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# Chapter 5

## The Basic Differential Equation for Radial Flow

in a Porous Medium
5.1 Introduction
To derive and to solve the radial fluid flow in porous
medium 1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r
r
t
2 p 1 p c p
2

(5.19)
r r
k t
r
1 p c p
or
(5.20)
r
r r r
k t

## 5.2 Derivation of the Basic radial differential equation

Assumptions:
-- The reservoir is homogenous in all rock
properties and isotropic with respect to permeability
-- h=const. and hperf=h
-- Single phase fluid
Why not Cartesian geometry?

C.V.

C.V.

Conservation of mass:
Mass flow rate (in) mass flow rate (out)
Rate of change of mass in the volume element

dr

dr
r dr
r
t
t
( q )

or
2 r h
(5.2)
r
t

q

(2rh)k p

2rhk p

2rh

r
t

1 k p

r
(5.3)
r r r
t

1 k p

r
(5.3)
r r r
t
Since

1 V
m
and
V p
V

1 1 t
c

m p
p t p
p
c

t t

1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t

## 5.3 Conditions of Solution

Radial flow equation 1 k r p c p (5.1)
r r r
t
The most common and useful analytical solution is for the

initial condition : p pi

for all r

p pi at r

1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t

## The three most common conditions

(1) Transient --- Early time; no boundary effect
(Infinite acting reservoir)

p g (r , t )
p
f (r , t )
r

(2) Semi steady state --- The effect of the outer boundary has been felt.
p
0 at r re
r
and
p
const. for all r and t (5.7)
t

1 dV
V dp
cVdp dV
dp
dV
cV

q (5.8)
dt
dt
c

dp
q

dt
cV
dp
q

(5.10)
dt
c re2 h
or

where p p average

p p i Vi

Vi

vol. avg.

qi

rate avg.

p p i qi

pressure

p p e const. at r re
due to natural water influx or the injection of some fluid and

p
0 for all r and t
t

## 5.4 The Linearization of Equation 5.1 for Fluids of small

and constant compressibility
1 k p
p

r c (5.1)
r r r
t
1 k
p k p p k p k 2 p
p

r r
r r r r r 2
t
From Eq.(5.4)

1
p
c
cp c

p
r r

1 k
p k
p p k p k 2 p
p

r r
r
r r r r 2
t
Note:

k
p
p
0 sin ce k , f (r ) ;
0 sin ce
small
r
r
r

2 p 1 p c p
2

(5.19)
r r
k t
r
1 p c p
or
(5.20)
r
r r r
k t
It is for the flow of liquids or for cp<<1
c in equation(5.20) is the total ,or saturation weighted compressibility

c ct c o s o c w s w c f
c abs co S o c w S wc c f (5.23)
abs 1 S wc

c S
o

c w S wc c f

(1 S wc )

c S
o

c w S wc c f
1 S wc

## Effective Saturation weighted

k
diffusivity cons tan t
c

compressib ility

## Chapter 6 Well Inflow Equations for

Stabilized Flow Conditions
6.1 Introduction
--- Solutions of the radial diffusivity equation for liquid flow

p
const.
t
p
0
t

From Eq.(5.8), Such as
cV

p
q (5.8)
t
-

cV(Pi - P) qt (6.1)
p
q

(5.10)
t
c re2 h

## From Eq(5.20), such as

Eq(5.10)&(5.20)

Integration

1 p
c p
(r )
(5.20)
r r r
k t

1 p
q
(r )
(6.2)
2
r r r
re kh

p
q r 2
r

C1 (6.3)
r
2 re2 kh

p
q r 2
r

C1 (6.3)
2
r
2 re kh
At

r re ,

p
0
r

C1

q
2kh

p
q 1 r

( 2 ) (6.4)
r 2kh r re
Integration

p r p wf

Note :

q r 1 r
Pwf p 2kh rw r re2 r
Pr

rw2
q
r
r2

ln 2 2 (6.6)
2kh rw 2re re

rw2
0
2
re

p r p wf

rw2
q
r
r2

ln 2 2 (6.6)
2kh rw 2re re

pe pwf
PI

q
re
1
ln(
)

(6.7)
2kh
rw
2

q
2kh

(6.8)
p e p wf

r 1
ln e S
rw 2

## Since pe & re can not be measured directly,

pe by p (avg. p within the drainage volume)

re

re

rw

rw

pdV p 2rhdr

r r h
dV

re

2
e

rw

2
w

re
2
2
p 2
prdr

re rw2 rw
re2

or

p r p wf

Since

re

rw

q
r
r2
ln 2

2kh
rw 2re

2 q re
r
r2
2
r ln 2

r
rw 2re
re 2kh w

p p wf

prdr (6.10)

(6.6)

dr (6.11)

re2 re re2
r
Since r ln dr
ln
rw
rw
2 rw 4
re

re2
r3
&
dr
rw 2r 2
8
e
re

p p wf

re 3
q

ln S (6.12)

2kh
rw 4

\$6.3

1 p
r 0
r r r

## 6.4 Example of the Application of the Stabilized

Inflow Equations
Steam injection
Ts

Ts

Temperature

Tr

Tr
rh

rw

rh

p r p wf

q oh
r
ln
2kh
rw

for

rw r rh

and
pr ph

q oc
r
ln
2kh
rh

at r rh , p h p wf

for

rh r re

q o h
r
ln h (6.16)
2kh
rw

q oc
r
ln e (6.17)
2kh
rh
Eq.(6.16) Eq.(6.17)

at r re , p e p h

q oc oh
r
r

ln h ln e (6.18)
2kh oc
rw
rh
for a stimulated well

p e p wf

for

an unstimulated

p e p wf

well

q oc re
ln (6.18a )
2kh rw
ln

PI ratio increase

re
rw

PI stimulated well

r
PI unstimulated well oh rh
ln ln e
oc rw
rh

ln

re
rw

PI stimulated well
PI ratio increase

PI unstimulated well oh ln rh ln re
oc rw
rh

Tr 113 F
oc 980cp
re 382 ft
Ts 525 F

rw 0.23 ft

oh 3.2cp

rh 65 ft
PI

ratio

382
ln
0.23
increase
4.14
3.2
65
382
ln
ln
980 0.23
65

## Exercise 6.1 Wellbore Damage

(1) show the skin factor maybe expressed as

ke k a ra
ln
ka
rw

r ra
r ra

## (2) rw 0.33 ft ; re 660 ft

During

drilling
ra 4 ft ; k a 0.01k e (or k e 100k a )

## After completion, the well is stimulated

ra 10 ft ; k a 10k e (or k e 0.1k a )
what

will be the PI

ratio increase ?

Solution:

flow

q
r
ln

pr pwf
2k a h
rw
q
r
r2
ln
pr pa

2k e h
rw 2re2
at

rw r ra

ra r re

r ra

ra
q
ln
( a )
pa pwf
2k a h
rw
at
r re
pe pwf

re
1
ln

(b)
2k e h
ra
2

Eq.(a ) Eq.(b)
q

k e ra
re 1

p e p wf
ln ln
2k e h k a rw
ra 2
re 1
re
re k e ra
q
ln ln ln ln

2k e h
rw 2
ra
rw k a rw
re 1
ke
ra
q
ln ( - 1)ln
p e p wf
2k e h
rw 2 k a
rw
which must be equivalent to
p e p wf

re 1
q
ln S

2k e h
rw 2

k e k a ra
S
ln
ka
rw

## (2) Before stimulation

k e k a ra 100k a k a
4
S1
ln
ln
246.02
ka
rw
ka
0.333

After stimulation

k e k a ra 0.1k a k a
10
S2
ln
ln
-3.06
ka
rw
ka
0.333
2k e h
( PI ) A.S
( PI ) B.S

r
1
r
1
ln e S 2
ln e S1 ln 660 1 246.02
rw 2
253.11

rw 2

0.333 2

62.77
2k e h
re 1
660 1
4.0312
ln
3.06
ln S 2
0.333 2
rw 2

re 1

ln S1
rw 2

## 6.5 Generalized Form of Inflow Equation Under Semi-steady State

Conditions
Semi-steady state equation in terms of the avg. pressure Eq.(6.12)

p p wf

r
q
3
ln e S (6.12)
2kh
rw 4

r
re
q
q

ln e ln e 4 ln e S

ln
3

2kh
rw
2kh
S

rw e e 4

4re2
q 1
q 1
4A

ln
ln

2kh 2 4 rw e S 2 e 3 / 2
2kh 2 56.32 rw e S

q 1
4A

ln

S
2kh 2 r 31.6 rw e

where