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ATOMS,
MOLECULES AND
STOICHIOMETRY
BY M I SS V H A I SS N AV I
(8MARCH 2016)

SUBTOPICS
1. Relative masses of atoms and molecules
2. The mole and the Avogadro constant
3. The determination of relative atomic masses, Ar
4. The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae
5. Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and
gases)

RELATIVE MASSES OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES


A
single atom weighs hardly anything. You cant use scales to weigh

it. But scientists do need a way to compare the masses of atoms. So


this is what they did.
First, they chose an atom of carbon-12 to be the standard atom. They
fixed its mass as exactly 12 atomic mass units.
Then they compared all the other atoms with this standard atom, in a
machine called a mass spectrometer, and found values for their
masses.
Ar =

The atoms of an element are not always identical. Some may have
extra neutrons. Different atoms of the same element are called
isotopes. Chlorine has two isotopes: Chlorine-35 and Chlorine
37 with natural abundance of 75% and 25% respectively.
To work out the relative atomic mass. This is the formula to use:
relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element = (% x nucleon
number for the first isotope) + (% x nucleon number for the
second isotope) + and so on, for all its natural isotopes

Therefore, the relative atomic mass (RAM) of an element


is defined as the average mass of its isotopes compared
to the mass of one atom of carbon-12 isotope.

Note: RAM has no units. For most elements, Ar is very


close to a whole number. It is usually rounded off to
a whole number, to make calculations easier.

RIM, RMM, RFM


Relative Isotopic Mass (RIM)- is the mass of a particular
isotope of an element compared to 1/12 the mass of an atom
of carbon-12 . Eg- Relative Isotopic mass of carbon-13 is 13.00
Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)- is the average mass of a
molecule of the compound compared to 1/12 the mass of an
atom of carbon-12. Eg- Methane
Relative Formula Mass- is the relative mass of compound
containing ions compared to 1/12 the mass of an atom of
carbon-12. Calculate the same way as for Mr. Eg- magnesium
hydroxide

MEASURING THE MASS OF AN ATOM


Atoms are far too small for you to measure their mass directly
by weighing. Thus an instrument called the mass
spectrometer provides the answer.

WHAT HAPPENS IN A MASS


SPECTROMETER?
1. The sample measured must be in gaseous state for its particle
to move through machine. The sample is injected into the
mass spectrometer and is first vaporized.
2. The vapour is bombarded with high energy electrons, which
collide with atoms of the sample. They knock one or more
electrons out of the atom within the sample to form positive
ions(ionization occurs).
3. Losing an electron makes no significant difference to their
mass, but because now particles are charged (ions) they can
now be accelerated in an electric field.

1. They pass through a velocity selector, which makes sure they


are all travelling at same velocity. This means any difference
in the magnetic field in the next session will be due to
different mass or charges of the ions not their speeds.
2. Ions enter a uniform magnetic field. The amount they are
deflected depends on the mass of ion and charge on it.
Heavier ions deflect less than lighter ions. The strength if of
the magnetic field is increased steadily
3. At a particular setting only ions of particular mass:charge
ratio will pass through and be detected. Others will be either
too much or too little deflected. The detector detects how
many ions pass through for each setting.

FINDING A r MASS SPECTRUM


A mass spectrum is obtained as a result. The relative heights of
the peaks show relative abundance of the different ions
present. This gives you a picture of relative abundance of
isotopes of each atom.

ISOTOPES OF BORON
Calculate the Relative Atomic Mass of
Boron.

m/z value
Relative
abundance
%

10

11

18.7 81.3

Ar of boron = (10 x 81.3) + (11 x 18.7)


(18.7 + 81.3)
= 813 + 205.7
100
= 1018.7 = 10.2
100

THE MOLE CONCEPT

A mole of any substance is defined as the amount of substance


that contains as many particles (atoms, ions or molecules) as
there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12.
And it is found through experiment that 12g of carbon-12
contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms, which is also known as the
Avogadro constant.

USING MOLES
Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale to the real-world
scale

Summary of
equations to
calculate
number of
moles.

MOLAR MASS AND MOLAR VOLUME


Molar Mass- is the relative molecular or formula mass
in grams per mole. Eg, the molar mass of carbon
dioxide is 44 gmol-1
Molar Volume- One mole of any gas must occupy the
same volume under same conditions. At pressure 1
atm and 298K (25C) the volume of 1 mol of any gas
is 24 dm3

EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR


FORMULA
Empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of the
number of atoms of each element present in a compound.

How to calculate the ratio of moles of atoms?


Mass
founded by
analysis
Molar mass
On the other hand, molecular formula shows
the of
Moles
exact number of atoms
atoms in
of elements
sample
bound together
in a
Simplest
compound.
ratio of

FROM REACTION TO EQUATION


The Law of Conservation of Mass states that when a chemical reaction take
place with no change in mass, and no change on the total number of atoms
present. This is because no atoms are ever created or destroyed in a
chemical reaction.
Chemical equations reflect this- when balanced, they contain the same
number of atoms of each element on the left-hand and right-hand sides.

ANATOMY OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

ANATOMY OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Reactants appear on the left


side of the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

ANATOMY OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Products appear on the right side of


the equation.

ANATOMY OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

The states of the reactants and products are


written in parentheses to the right of each
compound.

ANATOMY OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Coefficients are inserted to balance the


equation.

SUBSCRIPTS AND COEFFICIENTS GIVE DIFFERENT


INFORMATION

Subscripts tell the number of atoms of


each element in a molecule
Coefficients tell the number of molecules

REACTION TYPES

Combination reactions -Two or more substances react to form


one product.
Examples:
N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)

2 NH3 (g)

C3H6 (g) + Br2 (l)

C3H6Br2 (l)

2 Mg (s) + O2 (g)

2 MgO (s)

Decomposition Reactions - One substance breaks down into two or


more substances
Examples:
CaCO3 (s)

CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

2 KClO3 (s)

2 KCl (s) + O2 (g)

2 NaN3 (s)

2 Na (s) + 3 N2 (g)

Combustion Reactions -Rapid reactions that produce a flame. Most


often involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air
Examples:
CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

HOW MANY COOKIES CAN YOU MAKE?


You can make cookies until
you run out of one of the
ingredients
Once this family runs out of
sugar, they will stop making
cookies (at least any cookies
you would want to eat)

HOW MANY COOKIES CAN YOU MAKE?

In this example the sugar


would be the limiting
reactant, because it will
limit the amount of cookies
you can make
The limiting reactant is the reactant
present in the smallest stoichiometric
amount

THEORETICAL YIELD & PERCENTAGE YIELD


The theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be
made
In other words its the amount of product possible as calculated through
the stoichiometry problem

This is different from the actual yield, the amount one actually
produces and measures.
Percentage yield is a comparison of the amount actually
obtained to the amount it was possible to make.

Percent Yield = Actual Yield


x 100
Theoretical Yield

PRECISION, ERROR AND ACCURACY


1. Precision- A balance may have a precision of 0.01g . For
example, a reading of 36.78g has a value of 36.78 0.005g.
This variation is termed as random error or experimental
error. Precise readings are said to be repeatable. If the
readings are repeatable by using the same apparatus by
others at different times, then they are said to be
reproducible.
2. Error- If the balance is incorrectly zeroed, all the readings
will be either too high or too low. This is called systemic
error and is eliminated by subtracting weighing. The sum of
systemic error and random error is called absolute error. Error
divided by the true value is the relative error and often
represented in percentage.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES- Practice Rule


45.8736 6
.000239 3
5
.
5
0002390
2
0
4
48000.
6
48000

All digits count


Leading 0s dont
Trailing 0s do
0s count in decimal form
0s dont count w/o
decimal
All digits count
0s between digits count
as well as trailing in

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
Scientific notation is a convenient way to write a
very small or a very large number.
Numbers are written as a product of a number
between 1 and 10, times the number 10 raised to
power.
215 is written in scientific notation as:
215 = 2.15 x 100 = 2.15 x (10 x 10) = 2.15 x 102

Two examples of converting standard notation to scientific notation are


shown below.

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Two examples of converting scientific notation back to


standard notation are shown below.

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THANK YOU