Anda di halaman 1dari 39


Formator: conf. univ.dr.
475 027

tel. 0756


Testing is an intrinsic part of the

learning process. It includes all the
techniques and procedures the
teacher uses to promote and
assess learning


According to whether they take place

before, during or after teaching, tests
may be:
placement tests, given at the beginning
of the learning process;
progress, diagnostic and achievement
tests, given during the learning process;
proficiency tests, given after the
learning process.

Placement tests

Intended to provide information

which will place students at the
stage or in the part of the teaching
programme most appropriate to
their abilities.

Progress and
diagnostic tests

Progress tests are small-scale

tests meant to verify recent, shortterm learning; short duration.

Diagnostic tests are larger-scale

tests, covering information taught
during an entire unit or even
semester; longer duration.

(attainment) tests

Designed to establish how

successful individual students,
groups of students or even courses
have been in achieving objectives.
They are comprehensive tests set
at the end of a school year, of a
teaching cycle or of a language

Proficiency tests

Designed to measure students

ability in a language regardless of
any training they may have had in
that language.

Other topics

Subjective testing (it depends largely

on the personal decision of the Marker) vs.
objective testing (there is a clear
correct answer)
Discrete-point tests (testing specific
individual language points; marked
objectively) vs. global-integrative tests
(a number of items or skills tested in the
same question; marked subjectively)

Some common discreteitem testing techniques

Gap-fill (single sentence; cloze;

multiple choice)
Sentence transformation (rephrase..)
Sentence construction/reordering brother / much / he's / than / his /
Sheet no. 5

Direct items vs. indirect


Direct items actually performing

the task; usually associated with
productive skills (speaking; writing)
Direct speaking item actually
speaking in the foreign language;
what would that mean in writing?

Indirect items
Indirect items try to measure student
knowledge & ability by getting at what
lies beneath their receptive &
productive skills.
Thus, if we believe that grammatical
knowledge contributes to writing
ability, then a grammar test may be
used as an indirect test of writing.

Indirect test item types

Multiple choice questions


The journalist was _____ by enemy fire as

he tried to send a story by radio.
a wronged b wounded c injured d damaged

Advantages easy to score; elimination

of error.
Disadvantages difficult to construct;

Indirect test item types

CLOZE - the deletion of every nth word

in a text (somewhere every fifth or tenth
word, ideally 9th). Procedure random.
Example: They sat on a bench attached
1 _____ a picnic table. Below them they
2 _____ see the river gurgling between
overgrown 3 _____. The sky was
diamond blue, with 4 _____ white clouds
dancing in the freshening 5 _____.


Dis.: - some items are more

difficult to supply than others
- there may be several possible
Adv.: - it shows understanding of
the context
- a knowledge of that word and
how it functions.

Cloze is not identical to fill-in the

blanks. In cloze types, the deletion
is systematical. With filling-in, it is

Indirect items

Tranformation items - Finish each of

the following sentences in such a
way that it is as similar as possible
in meaning to the sentence printed
before it.
Im sorry that I didnt get her an
anniversary present.
I wish___________________________.

Reordering items
Put the words in order to make
correct sentences:
called / I / Im / in / sorry / wasnt /
when / you

Indirect items

The correct verbal form

Finding errors in sentences

Direct testing - speaking

Direct test items that meet the criteria mentioned

An interview questioning candidates about

Info gap activities where a S has to find out
either from an interlocutor or from another S.
Decision-making activities, such as showing
candidates photos of people and asking them to
order them from best to worst dressed.

Direct testing - speaking

Using pictures for candidates to

compare/contrast, whether they can both
see them or whether they have found
similarities and differences without being
able to look at each others material (as
in many communication games).
$ Role-plays where Ss perform tasks such
as introducing themselves, ringing a
theater to book tickets, etc.

Direct testing - reading

$ Matching written descriptions with pictures
of what
they describe.
$ Transferring written info to charts, graphs,
maps, etc.
$ Choosing the best summary of a paragraph
or a whole text.
$ Matching jumbled headings with paragraphs.
$ Inserting sentences provided by the
examiner in the correct place in the text.

Direct testing - writing

Writing compositions and stories.

$ Transactional letters where candidates
reply to a job ad, or write a complaint to a
hotel based on info given in the exam.
$ Info leaflets about their school or a place
in their town.
$ A set of instructions for some common
$ Newspaper articles about a recent event

Direct testing - Listening

Completing charts with facts & figures from a

$ Identifying which of a # of objects (pictures
on test) is being described.
$ Identifying which (out of 2 or 3 speakers)
says what.
$ Identifying whether speakers are
enthusiastic, encouraging, in disagreement, or
$ Following directions on a map & identifying
the correct house, place, etc


PLANNING = imagining the

lesson before it actually
happens (cf. Scrivener)

the learners;
the aims / objectives of the lesson (the
aims are general, the objectives specific);
the teaching point;
the tasks and teaching procedures;
the challenge;
the materials;
classroom management.


Types of lessons :

focusing on one skill: reading,

writing, speaking, listening;
grammar lessons;
lessons of revision;
combined / mixed lessons, which
are most common


Aim vs. objective:

AIM= general goal; it broadly
focuses on what you plan to do and
achieve with your students in a
OUTCOME) = specific goal; smaller
steps that make up the aims.

Aim vs. Objective

E.g. Aim - to express time in English

Objective - By the end of the lesson,

students will identify the time from
picture prompts and clocks and
accurately express various times
verbally and in writing, using phrases
such as,quarter to, half past, 10
minutes till/to,and20 past.

Formulating aims and


Aims are usually written in

amorphous terms using words like:
learn, know, understand,
Objectives are usually termed with
the help of the future: will be able
to; they refer to specific things.
They may be classified into:

Objectives - classification


Aims vs. Objectives example

A Lesson on American Slang

Aim: to understand and become

proficient at identifying the
different types of spoken English.
Objective: By the end of the lesson,
students will be able to identify
American slang terms.


Cognitive: Students will identify and

list 5 slang terms they have heard
from their peers.
Affective: Student will choose 3 of
the most offensive slang terms from
a list developed by the entire class.
Physical: Students will create
expressive gestures to go with their
favorite slang terms.

Competence vs. Skill

Competence (Harmer) = what we

know; the state of being well qualified

Skill = Reading


attitudes and resources; know-how)
1. Linguistic competence (deals with the
structure of a language)
2. Discursive competence (capacity to
build and organize an oral discourse)

3. Socio-cultural competence sociocultural conditions, i.e. politeness rules

4. Pragmatic competence the
functional use of language, how to
employ language in a particular
situation (for instance, in an interview).
5. Intercultural competence knowledge of cultural values.

Skill and Subskill

Skill Reading
Subskill Reading to extract
specific information

Reading for detailed


Didactic activity

Didactic activity (Scrivener):

- familiarise yourself with the material
- lead-in show picture, invite comments
- set up the activity- give instructions
- doing the activity
- close the activity and inviting feedback


establish the objective of the test

establish the content to be assessed
(content, objective, level, type of items
write the test
write the marking scheme
- it should contain the correct answers;
- it should mention the points granted
for each topic;
apply the marching scheme.



v mulumete c ai ales s urmai unul
din cursurile sale i v dorete


tel. 0756 475 027