock
Galvanic Corrosion Galling and Seizure
Crevice Corrosion Spalling
Pitting Corrosion Radiation Damage
Intergranular Corrosion Buckling
Selective Leaching Creep Buckling
Erosion Corrosion Stress Corrosion
Cavitation Corrosion Corrosion Wear
Hydrogen Damage Corrosion Fatigue
Biological Corrosion
Combined Creep and
Fatigue
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

41

Reasons for Equipment failures 2


3. Reasons for Equipment failures 2
The reasons for equipment failures may be summed up in the following manner:
1. Natural Degradation
2. Human Factors
3. Tolerance Stacking
4. Variation in Operating Parameters
5. Material Incompatibility of spares.
6. Local factors
7. Root Design Imperfections like unclear parameter definition, material
incompatibility, energy transfer, design morphology, inappropriate signals etc.
This is more so, since industrial equipment design cannot be standardized as
functional requirements and local requirement vary from case to case. Hence
at times, design of an industrial machine is a matter of trade offs, compromises
and optimization and at times invalid assumptions leading to imperfections.
Judul: Design Out For Reliability & Long Term
Profitability
08/24/16

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

42

Scheduling Preventive Maintenance

Scheduling Preventive Maintenance


There are two ways to have PMs performed on your facilitys scientific and
clinical equipment:
1. Schedule a time with your vendor to perform the work.
The scheduled date should be recorded on a PM Schedule (see following pages
for a schedule form).
2. Have your vendor perform the PM while they are on-site for a corrective
maintenance (CM) call when you know a PM is due in the near future.
The time to communicate this to your vendor is when the initial request for service
is made. This allows the vendor to determine if adequate time exists for PM
activities and to bring the necessary tools with them (e.g., PM kit, etc.)

08/24/16

Thermo Asset
Management
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

43

Maintenance
There are 3 types of maintenance not
including What till it breaks then fix it.
Routine maintenance
Preventive maintenance
SCHEDULE
Predictive maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.

08/24/16

Defines what gets done when


Deals with clash avoidance
Aims for efficient use of resources
Incorporates various constraints

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

44