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EEE 341/EEE 353:

Measurements and Instrumentation

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Lecture-1
Chapter-1:
Measurements
and

Measurement Systems
Text book: Electrical and Electronic
Measurements and Instrumentation
(A. K. Sawhney)
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Topics

Measurements
Basic requirements of measurement
Significance of Measurements
Methods of Measurements
Instruments and measurement systems
Classification of instruments
Applications of measurement systems
Elements of a generalized measurements
system

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Measurements
Measurement is the process by which one can convert
physical parameters to meaningful numbers.
The measuring process is one in which the property
of an object or system under consideration is
compared to an accepted standard unit (a standard
defined for that particular property).

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Basic requirements of measurement


The standard used for comparison purposes must be
accurately defined and should be commonly accepted.
The apparatus used and the method adopted must be
provable.

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Significance of Measurements
There are two major functions of all branches of
engineering:
(i) Design of equipment and processes
(ii) Proper operation and maintenance of
equipment and processes
Both these functions require measurements
because of proper and economical design,
operation and maintenance require a feedback of
information.
Measurements play a significant role in achieving
goals & objectives of Engineering because of
feedback information supplied by them.
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Methods of Measurements
Methods of measurements may be broadly classified
into two categories:
(i) Direct Methods
(ii) Indirect Methods

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(i) Direct Methods


The unknown quantity (also called the measurand) is
directly compared against a standard.
The result is expressed as a numerical number and a
unit.
Example: measurement of length, mass and time.

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Limitations of Direct Methods


Measurements by direct methods are not always
possible, feasible and practicable.
These methods in most cases, are inaccurate because
they involve human factors.
They are also less sensitive.
Direct methods are not preferred and are rarely used.

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(ii) Indirect Methods


In Engineering applications Measurement Systems
are used which require need of indirect methods for
measurement purposes.

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Instruments systems
Measurements involve the use of Instruments as
a physical means of determining quantities or
variables.
The instrument serves as an extension of human
facilities & enables the man to determine the
value of unknown quantity.
In simple form, an instrument consists of a
single unit which give an output according to
the unknown variable applied to it.

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Classification of Instruments
Operating
Mode

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Absolute Instruments
Give the magnitude of the quantity under
measurement in terms of physical constants of the
instrument.
Example: Tangent galvanometer, Rayleighs current
balance.

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Secondary Instruments
Instruments are constructed in such a way that
quantity being measured by observing the
output indicated by the instrument.
Instruments are calibrated, by comparison with
an absolute instrument or another secondary
instrument which has already been calibrated
against an absolute instrument.
Example: Voltmeter, glass thermometer,
pressure gauge.

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Deflection Type Instrument


This type of instrument provides a basis for
determining the quantity under measurement.
In a deflection type instrument, the value of measured
quantity depends upon the calibration of the
instrument.
Example: A permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)
ammeter.
Describe the principle of operation of Deflection type instrument or
Permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)
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Deflection Type Instrument

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Null Type Instrument


In a null type of instrument, a zero or null indication
leads to determination of the magnitude of measured
quantity.
Example: D.C. potentiometer

Describe the principle of operation of Null type Instrument

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Null Type Instrument

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Comparison of Deflection and


Null Type Instruments
Null type instruments are more accurate than
deflection type instruments.
Null type instruments can be highly sensitive as
compared with deflection type instruments.
Deflection type instruments are more suited for
measurement under dynamic conditions.

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Analog & Digital Mode


Analog: Signals that vary in a continuous fashion
& takes a infinite number of values in any given
range.
Digital: Signals which vary in discrete steps &
thus take up only finite different values in a given
range.

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Functions of instruments &


measurement systems
Indicating Function.
Recording Function.
Controlling Function.

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Indicating Function
The variation of quantity under measurement is
expressed in different methods.
Usually it is found as a deflection of pointer.
Example:
Deflection of a speedometer.
Deflection of a pressure gauge.

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Recording Function
The measured quantity is recorded.
It can be written or recorded as a graph.
Example:
A potentiometer type recorder used for monitoring
temperature with respect to time on a strip chart
recorder.

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Controlling Function
Information is used to control original measured
quantity.
This is one of the most important functions especially
in the field of industrial control processes.
Example:
Thermostats for temperature control.
Floats for liquid level control.

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Applications of Measurements
System
Monitoring of process & operations
Control of process & operations
Experimental engineering analysis

Elements of a generalized
Measurement Systems

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Elements of a generalized
Measurement Systems

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Primary Sensing Element (Detector transducer


stage): The measurand is first detected by
primary sensor & then converted into electrical
signal by using transducer.
Variable Conversion Element: The o/p of 1st
stage is converted to some suitable form
preserving the content of original signal .
Example: Use of A/D converter if digital signal
is required in the next stage of the system if it is
required.

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Variable Manipulation Element: Function of this


element is to manipulate the signal presented to it
preserving the original nature of the signal.
Example: voltage amplifier.
Data Transmission Element: After the physical
separation of elements of an instrument, this
element transmits data from one to another.
Example: telemetry system (space crafts are
physically separated from the earth where the
control stations guiding their movements are
located. Therefore, control signals are sent from
these stations to space-crafts by a complicated
telemetry systems using radio signals )
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Data Presentation Element: Information about


the quantity under measurement has to be
conveyed to the personal handling the
instrument or the system for monitoring,
control or analysis purposes. This function is
done using this element.
Examples: a) visual displays such as ammeter,
voltmeter, etc for monitoring
b) Recorders like magnetic tapes, high speed
camera, printers for recording data
c) Microprocessors or computers for control &
analysis purpose.
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