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# AIR PRESSURE

SCIENCE FORM 2

AIR PRESSURE
Produced when the air
around us presses on the
surfaces of the objects that
are in it.

KINETIC THEORY OF
GASES
A gas consists of many particles
which are apart from each other
The particles move freely in all
directions
The particles continuously hit the
walls of the container and bounce
back
A force is exerted by the particles
on the walls of the container
This force produces a pressure on
the walls of the container

AIR PRESSURE

## Air pressure is higher at sea level

than on top of mountain

## Like density, the pressure of the air decreases with

altitude.
There is less air pressing down from above the higher
up you go. Look at the bottle pictured below (Figure
below).
It was drained by a hiker at the top of a mountain.
Then the hiker screwed the cap on the bottle and
carried it down to sea level.
At the lower altitude, air pressure crushed it. Can you
explain why?

## At high altitude the air pressure is the same inside and

outside the bottle. At sea level, the pressure is greater
outside than inside the bottle. The greater outside
pressure crushes the bottle.

FACTORS AFFECTING
AIR PRESSURE IN A
CLOSED CONTAINER
FACTOR

Volume

RELATIONSHIP

EXPLANATION

Volume
decreases,
Air pressure
increases

## The air particles

move in a
smaller space
More particles
hit the walls of
container
Larger force is
produced
Higher pressure
acts on the wall

FACTORS AFFECTING
AIR PRESSURE IN A
CLOSED CONTAINER
FACTOR

Temperature

RELATIONSHIP

EXPLANATION

Temperature
increases,
Air pressure
increases

Air particles
move faster
More particles
hit the walls of
container
Larger force is
produced
Higher pressure
acts on the wall

PRESSURE

## Air will flow from a region of higher air

pressure to a region of lower air pressure.
This movement of air is caused by a force
acting in the direction of higher to lower
air pressure.

## If a surface lies between two regions

of different air pressures, a force will
act on the surface in the direction of
higher to lower air pressure.

APPLICATION OF THE
PRINCIPLE OF AIR
PRESSURE

SYRINGE
When the piston is
pulled upwards, the
volume of air in the
barrel increases
The air pressure in it is
reduced
The higher outside
pressure forces the
water through the
needle into the barrel

SIPHON

## The bent tube is filled with water

(siphon) has low pressure in it
The higher outside pressure pushes the
water into the tube
The water flows out of the tube

DRINKING STRAW
Sucking
removes the air
inside the straw
producing low
pressure
The higher
pressure
outside pushes
the water into
the straw

CAN

## When the milk flows out of the can, the

pressure inside the can is reduced
The second hole allows air to enter the can
and fill up the empty space producing
equals air pressure inside and outside the
can
The equal pressure enable the milk to flow
continuously out of the can

SUCTION PUMP /
PLUNGER
When the plunger is pushed
down, the air under the rubber
sucker is force out and reduce
the air pressure
When the plunger is pull, the
volume of air under the rubber
sucker increases and further
reduce the air pressure
The higher external air
pressure pushes and loosens
the blockage which will then
flow out with the water

PRESSURE

PRESSURE

## Gas can be changed to liquid

(liquefied gases) when they are
compressed under high pressure.

## SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN

HANDLING GAS UNDER HIGH
PRESSURE