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ARCHITECTUR

E
RICARDO REDON CABANTAC

Architecture
Is thepracticeofbuilding design
and its resulting products;
customary usage
refers only to those designs and
structures
that are culturally significant.

Building has
three
conditions:
1.Use intented
commodity
2.Firmness
technically
sound
3.Delight
aesthetic

Theaestheticresponse to
architecture is complex. An
experience of architectural space
is personal and psychological; it
differs from that of sculpture or
painting because the observer is
in it. It is affected by associations
the observer may have with the
materials used and the way they
have been assembled, and by the
lighting conditions.

Sumerian Architecture
In Mesopotamia and Persia (c.3200-323 BCE),
the Sumerian civilization was developing its
own unique building - a type of stepped
pyramid called a ziggurat.
Ziggurats were not built as tombs but as manmade mountains to bring the Sumerian rulers
and people closer to their Gods who
supposedly dwelt high up in mountains to the
east.
Ziggurats were constructed from clay-fired
bricks, often finished with coloured glazes.

Reconstruction of Ur-Nammu's ziggurat,


staired pyramidnot a tomb but A
STAIRWAY FOR THE PATRON God to
descend

Reconstructed facade of the ziggurat


(21ST cent BC). The actual remains of
the Neo-Babylonian structure can be
seen protruding at the top.

Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat of


Iran

GATE OF BEL TEMPLE


Built with bricks by King
Nebuchadnezzar in 575 BC, in
Babylon

Egyptian Architecture
The first great civilization to emerge
around the Mediterranean basin was
that ofEgypt(c.3100-2040 BCE).
The Egyptians developed a unique
architecture, largely consisting of
massive burial chambers in the form
of Pyramids.

The pyramids at Giza in Egypt are


among the most famous pieces of
architecture in the world.

Pyramid of Khafre at Giza

Stupa, Sanchi

The stupa, which is an object of veneration, is based


on the eight mounds under which the body of Buddha
was buried.

Muslim Architecture

The first buildings that were built in


theIslamic Empirewere designed
byGreek architects who had
already been living in the area when
theArabsconquered it. Because of
that, these buildings look a lot like
earlier buildings in the area - Late
Roman Empire buildings. But
because they were now building
Islamic mosquesand not
Christianchurches, these Greek
architects were able to experiment
with some new forms, developing a

Dome of the Rock

The oldest extant Islamic structure, the Dome of the Rock stands on
the sacred rock in Jerusalem where the Prophet Muhammad is
believed to have ascended to heaven. Caliph Abd al-Malik built the
mosque during the late 7th century. It was built based on Byzantine
design.

UMAYYAD MOSQUEGRAND MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS


BUILT IN 715 ON A CHRISTIAN BASILICA DEDICATED TO JOHN THE BAPTIST.
THE MOSQUE STILL HOLDS TODAY THE HEAD OF JOHN THE BAPTIST WHO IS
VENERATED AS A PROPHET BY BOTH CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS. IT IS THE
OLDEST MUSLIM MOSQUE OF ISLAMIC DESIGN.

Minaret of the Great Mosque


at Smarra
Completed in 851 AD.

Sleymaniye Mosque
The Sleymaniye Mosque in stanbul was built in
1550. The architect, Sinan, based his design on
Byzantine churches, in particular the Hagia
Sophia..

Taj Mahal, India


The Taj Mahal, designed as a tomb for the wife of a 17th-century
Mughal emperor, was constructed by about 20,000 workers from
1631 to 1648 in gra, a city in northern India. The massive domed
structure was constructed in the Indo-Islamic style

Forbidden CityBeijing Imperial Palace

Home to the MING EMPERORS


1420

Ruins of Palace of Knossos,


Crete

The first European civilization was created


by the Minoans, based on the island of
Crete. Minoan architecture utilized a mixture
of stone, mud-brick and plaster to construct
elaborate palaces (eg. Palace of Knossos
c.1700-1400 BCE) as well as domed burial
chambers (tholos) hidden in the hills. Many
of these buildings were decorated with
colourful murals and fresco paintings,
depicting mythological animal symbols (eg.
the bull) and events. Unfortunately most
Minoan architecture was destroyed by
earthquakes around 1200 BCE.

Ruins of Palace of Knossos,


Crete.

Greek Architecture
Architecture

in Ancient Greece is
divided into three basic eras: the
Archaic Period (c.600-500 BCE), the
Classical Period (c.500-323 BCE) and
the Hellenistic Period (c.323-27 BCE).

About

600 BCE, inspired by the


theory and practice of earlier
Egyptian stone masons and builders

Principles of Greek Architecture:


Classical Orders
The

theory of Greek architecture was


based on a system of 'Classical
Orders' - rules for building design
based on proportions of and between
the individual parts.

This

resulted in an aesthetically
pleasing consistency of appearance
regardless of size or materials used.

DORIC ORDER:

columnsstood directly on
the flat pavement of atemple without a base

Temple of
Poseidon

The Doric order of


theParthenon

IONIC ORDER

The Ioniccolumnsnormally stand


on a base which separates the shaft of the column
from the platform

The Corinthian: the most ornate, characterized by


slenderflutedcolumnsand an elaborate capitals decorated
withleaves and scrolls.

General

York

Post Office, New

Maison
Carre,Nmes,
France 14 BC
The Corinthian order as
used in extending the US
Capitol in 1854

Athenian Acropolis

5th century BC the Greeks built a series


of temples there, including the
Parthenon

PARTHENON
Built between 447 and 432 BC, is the greatest monument of the
Golden Age of Athens, Greecededidcated to the goddess Athena.

Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheum


The Erechtheum is an Ionic temple built from
421 to 405 BC as part of the Acropolis in
Athens. Arhitect: Mnesiclessculptor: Phidias.

Ruins at Olympia

The exedra, or sitting area, pictured here is among the


ruins at Olympia. (776 BC)

Roman Architecture
Unlike the more creative and intellectual
Greeks, the Romans were essentially
practical people with a flair for engineering,
construction and military matters. In their
architecture, as in their art, they borrowed
heavily from both the Etruscans (eg. in their
use of hydraulics for swamp-clearing and in
the construction of arches), and also the
Greeks, whom they regarded as their
superiors in all visual arts. However,
withoutRoman art- with its genius for
copying and adapting Greek styles - most of
the artistic achievements of Greek antiquity

Aqueduct at Segovia,
Spain

Roman Forum

The Colosseum in Rome (70-82) is best known for its multilevel


system of vaults made of concrete. It is called the Colosseum for
a colossal statue of Nero that once stood nearby, but its real
name is the Flavian Amphitheater. It was used for staged battles
between lions and Christians, among other spectacles, and is
one of the most famous pieces of architecture in the world.

The Romans modified the Greek temple form, as


demonstrated by this Roman temple, the Maison
Carre, built in Nmes, France, in the 1st century AD.
The Romans expanded the interior chamber so that it
reached the outer columns, and they raised the
temple on a podium. Like other Roman temples, the
Maison Carre can only be approached from the front.

Old Saint Peter's in Rome


Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (306-337)
commissioned the construction of Old Saint Peters as a
church and public hall after legalizing the Christian
religion right at the site of St. Peters burial ground.
Length: 350ft, height 100ft

Papal and Imperia


l coronations too
k place in this c
hurch. Charlemagn
ewas crowned by
the Pope in
St. Peter's
Basilicaon
Christmas Day in
the year AD 800.

THE INTERION/APSE OF THE OLD ST PETERS


As painted by Raphaelit shows how the interior of Old
St. Peter's looked.In the center background the painting
shows the original altar arrangement, with four Solomonic
columns in front of the altar.

The Pantheon in Rome is one of the most famous buildings in the


world. It was commissioned by Hadrian in 118 and completed in
128. At one time it had a colonnaded court leading to the portico.
The dome of the rotunda behind the portico is 43.2 m (142 ft) in
diameter. The oculus (a round opening) at the top is 8.5 m (28 ft)
in diameter and provides the only source of light for the interior.

The Arch of Constantine, Rome, (312-5) was built to


commemorate Constantine the Greats victory over
Maxentius, making Constantine the absolute monarch of
the Roman Empire. The arch is actually three arches, with
four freestanding columns and elaborate sculptural
ornamentation.

The Arch of Constantine is a three-way arch,


measuring 21m in height, 25.7m in width
and 7.4m in depth. The central archway is
11.5m high and 6.5m wide, while the lateral
archways are 7.4m3.4m.

TheArch of Constantineis atriumphal arch,


erected c.315CE to commemorate the triumph
ofConstantine Iafter his victory overMaxentius
in the battle at theMilvian Bridge in 312CE.

Byzantine Architecture (330-554 CE)


Byzantine architects - including numerous
Italians who had moved to the new capital
from Italy - continued the free-flowing
tradition of Roman architecture,
constructing a number of magnificent
churches and religious buildings
New architectural techniques included the
use of concave triangular sections of
masonry, known as pendentives, in order to
carry the weight of the ceiling dome to
corner piers. This led to the construction of
larger and more magnificent domes, and
greater open space inside the building, as

The Great Palace of Constantinople


lying between the Hippodrome and the Hagia Sophia

The sad remains of the Great Palace

Basilica Cistern

The cistern was first built by Constantine and


later enlarged by Byzantine Emperor I.
Justinianus between 527 and 565 AD and
could hold 100 000 tonnes of water. It was
built to provide water for the Great Palace of
Constantinopleand surrounding areas, and
continued to provide water to Topkapi
Palaceafter the Ottoman conquestin 1453. It
was constructed using marble columns
recycled from the Hellenistic ruins around
the Bosphorus. About halfway along to the
end of the cistern is the column of tears, a
pillar decorated with symbols resembling

BASILICA CISTERN

Column of Tears

Another view of the forest of

The Ceiling reflects RomanByzantine Design

The ceiling of the Basilica Cistern reflected


in the still waters

Column with
Medusa base

In history, the
Medusa head
has often been
used to protect
important
buildings.

The second
Medusa head pillar

According to
mythology,
placing her
upside down
neutralises her
powers.

CHORA MO .. HEH!!

este.CHORA CHURCH
c. 333 AD

The Virgin and child, painted dome of the


Chora Church.

Sergius & Bacchus Church,


Istanbul
527-565 BC

Interior of
Church of St.
Sergius and
Bacchus

HAGIA IRENE, CONSTANTINOPLE


C. 360 AD

The Apse of
Hagia Irene

Hagia Sophia, stanbul


Church of the Holy Wisdom) was built in
Constantinople (now stanbul) between 532
and 537. The church became a mosque
after the Ottoman conquest of 1453, and is
now a museum.

ROMANESQUE
ARCHITECTURE

Romanesque architectureis an architectural style


ofMedievalEurope, characterized by semi-circular
arches, and evolving into theGothicstyle
characterised by pointed arches, beginning in the
12th century.

Although there is no consensus for the beginning


date of the style, with proposals ranging from the 6th
to the 10th centuries, examples can be found across
the continent, making Romanesque architecture the
first pan-European architectural style since
Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style
in England is more traditionally referred to as
Norman architecture.

Romanesque Style

The term 'Romanesque' is sometimes


used to cover all immediate
derivations of Roman architecture in
the West, following the collapse of
Rome until the flowering of the Goth ic
style in about 1200.

It is characterized most obviously by a


new massiveness of scale, inspired by
the greater economic and political
stability that arrived after centuries of
turmoil.

Combining features of Western Roman and Byzantine


buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its
massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy
piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading.
Each building has clearly defined forms and they are
frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the
overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared
with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style
can be identified right across Europe, despite regional
characteristics and different materials.
Many castles were built during this period, but they are
greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant
are the great abbey churches, many of which are still
standing, more or less complete and frequently in use.

CATHEDRAL OF LISBON

St. Pierre Cathedral,


France

Charente,

Speyer Cathedral , an expression of imperial power and architectural innovation, presents the
towered silhouette common to German Romanesque churches.

TheSpeyer Cathedral, officiallythe Imperial


Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption and St
Stephen

The Cathedral
of Saint-Front,
Prigueux,
France, has
five domes like
Byzantine
churches, but
is
Romanesque
in
construction.

The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of


massive thickness with few and comparatively
small openings.

Mainz Cathedral, Germany

Sant'Ambrogio, Milan

In Romanesque architecture,pierswere often employed


to support arches.

Columns are an important structural feature of


Romanesque architecture. Right: St James
Cathedral of Compostela, Spain.Left: Durham
Cathedral, England

St. Michael's, Hil


desheim
,
Germany
has alternating
piers and
columns.

St. Michael's Church at


Hildesheim

Cathedral of la Seu d'Urgell, Spain


Arches in Romanesque architecture are
semicircular, with the exception of a very
small number of buildings.

Bamberg Cathedral, Germany.


Romanesque-style.

Abbey Church
of St. Stephen,
Normandy,
France.
Ribbed vaults
characterized
romanesque
architecture. Ribbed
vaults become
structure supports.

Pointed Arched Vault


Late in the Romanesque period
another solution came into use for
regulating the height of diagonal and
transverse ribs. This was to use arches
of the same diameter for both
horizontal and transverse ribs, causing
the transverse ribs to meet at a point.

The nave of the abbey church of


Saint-Georges de Boscherville, France has pointed
transverse ribs.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa

Currently, the height of the tower


stands at 55.86m from the ground
on its lowest side and 56.70m on
its highest side due its lean at and
angle of 3.97 degrees from
vertical. The tower which was
built in three phases over 177
years was made using almost
exclusively white marble and thus
has an is estimated weight 14,500
metric tonnes .

Gothic Architecture
Architecture reached a new peak in Europe
during the 12th century with the
development of the Gothic style. The main
features of this style were the pointed arch
and vault, flying buttresses, delicate
tracery, and the distinctive rose window
made of stained glass. Originally known as
French style, but eventually known as
Gothicvandal

The biggest and greatest late gothic architecture in Italy.


The gothic style is unfamiliar in Italy and the renaissance
style is essencially Italian. Milan, Italy

Cologne Cathedral, Germany

Reims Cathedral, France


This cathedral in Reims, France, represents the peak
of the High Gothic architectural style. Built between
1211 and 1300, the church was used for coronations
of the French monarchy

The western
faade of
Reims Cathed
ral
, France.

The interior
of the
western end
of Reims
Cathedral

Gothic
era,
builders
discovered
that
pointed
arches
would give
structures
amazing
strength
and

Parts of the
Gothic
cathedral,
Notre
Dame

Cathedral of
Our Lady of
Chartres

Frances Largest Cathedral


The imposing Cathedral of Notre Dame in Amiens is the
largest cathedral in France. Built between 1220 and 1270
in the Gothic style, it is known for its soaring verticality
and its unity of style. The cathedral is 145 m (476 ft) long
and its nave, shown here, is 43 m (140 ft)high.

Cathedral
of Notre
dame,
Amiens,
France

LATIN CROSS SHAPE OF THE CATHEDRAL

The Antwerp Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp,

Cathedral of
Barcelona, Spain

The English Parliament

Renaissance Architecture
is the architecture of the period
between the early 15th and early 17th
centuries in different regions of
Europe, in which there was a
conscious revival and development of
certain elements ofancient Greekand
Romanthought and material culture.
Stylistically, Renaissance architecture
followedGothic architectureand was
succeeded byBaroque architecture.

The Renaissance style places


emphasis onsymmetry,
proportion, geometry and the
regularity of parts as they are
demonstrated in the architecture
ofclassical antiquityand in
particularancient
Roman architecture, of which
many examples remained.

The Dome of St
Peter's Basilica,
Rome.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome,


1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks
the place where St Peter was put to death.

Sant'Agostino, Rome, Giacomo di


Pietrasanta, 1483

Courtyard of
Palazzo
Strozzi,
Florence

The church of
San Lorenzo

RENAISSANCE
The two principal components of Renaissance
style are the following: a revival of the classical
forms originally developed by the ancient Greeks
and Romans, and an intensified concern with
secular lifeinterest in humanism and assertion
of the importance of the individual. The
Renaissance period in art history corresponds to
the beginning of the great Western age of
discovery and exploration, when a general desire
developed to examine all aspects of nature and
the world

Saint Peters Basilica, Rome


In 1506 architect Donato Bramante,
under commission from Pope Julius II,
designed Saint Peters, located in Vatican
City, within the city of Rome. Bramante
died before completing the church, so
Florentine artist Michelangelo assumed
the supervisory role in 1546. His design
simplified and unified the architectural
elements of Bramantes plan for the
basilica and created a structure of
monumental proportions. Michelangelos
innovative design for the enormous
ribbed dome of Saint Peters influenced
dome design and construction for the

ST. PETERS BASILICA

St. Peter's Square by night.

Aerial view of St. Peter's Basilica,


the spiritual center of Catholicism.

The monumental facade of


St. Peter's Basilica.

Bernini's monumental
colonnade with saints.

Bernini's fountain and


Michaelangelo's dome.

Inscription and statues


on the facade with statue
of St. Peter.

View of the nave from the


entrance down to the Baldacchino.

The vast, opulent


interior of St. Peter's.

The vast, opulent interior of St. Peter's.


The vast, opulent interior of St. Peter's.
The vast, opulent interior of St. Peter's.

Bernini's baldacchino and


Michelangelo's dome.

Bernini's baldacchino and Michelangelo's dome.

The beloved St. Peter Enthroned against a wild


wallpaper background.

The beautiful Piet,


sculpted by a young
Michaelangelo.

Entrance to the Chapel of the


Blessed Sacrament (right).

Sunlight shining down on the


baldacchino from the dome.

View of the baldacchino,


Confessio, and transepts
from above.

The Confessio.

Transept crossing, with


baldacchino on the left.

Pier of St. Veronica and


Pier of St. Longinus

Inscription in the cupola.

The Cathedra of St. Peter,


designed by Bernini in 1666.

Church fathers on the


Cathedra of Peter.

Detail of monument of Pope


Alexander VII, with skeleton
and hourglass.

A nun prays at the Altar


of St. Joseph in the left
transept.

Monument to Pope
Benedict XV (1914-22).

Chapel in the crypt,


which faces the Tomb
of St. Peter.

Humble tomb of Pope


John Paul II.

View of St. Peter's Square


from the roof of St.
Peter's Basilica.

BAROQUE
Religiondeterminedmany aspects of
baroque art. The Roman Catholic church
was a highly influential patron, and its
Counter Reformation, a movement to
combat the spread of Protestantism,
employed emotional, realistic, and
dramatic art as a means of propagating
the faith. The simplicity sought by
Protestantism in countries such as the
Netherlands and northern Germany
likewise explains the severity of the
architectural styles in those areas.

Think of Baroque as a
more complex, more
detailed, more
elaborate, more
ornamented form of
Renaissance
architecture
.

Baroque architectureis a term used


to describe the era, starting in the late
16th century in Italy.
Baroque style is reflected in opulent and
dramatic churches
- with irregular shapes and extravagant
ornamentation
-complex shapes and bold contrasts with
sweeping curves.
-enmeshed with the rise European
colonialism.

Longhenas Santa Maria della


Salute in Venice

Basilica of St
Mary of Health

Cathedral of St
Gall,
Switzerland.

Les
Invalide
s
in
Paris..
1676

Pantheon in Paris Paris, France,

The Cathedral of St Cristbal of


Habana1748-77

Church of the Immaculate


Conception in Goa, India

Chteau de Maisonsnear Paris

Prince Elector's Palace inGermany

Blenheim Palace

Courtyard facades of the Chateau


Chateau de Versailles Versailles, France

Exterior of chapel Chateau de Versailles


Versailles, France

Paris Opera Paris, France

The
interior
Paris Opera
Paris,
France

Art Deco

stylepopularinthe 1920s and 1930s, used


primarily in the design of buildings, furniture,
jewelry, and interior decor. Art deco is
characterized by sleek, streamlined forms;
geometric patterns; and experiments with
industrial materials such as metals, plastics, and
glass.
aneclecticartistic and design style which had its
origins in Paris in the first decades of the 20th
century. The style "originated in the twenties"and
continued to be employed until afterWorld War II.

Artdecogrewoutofa
conscious
effort to simplify the elaborately
curved shapes and plantlike motifs
of art nouveau, the prevailing style
in architecture and design at the
beginning of the 20th century. Art
deco retained the tendency of art
nouveau toward abstraction and
repetition of forms but moved
away from the shapes and motifs
of the older style.

Thecleanlines,streamlining, and
symmetry of art deco designs reflect
the increasing importance of industrial
products in everyday life, and a
corresponding interest among modern
artists and designers in the beauty of
machinery. Art deco objects were
usually not mass-produced, yet many
of them possess qualities belonging to
mass production: simplicity, unvaried
repetition, and geometric patterns.
Designers began to look at industrial
products less as utilitarian objects
than as inspiration for art.

Art Deco Historic District


The Art Deco Historic District is located at the
southern end of Miami Beach, Florida. The art
deco style, which features sleek geometric
lines and stylized decoration, proliferated in
the Miami area during a development boom
in the 1920s and 1930s.

City Hallof
Buffalo, New Yor
k
, an Art Deco
building.

Chrysler Building
The Chrysler Building (1930) in New York City is considered the quintessential example of
art deco architecture. It was designed by William Van Alen, who was inspired in part by
cubist art and machine forms. The building, which rises in a series of narrowing arches to
the stainless steel spire on top, is 319 m (1,046 ft) tall. It was the tallest building in the
world for one year, before the Empire State Building surpassed it.

The Art Deco spire of the


Chrysler Building in New
York, built 19281930
.

Golden Gate
Bridge, 1937

Air Force
Academy,
USA

Bay City,
Califirnia, USA

Singapore Art Deco


building

Miami,

Hearst
Tower
New York, USA

Westlink House,
The Great West
Road, London

Art Deco Building in London,

Nestle Factory Hayes West London

Empire State Building

Designed by the American architectural firm of


Shreve, Lamb & Harmon in a streamlined art deco
style, the Empire State Building consists of 102
stories of office space (1931).

Thetermartnouveaucomes from an
art gallery in Paris, France, called Maison
de l'Art Nouveau (House of New Art), which
was run by French dealer Siegfried Bing. In
his gallery, Bingdisplayed not only
paintings and sculpture but also ceramics,
furniture, metalwork,and Japanese art.
Sections of the gallery were devoted to
model rooms that artists and architects
designed in the artnouveau style.

Metro Station, Paris

Using wrought iron, bronze, and glass, Guimard composed


his structures using the curves characteristic of the Art
Nouveau style.

Balzarini House, Milan

The ironwork of the balcony railings provides an


excellent example of the flowing lines and floral
motifs favored by art nouveau designers.

Modern
Architecture
thebuildingsandbuilding practices of the

late 19th and the 20th centuries.


The history of modern architecture
encompasses the architects who designed
those buildings, stylistic movements, and
the technology and materials that made the
new architecture possible. Modern
architecture originated in the United States

Modernarchitectsreacted against the


architecture of the 19th century, which they
felt borrowed too heavily from the past.
As the 20th century began they believed it
was necessary to invent an architecture that
expressed the spirit of a new age and would
surpass the styles, materials, and
technologies of earlier architecture. This
unifying purpose did not mean that their
buildings would be similar in appearance, nor
that architects would agree on other issues.

Eiffel Tower, Paris

The Eiffel Tower, rising in the sky above Paris,


was built for the Worlds Fair in 1889. French
engineer Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel designed it.

In 1887 Spanish architect Antoni Gaud undertook the design of the bishops
palace in Astorga, near Len, Spain. Six years later, following the bishops
death, he abandoned construction of this building, which was designed in the
architects own version of the Gothic style. The project was later finished in a
style close to Gauds original plan.

Sagrada Famlia
In 1891, nine years after construction started on the neo-Gothic cathedral, Catalan architect
Antoni Gaud i Cornet took over as official architect and made the project a personal
obsession. When Gaud died in a trolley accident in 1926, the cathedral was left unfinished.
Despite controversy over whether the cathedral should remain in its uncompleted form as a
monument to the architect, construction began again in 1979, closely following Gauds
original vision.

World Trade Center, New York City


Preferring steel and glass to concrete and brick,
American architect Minoru Yamasaki designed modern
buildings with decorative details.

Libeskinds design, called Memory Foundations, leaves


bare the exposed bedrock at the site while restoring
soaring towers to New York Citys skyline.

Church of Saint Joseph

The Church of Saint Joseph in Le Havre, France, was


completed in 1952. Perret was responsible for the design of
much of the rebuilding of that city after World War II ended
in 1945.

Einstein Tower

With its curving facade and sculptural form, the Einstein Tower
(1920-1924) in Potsdam, Germany, is perhaps the best
representation of German architect Erich Mendelsohns
expressionistic design.

Gateway Arch, St. Louis

The skyline of the city of St. Louis, Missouri, is dominated


by the stainless steel Gateway Arch, rising 192 m (630 ft)
high. It was designed by Finnish American architect Eero

Lever House, New York City

Lever House (1951-1952) was one of the earliest steel and


glass office towers and the first such tower in New York City.
The building occupies only part of its site, leaving an open
plaza at street level.

Seagram Building, New York City

The 37-story bronze-and-glass Seagram Building (1958) in


New York City, shown here, displays the simplicity and
elegance that are characteristic of his style.

Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur

The Taipei 101


Tower of Taiwan is
the second tallest
building on Earth.

Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany

The ideas of the German Bauhaus school of architecture and applied arts
have greatly influenced the development of architecture and design in
the 20th century. Founder Walter Gropius designed the unadorned,
functional buildings for its quarters in Dessau in 1926.

Greekartistswerethe first to establish


mimesis (imitation of nature) as a
guiding principle for art, even as Greek
philosophers debated the intellectual
value of this approach. The repeated
depiction of the nude human figure in
Greek art reflects Greek humanisma
belief that 'Man is the measure of all
things,' in the words of Greek
philosopher Protagoras.

Architecture is another
Greek legacy that the West
has inherited, as Greece
established many of the
structural elements,
decorative motifs, and
building types still used in
architecture today.

THATS
ALL
FOLKS
Prof. Ricardo
Cabantac