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THE CELL THEORY

Hairy T-cell

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
How is cell structure related to cell
function?
How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells different?
How are plant and animal cells
different?

OBJECTIVES
What are the principles of the cell
theory?
What are the differences between a
prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic
cell?

PRE-TEST
In your CINCH, answer Science
Notebook under Cell Discovery and
Theory

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z
RFykdf4kDc

Definition
= Three part theory about cells
1. The basic unit of life is the cell.
2. All living things are made up of
one or more cells.
3. All cells come from pre-existing
cells.

Who came up with this


theory?

They shall be
1. Robert Hooke (1665) called
CELLS.

A piece of cork

Who came up with this


theory?

2. Matthias Schleiden All plants are


made of cells!
(1838)

Onion skin cells

Who came up with this


theory?
3. Theodore Schwann
(1839)

All animals are


made of cells!

Human red blood cells

Who came up with this


theory?
3. Rudolph Virchow
(1855)

All cells
come from
pre-existing
cells!

How big are cells?


Microscopic
(mostly)
Measured in
microns m
(micrometers).
A m is one
millionth of a
meter =
10-9 m = one
thousandth
of 1 mm.

How big are cells?


Largest cell
on the human
body =
ovum
Size=
1000 m in
diameter
(1 mm)

How big are cells?


Smallest cell in the human body =
sperm cell.

Cellular Organization

Types of Cells

The Cell
The smallest unit that is capable of
performing life functions
Seven characteristics of life:

Organization
Metabolism
Response to stimulus
Reproduction
Homeostasis
Growth and development
Evolution

WRAP UP
What information does each group tell us
about the scientists and their discoveries
about the cells?
How was the cell and its parts discovered?
What are the principles of the cell theory?
How important are cells?
Why is the cell considered as the basic unit of
life?
How were these scientists able to discover
these facts about cells?

OBJECTIVES
What are the structures of a
eukaryotic cell, and what are their
functions?
What are the similarities and
differences between plant and
animal cells?

A CELL IS LIKE A FACTORY

Common features of all


cells

1. Cell Membrane selectively


permeable (lets some
things in and out)
- In: food, oxygen and water
- Out: waste products
- Protective layer

Common features of all


cells
2. Cytoplasm semi-fluid
material in which cell
organelles float

Common features of all


cells

Nucleus contains:
a. Nucleic acid genetic code
Which nucleic acid?
3.

DNA
b. Nucleolus

Inside the nucleus

Inside the nucleus


Chromatin contains
genetic code
that controls
cell
made of DNA
& proteins

Common features of all


cells
4. Cytoskeleton
proteins that
support &
maintains
shape of the
cell
(Microtubules &
microfilaments)

Common features of all cells


5.

Mitochondria
release
energy from
food
- Powerhouse
of the cell

Common features of all


cells
5.

Ribosomes
make
proteins
- made in
the
nucleolus

Common features of all cells


6. Endoplasmic Reticulum
folded membranes that move
materials around in a cell

Smooth ER
ribosomes not
attached to ER
for production of
lipids
Rough ER
ribosomes
attached to ER
for production of
proteins

Common features of all


cells

7. Golgi bodies - flattened


membranes that modify,
package, and transport proteins

Common features of all


cells
8. Vacuoles
temporary
storage
spaces (for
food,
water,
waste)

Common features of all


cells

9. Lysosome digest or break


down food molecules, cell
wastes & worn out cell parts

ACTIVITY
Answer the Cell Factory Worksheet in
your CINCH under Cell Discovery and
Theory.

The Plant Cell

Only found in Plant cells


Cell Wall - protects, gives shape, supports
individual cells and the entire organism
made of cellulose
found in plants (cellulose), algae, fungi
(chitin), & most bacteria(peptidoglycan).

Only found in Plant cells


Chloroplast Green
organelles
that make
food through
photosynthesi
s

Only found in Plant cells


Central
vacuole

The Animal Cell

Only found in Animal cells

Centriole
divide DNA
during cell
division

Prokaryotic Cells

do not have a nucleus or


other membrane-bound
organelles.
lack most cytoplasmic
Prokaryotic
organelles

Ex. bacteria

Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic Cells
cells with
membrane-bound
structures
have many
chromosomes with
DNA and protein
larger and more
complex
EX: animals, plants,
fungi and protists

ACTIVITY
Use a venn diagram to compare and
contrast plant and animal cells, along
with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

ACTIVITY (App)
Pair up.
Pick one organelle to work on, and apply your
knowledge on the parts of the cell to make a job
advertisement/description through any app.
The organelle should not be direct identified and
only recognized by the class based on the
information provided in the ad.
Volunteers will be called on to show their work
in class and have their classmates guess the
identity of the organelle in the ads.

Samples

Seeking a person who will be


responsible for cleaning
buildings, removing debris,
and keeping areas neat and
tidy. Vacuums and buffs floors,
shampoos carpets, empties
trash receptacles, and replace
lining of trash cans.

HOMEWORK
Create your own cell analogy using
any app.
Identify the parts of the cell and their
functions in your analogy.
Submit to:
angeline.bago@dlszobel.edu.ph

Samples

NAME THE ORGANELLE

Give the function of the


following structures

Identify whats wrong with


these cells

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
1.

2.

Identify

Identify

Identify

Match the numbered parts of the CELL FACTORY with


the corresponding organelles of the cell that closely
resembles their function.

3
4
1
6

5
2

1- Nucleus
2- Chromosomes
3- Mitochondria
4- Ribosomes

5- Chloroplasts
6- Vacuoles

7- ER
8- Cell
Membrane

Bibliography

http://www.hotlinecancer.com/?cat=28
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4636121.stm
http://www.thebacteriabusters.com/eColi.html
http://www.lungcancer.co.uk/how.htm
http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/blood/red.html
http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa091400a.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/babies/peopleevents/e_ovum.html
http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Animals/Birds/Growth-andDevelopment/Ostrich/Ostrich/Ostrich-15.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/71751551@N00/1262329163/
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Ostrich_egg.jpg
http://www.mambalam.net/slideshow.php?set_albumName=Animalia
http://strangebenevolent.blogspot.com/2007/07/meerkats-and-ostriches.html
www.madsci.org/posts/archives/dec97/878139903.Cb.r.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoeba_proteus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Immunity_Syndrome_(Star_Trek

Bibliography

http://www.pacpress.com/level3/micron.htm
Google Image Result for
http://www.indiana.edu/~phys215/lecture/lecnotes/lecgraphics/diffusion.gif

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Diffusion.jpg

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cell_membranes.html

http://sun.menloschool.org/~cweaver/cells/e/ribosomes/

http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/580DNA.html
http://sciencecity.oupchina.com.hk/biology/student/glossary/cytoplasm.asp
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect06.htm