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TEKANAN TANAH LATERAL

Fithriyani Fauziyyah (22715003)


Hazmanu Hermawan Yosandian
(22715004)

Tekanan
lateral ada 3 (tiga) macam,
Tekanan tanah
tanah dalam keadaan diam (at rest)
yaitu :
Tekanan tanah yang terjadi dalam keadaan seimbang .
Tekanan tanah aktif
Tekanan yang berusaha untuk mendorong dinding penahan
tersebut untuk bergerak kedepan.
Tekanan tanah pasif
Tekanan yang berusaha mengimbangi/menahan tekanan
tanah aktif.

Gambar 1. Tekanan tanah pada dinding penahan

Tekanan tanah
At Rest

v
H

1
1

c=0

hv.Ko

P0
H/3
H.Ko

Gambar 1. Tekanan tanah dalam keadaan diam (at rest)

Dimana :
Ko (koefisien tekanan tanah dalam keadaan diam ) : Rasio tekanan arah
horisontal dan tekanan arah vertikal

tekanan arah vertikal


tekanan arah horisontal

Harga-harga Ko adalah sebagai berikut :


Untuk tanah berbutir yang terkonsolidasi normal (Jaky 1944)
Ko = 1 - sin

Untuk tanah lempung yang terkonsolidasi normal (Brooker dan


Ireland, 1965) :
Ko = 0,95 - sin
Dimana : = Sudut geser tanah dalam keadaan air teralirkan

(drained).

Tanah lempung yang terkonsolidasi normal dan mempunyai


indeks plastisitas (PI).
Ko = 0,4 + 0,007 (PI)

Ko = 0,64 + 0,001 (PI)

PI antara 0 - 40
PI antara 40 - 80

TEKANAN TANAH RANKINE


Elatic to Plastic Equilibrium
based
No friction to wall
Flat wall
Horizontal Backfill

TEKANAN TANAH RANKINE


a. Keadaan Aktif
Tegangan vertikal =
tegangan
major,
Tegangan Horizontal =
tegangan minor
Bidang keruntuhan
dengan sudut
kemiringan 45 + /2
b. Keadaan Pasif
Tegangan vertikal =
tegangan
minor,
Tegangan Horizontal =
tegangan major
Bidang keruntuhan
dengan sudut
kemiringan 45 - /2

TEKANAN TANAH AKTIF (RANKINE)


Cohesionless
Horizontal backfill

Pressure Diagram
Dimana :

TEKANAN TANAH AKTIF


(RANKINE)
Cohesionless
Sloping backfill

Dimana :

Contoh Kasus :
Details of the soil retained behind a smooth wall are given in
Fig. 7. Draw the diagram of the pressure distribution on the
back of the wall and determine the total horizontal active
thrust acting
on the back of the wall by the Rankine theory.
Solusi
:

Contoh Kasus :
A vertical retaining wall 6 m high is supporting soil which is saturated
and has a unit weight of 22.5 kN/m3. The angle of shearing
resistance of the soil, , is 35 and the surface of the soil is
horizontal and level with the top of the wall. A groundwater level has
been established within the soil and occurs at a level of 2 m from the
top of the wall. Using the Rankine theory calculate the significant
pressure
Solusi
: values and draw the diagram of pressure distribution that
will occur on the back of the wall.
The problem can therefore be regarded as two layers of different soil,
the upper having a unit weight of 22.5 kN/m3 and the lower (22.5
9.81) = 12.7 kN/m3.
Consider the upper soil:
At depth= 2 m, pa =Ka h= 0 2722 52=12.2 kPa
Consider the lower soil:
At depth= 6 m, pa =12 2+ 0 2712 74 = 25.9 kPa

Water pressure
At depth = 2 m, the water pressure = 0
At depth = 6 m, the water pressure = 9.81
4 = 39.2 kPa

TEKANAN TANAH PASIF (RANKINE)


cohesionless

Horizontal backfill

Sloping backfill

Gambar 4. Tekanan tanah Rankine aktif dan pasif


pada dinding
Gaya Total Aktif tanah kohesif

Gaya Total Pasif tanah kohesif

TEKANAN TANAH COLOUMB


Stress to failure plane based
Friction to wall
Sloping wall
Sloping Backfill

TEKANAN TANAH COULOMB


Dimana :
= angle of back of wall to the
horizontal
= angle of wall friction
= angle of inclination of
surface of retained soil to the
horizontal

Gambar 5. Symbols used in Coulombs formula

= angle of shearing
resistance.

Gambar 5a. Coulomb


method for
determining active
earth pressure on a
retaining
wall.

Gambar 5b.
Coulomb method
for determining
passive earth
pressure on a
retaining
wall.

load &
backfill
configuratio
n

Culman
n
line

Elements of Design : backfill


material
More granular soil = no / less cohesion
but, more expensive
More finer (clay) soil = less expensive
but, need special drainage system or
swelling

Elements of Design : method


Rankine = simple & safe (overestimate)
but, more expensive
Coulomb = realistic (accurate) & cheaper
but, less safe

Elements of Design : drainage


system
For granular soil

Elements of Design : drainage


system
For fine (clayey) soil

Elements of Design : seepage


force
Vertical blanket = not capable of
eliminating seepage force

Elements of Design : seepage


force
Inclined blanket = capable of eliminating
seepage force