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Dr. Mst. Sadia Mahzabin


For application of structural designs, Eurocodes have been

widely applied in European countries, United Kingdom,
., and Malaysia, since March 2010.
Abbreviation for Eurocode standards is EN, standing for
European Norm or EUROPISCHE NORM.
For Malaysian Standard, abbreviation is MS EN
In general, MS EN is almost the same as EN. However,
there are a few difference in applying particular parameters
owing to the different condition in every country, i.e.
SNOW loads.
The differences are addressed in National Annex that is in
charge of by SIRIM BERHAD

The Benefits
1) The new Eurocodes are claimed to be the most technically

advanced codes in the world.

2) EC 3 should results in more economic structures than BS 5950.
3) The Eurocodes are logical and organized to avoid repetition.
4) EC 3 is less restrictive and more extensive than BS 5950.
5) Use of the Eurocodes will provide more opportunity for designers

to work throughout Europe.

6) Europe all public works must allow the Eurocodes to be used for

structural design.
7) National Annex opportunity to use local values in design known

as NDP. Values determined based on local level of safety

8) Unified approach in structural steel design.

Eurocode 3 is subdivided in 06 parts:
EN 1993-1 Design of Steel Structures : General rules and rules for buildings.
EN 1993-2 Design of Steel Structures : Steel bridges.
EN 1993-3 Design of Steel Structures : Towers, masts and chimneys.
EN 1993-4 Design of Steel Structures : Silos, tanks and pipelines.
EN 1993-5 Design of Steel Structures : Piling.
EN 1993-6 Design of Steel Structures : Crane supporting structures.

Eurocode 3 Part 1 has 12 sub-parts:
EN 1993-1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings.
EN 1993-1-2 : Structural fire design.
EN 1993-1-3 : Cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting.
EN 1993-1-4 : Stainless steels.
EN 1993-1-5 : Plated structural elements.
EN 1993-1-6 : Strength and stability of shell structures.
EN 1993-1-7 : Plated structures transversely loaded.
EN 1993-1-8 : Design of joints.
EN 1993-1-9 : Fatigue strength of steel structures.
EN 1993-1-10 : Fracture toughness
EN 1993-1-11 : Cables
EN 1993-1-12 : Supplementary rules for high strength steel.

Structural Design

Structural design is the Art of utilizing principle

of Statics, dynamics and mechanics of materials
to determine the size and arrangement of
structural elements under prescribed load
and/or other effects.

In this course we will focus on the design of the

individual structural elements or members that
make up the whole structural system.

Such members or elements include the following:

Tension member
Base plate

What are Steel


Structural Steel is a materials used for steel

Formed with a specific shape or Cross section
and certain standard of chemical composition
and mechanical properties.

Types of Steel Structure

Frame Building: residential, office, commercial

and industrial purpose
Plate girder used for bridges
Steel arch bridge
Industrial Building
Transmission line tower and mobile towers.

New York, United States April 22, 2013 The gleaming 46-storey glass and steel skyscraper
of the Hearst Tower shares the skyline with high-rise residential apartment buildings in
midtown Manhattan.

Tokyo Japan, High rise architecture.

Glass, concrete, and steel building. A
twin tower office building in a business
district. Tall sky scrapers and foggy
skies in the densely populated city.

Steel plate girder for bridges

Box Girder

The Bayonne Bridge, the 5th longest steel arch bridge in the world

Steel Tower

Advantages of Steel

High strength /weight ratio.

Large plastic deformation
Uniformity: Properties of steel do not change as oppose
to concrete.
Elasticity: Steel follows hooks law very accurately.
Ductility: A very desirable of property of steel in which
steel can withstand extensive deformation without failure
under high tensile stresses, i.e., it gives warning before
failure takes place.

Other advantages:

Steel is highly suitable for prefabrication and mass production.

Steel can be reuse after a structure is disassembled.

Good fatigue strength.

Steel can be strengthened at any latter time, if necessary.

Disadvantages of Steel

Steel column sometime cannot provide the necessary
strength because of buckling.
Maintenance Cost: Steel structure are susceptible to
corrosion when exposed to air, water and humidity. They
must be painted periodically.
Fireproofing cost: Steel is incombustible material,
however, its strength is reduced tremendously at high
temperatures due to common fires.

Stress-Strain Relationship

Stress-Strain Curve of Structural Steel



For the purpose of designing any element, member of a

structure, the following loads and their effects shall be
taken into account:

Dead Load/permanent load

Imposed load
Wind load
Earthquake load
Erection load
Accidental load
Secondary effect (Temperature effect)