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The Senses

Objective: Understand the functions of the Senses and the

Systems of the Human body to explain their structure and
importance in the body.
Learning Objective: Identify the structure of the five senses of
the human body to identify their functions and how they give
us information about the world.

Biblical principle:
We have to open our spiritual senses
so we can listen to the voice of God.
Hebrews 5:14

But solid food is for the mature,who

constant use have trained themselves
distinguish good from evil.

After the game, lets talk about the

special characteristics of our body.
How do we get information of the
Why is important to get information
of the world?

Sight tells us about the color, size, and
shape of things. Our eyes are our
organs of sight.
The eyeball is round. It has three parts:
The iris is the colored circle at the
front of the eyeball. It can be green,
brown, or blue.
The pupil is the center of the eye.
Light goes through the pupil into the

The retina is inside the eyeball. It

receives light and sends it to the

Protection of the Eye

Some part of the eye are for protection:
Eyebrows and eyelashes keep dust
out of our eyes.
Tear glands make tears that keep our
eyes clean.
Eyelids protect the eyeball from too
much light.
Cornea is a clear membrane that
protects the front of the eye.

How does it work?

Light enters the eye through an

opening in the cornea called the
pupil. The light next passes through a
lens, which focuses the light on the
retina. The retina is the inner layer of
specialized cells found at the back of
the eye. These cells are called
photoreceptors because they detect
light and then send signals to the
brain. The brain interprets these

Our hearing allows us to hear sounds.
Our ears are our organs of
The ears have three parts:
The outer ear includes the ear canal.
The middle ear includes the
eardrum and three small bones.
The inner ear includes the cochlea.

We hear sounds in the following way:
First, the outer ear captures sounds that travel
as waves. The waves go through the ear canal
to the eardrum and make the eardrum vibrate.
Then the vibrations go to the small bones in the
middle ear. One of these bones vibrates
against the cochlea.
Finally, nerve cells in the cochlea change these
vibrations into signals that are sent to the

We use our sense of smell to identify
many different smells. Our nose is our
organ of smell.
When we breathe, air goes through two
holes called nostrils. It goes through
the nasal cavity to the olfactory area.
The olfactory area identifies smells and
send information to the brain.

We use our sense of taste to identify many
different flavors. Our tongue is our organ of
The tongue has many small taste buds. A
taste bud is a specialized nerve cell that can
detect four basic flavors: sweet, salty, bitter,
and sour.
The sense of taste is connected to the sense of
smell. If we cover our nose when we eat, it is
difficult to taste food.

The brain combines information from

both taste buds and olfactory cells.

Our sense of touch tells us if
something is smooth or rough, hot,
or cold.
It also helps us to perceive pain if we
hurt our bodies.
The organ for touch is the skin. The
skin is very sensitive in some parts
of the body.
For example, fingers and the face are
very sensitive.

The skin has several different types

of nerve cells, or receptors, to detect
The skin can detect various
sensations. These include touch,
vibration, pressure, heat, and pain.
If a pressure receptor is stimulated,
then it sends a signal to the brain.
The brain interprets this signal.

Learning Objective 2:
Recognizes the vocabulary related to
the Human body Systems as
Locomotor, Circulatory, and Digestive
to describe their parts and functions.

Biblical Principle:
The word of God is so powerful that
penetrates all our body to the deepest part
of us.

Hebrews 4:12
For the word of Godis aliveand
active.Sharper than any double-edged
sword,it penetrates even to dividing soul
and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the
thoughts and attitudes of the heart.

Human Body Systems

1. Musculoskeletal System
(Locomotor System)
The skeletal and muscular systems
move our bodies. We have bones,
muscles, and joints under our skin.
Bones are hard. They dont bend.
Muscles are soft. They contract and
Joints connect bones.

Muscles pull on our bones to bend our arms
and legs. Joints help our bones to move
There are 2 types of movement:
Voluntary movement: we move when we
Ex: We move our legs to ride a bicycle.
Involuntary movement: we move without
Ex: We blink our eyes.

The Skeletal System

The bones in your body form the skeleton.
The body has 206 bones.
We have bones in all parts of our bodies.
They are in the head, the trunk, and the
The bones can be:
Long like the humerus.
Short like the vertebrae.
Flat like the bones in the skull.

Functions of the skeletal

The skeleton has three uses:
It holds the body up. The bones in
the spinal column do this.
It protects the most delicate parts of
the body, like the brain, the heart,
and the lungs.
It helps the body to move.

The Muscular System

Muscles are connected to the bones
and they work together when we
Muscles contract and relax:
When muscles contract they become
When muscles relax they return their
usual shape.

There are more than 600 muscles in the muscular

Head muscles: the jaws muscles open and close
the mouth.
Trunk muscles: we use the abdominals when we
bend our trunk forward. We use the intercostals
and the diaphragm when we breathe.
Limb muscles: we use the biceps and triceps
when we bend and stretch our arms.
We have other muscles in the stomach and
the heart that are not connected to bones.


The Circulatory System moves substances around our
It takes oxygen to all parts of the body.
It also takes nutrients to all parts of the body.
It helps remove harmful substances from the body. It
takes carbon dioxide from the lungs and waste
substances to the excretory system.

Our circulatory system

Blood, blood vessels, and the heart
make up the circulatory system.
Blood: is the red liquid that goes all
around the body. It is made up of red
blood cells, white blood cells, and
The heart is the organ that pushes
blood around the body.

Blood circulates through tubes called

blood vessels. There are three kinds of
blood vessels:
Arteries: take blood from the heart to
the rest of the body.
Veins: take blood with little or no oxygen
from the rest of the body to the heart.
Capillaries: are thin tubes that connect
arteries and veins.