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Chapter 5

The Basic Differential Equation for Radial Flow


in a Porous Medium
5.1 Introduction
To derive and to solve the radial fluid flow in porous
medium 1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r
r
t
2 p 1 p c p
2

(5.19)
r r
k t
r
1 p c p
or
(5.20)
r
r r r
k t

5.2 Derivation of the Basic radial differential equation


Assumptions:
-- The reservoir is homogenous in all rock
properties and isotropic with respect to permeability
-- h=const. and hperf=h
-- Single phase fluid
Why not Cartesian geometry?

C.V.

C.V.

Conservation of mass:
Mass flow rate (in) mass flow rate (out)
Rate of change of mass in the volume element

dr

dr
r dr
r
t
t
( q )

or
2 r h
(5.2)
r
t

Using Darcys law for a radial flow


q

(2rh)k p

2rhk p

2rh

r
t

1 k p

r
(5.3)
r r r
t

1 k p

r
(5.3)
r r r
t
Since

1 V
m
and
V p
V


1 1 t
c

m p
p t p
p
c

t t

1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t

5.3 Conditions of Solution


Radial flow equation 1 k r p c p (5.1)
r r r
t
The most common and useful analytical solution is for the

initial condition : p pi

for all r

boundary conditions : q const. at r rw


p pi at r

constant terminal rate solution (Chapter 7&8)

Radial flow equation

1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t

The three most common conditions


(1) Transient --- Early time; no boundary effect
(Infinite acting reservoir)

p g (r , t )
p
f (r , t )
r

(2) Semi steady state --- The effect of the outer boundary has been felt.
p
0 at r re
r
and
p
const. for all r and t (5.7)
t

1 dV
V dp
cVdp dV
dp
dV
cV

q (5.8)
dt
dt
c

dp
q

dt
cV
dp
q

(5.10)
dt
c re2 h
or

where p p average

p p i Vi

Vi

vol. avg.

qi

rate avg.

p p i qi

pressure

(3)Steady state

p p e const. at r re
due to natural water influx or the injection of some fluid and

p
0 for all r and t
t

5.4 The Linearization of Equation 5.1 for Fluids of small


and constant compressibility
1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t
1 k
p k p p k p k 2 p
p

r r
r r r r r 2
t
From Eq.(5.4)

1
p
c
cp c

p
r r

1 k
p k
p p k p k 2 p
p

r r
r
r r r r 2
t
Note:

k
p
p
0 sin ce k , f (r ) ;
0 sin ce
small
r
r
r

2 p 1 p c p
2

(5.19)
r r
k t
r
1 p c p
or
(5.20)
r
r r r
k t
It is for the flow of liquids or for cp<<1
c in equation(5.20) is the total ,or saturation weighted compressibility

c ct c o s o c w s w c f
c abs co S o c w S wc c f (5.23)
abs 1 S wc

c S
o

c w S wc c f

(1 S wc )

abs 1 S wc Effective H .C. porosity

c S
o

c w S wc c f
1 S wc

Effective Saturation weighted

k
diffusivity cons tan t
c

compressib ility

Chapter 6 Well Inflow Equations for


Stabilized Flow Conditions
6.1 Introduction
--- Solutions of the radial diffusivity equation for liquid flow
-- Semi-steady state

p
const.
t
-- Steady state
p
0
t

6.2 Semi-Steady state solution


From Eq.(5.8), Such as
cV

p
q (5.8)
t
-

cV(Pi - P) qt (6.1)
p
q

(5.10)
t
c re2 h

From Eq(5.10), such as

From Eq(5.20), such as

Eq(5.10)&(5.20)

Integration

1 p
c p
(r )
(5.20)
r r r
k t

1 p
q
(r )
(6.2)
2
r r r
re kh

p
q r 2
r

C1 (6.3)
r
2 re2 kh

p
q r 2
r

C1 (6.3)
2
r
2 re kh
At

r re ,

p
0
r

C1

q
2kh

p
q 1 r

( 2 ) (6.4)
r 2kh r re
Integration

p r p wf

Note :

q r 1 r
Pwf p 2kh rw r re2 r
Pr

rw2
q
r
r2

ln 2 2 (6.6)
2kh rw 2re re

rw2
0
2
re

p r p wf

rw2
q
r
r2

ln 2 2 (6.6)
2kh rw 2re re

at r re and near well bore with skin


pe pwf
PI

q
re
1
ln(
)

(6.7)
2kh
rw
2

q
2kh

(6.8)
p e p wf

r 1
ln e S
rw 2

Since pe & re can not be measured directly,


pe by p (avg. p within the drainage volume)

re

re

rw

rw

pdV p 2rhdr

r r h
dV

re

2
e

rw

2
w

re
2
2
p 2
prdr

re rw2 rw
re2

or

p r p wf

Since

re

rw

q
r
r2
ln 2

2kh
rw 2re

2 q re
r
r2
2
r ln 2

r
rw 2re
re 2kh w

p p wf

prdr (6.10)

(6.6)

dr (6.11)

re2 re re2
r
Since r ln dr
ln
rw
rw
2 rw 4
re

re2
r3
&
dr
rw 2r 2
8
e
re

p p wf

re 3
q

ln S (6.12)

2kh
rw 4

$6.3

Steady state solution - - -

1 p
r 0
r r r

6.4 Example of the Application of the Stabilized


Inflow Equations
Steam injection
Ts

Ts

Temperature

Tr

Tr
rh

rw

rh

Under Steady state


p r p wf

q oh
r
ln
2kh
rw

for

rw r rh

and
pr ph

q oc
r
ln
2kh
rh

at r rh , p h p wf

for

rh r re

q o h
r
ln h (6.16)
2kh
rw

q oc
r
ln e (6.17)
2kh
rh
Eq.(6.16) Eq.(6.17)

at r re , p e p h

q oc oh
r
r

ln h ln e (6.18)
2kh oc
rw
rh
for a stimulated well

p e p wf

for

an unstimulated

p e p wf

well

q oc re
ln (6.18a )
2kh rw
ln

PI ratio increase

re
rw

PI stimulated well

r
PI unstimulated well oh rh
ln ln e
oc rw
rh

ln

re
rw

PI stimulated well
PI ratio increase

PI unstimulated well oh ln rh ln re
oc rw
rh

u sin g typical field data


Tr 113 F
oc 980cp
re 382 ft
Ts 525 F

rw 0.23 ft

oh 3.2cp

rh 65 ft
PI

ratio

382
ln
0.23
increase
4.14
3.2
65
382
ln
ln
980 0.23
65

Exercise 6.1 Wellbore Damage


(1) show the skin factor maybe expressed as

ke k a ra
ln
ka
rw

assume that for


r ra
steady state
r ra

semi steady state

(2) rw 0.33 ft ; re 660 ft


During

drilling
ra 4 ft ; k a 0.01k e (or k e 100k a )

After completion, the well is stimulated


ra 10 ft ; k a 10k e (or k e 0.1k a )
what

will be the PI

ratio increase ?

Solution:
(1) steady state

flow

q
r
ln

pr pwf
2k a h
rw
semi steady state flow
q
r
r2
ln
pr pa

2k e h
rw 2re2
at

rw r ra

ra r re

r ra

ra
q
ln
( a )
pa pwf
2k a h
rw
at
r re
pe pwf

re
1
ln

(b)
2k e h
ra
2

Eq.(a ) Eq.(b)
q

k e ra
re 1

p e p wf
ln ln
2k e h k a rw
ra 2
re 1
re
re k e ra
q
ln ln ln ln

2k e h
rw 2
ra
rw k a rw
re 1
ke
ra
q
ln ( - 1)ln
p e p wf
2k e h
rw 2 k a
rw
which must be equivalent to
p e p wf

re 1
q
ln S

2k e h
rw 2

k e k a ra
S
ln
ka
rw

(2) Before stimulation

k e k a ra 100k a k a
4
S1
ln
ln
246.02
ka
rw
ka
0.333

After stimulation

k e k a ra 0.1k a k a
10
S2
ln
ln
-3.06
ka
rw
ka
0.333
2k e h
( PI ) A.S
( PI ) B.S

r
1
r
1
ln e S 2
ln e S1 ln 660 1 246.02
rw 2
253.11

rw 2

0.333 2

62.77
2k e h
re 1
660 1
4.0312
ln
3.06
ln S 2
0.333 2
rw 2

re 1

ln S1
rw 2

6.5 Generalized Form of Inflow Equation Under Semi-steady State


Conditions
Semi-steady state equation in terms of the avg. pressure Eq.(6.12)

p p wf

r
q
3
ln e S (6.12)
2kh
rw 4

r
re
q
q

ln e ln e 4 ln e S

ln
3

2kh
rw
2kh
S

rw e e 4

4re2
q 1
q 1
4A

ln
ln

2kh 2 4 rw e S 2 e 3 / 2
2kh 2 56.32 rw e S

q 1
4A

ln

S
2kh 2 r 31.6 rw e

r 1.781 31.6 Dietz Shape factor C A

where