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Porositas/Neutron Presentation

By Muhammad Gandhi

NEUTRON LOG

Logging tool emits high energy neutrons


into formation
Neutrons collide with nuclei of formations
atom
Neutrons lose energy (velocity) with each
collision
Most energy lost when colliding with a
hydrogen atom nucleus
Log records porosity based on neutrons
captured by formation

NEUTRON TOOL PRINCIPLE

Detects neutrons from the source which have been


scattered back by the formation

NEUTRON TOOL PRINCIPLE

The neutron tool employs


a dual detector design
to compensate for
mudcake, lithology, etc.
Still, corrections
are required for
the NPHI values
NOTICE : The tool is
pressed
against the borehole
wall to eliminate mud
effects

GRAIN PACKING AND SORTING

Jadi kalau dihubungkan dengan resistivity log (Besar) belum tentu


porosity nya besar, karena
Pengaruh dari cement

Porosity is different in clastics (eg. sandstone) and carbonates.

LIFE OF A NEUTRON

Neutrons emitted from source


Neutrons interact with Hydrogen in
formation
Neutrons loose energy
Neutrons are absorbed or reflected back
to detectors
High counts = Low porosity
Low counts = High porosity

LIFE OF A NEUTRON

Collisions cause
neutrons to lose energy

Energy loss due


mainly to hydrogen

Therefore tool
measures amount of
hydrogen in
formation, ie., water

NEUTRON TOOL DESIGN


Both detectors placed
in long spacing zone
Count rates at the
detectors are inversely
proportional to
formation porosity
Near/Far Ratio
proportional to
porosity
Ratio compensates
for
mudcake
Source AmBe 15-20Cu
5MeV neutrons

NEUTRON MEASUREMENT

Uses
Porosity
Lithology
Curve N

POROSITY FROM NEUTRON LOG

FACTORS AFFECTING
POROSITY LOG RESPONSES

Lithology of formation
Fluid content

Environmental Effects on NPHI

Lithology Effects
The tool responds mostly to the
presence of hydrogen, but different
minerals will slow neutrons to
different degrees
Therefore, the Neutron tool reads
different values for NPHI in different
formations of the same porosity
This must be taken into account for
the NPHI curve

On a limestone
scale, the NPHI is 20%.
However the formation
is a sandstone.
What is the true porosity?

Answer : 25%

Gas Effect
In sedimentary rocks the presence of gas causes low
readings of porosity for the neutron tool and causes high
values for the density tool

This Crossover is called Gas Effect and is colored in red


on the log

The actual porosity is determined by crossplotting the


Density porosity vs. the Neutron porosity in a chart book

*Sonic is not significantly affected by gas

GAS EFFECTS ON NPHI

Gas has a lower hydrogen concentration


than oil or water due to its lower density
A neutron tool will interpret gas to be
water
occupying a smaller volume; a
smaller volume means a smaller porosity
Hence in gas zones, the neutron tool reads
lower
porosity than the actual
This gas effect requires correction

Gas Effect In Sonic


Gas Effect in
Sonic Log

The speed of sound depends


principally upon the rock
matrix material and the
porosity.
The measurement of
compressional and shear
wave slowness can help us
estimate:
Primary porosity
Lithology
Presence of natural gas

Cross Over/Butterfly Effect/Football


Effect

Cross Over

Neutron Arah Kekanan/kecil

Density arah kekiri/kecil

Biasanya diblog warna kuning(positif ada fluida)

Kalau air relatif stacking crossover (tipis


memanjang)

NEUTRON LOG INTERPRETATION

Reads deeper than density


More affected by virgin zone fluid
Gas effect
Gas lowers H concentration, lowers apparent
porosity

SHALE EFFECTS ON NPHI

Shale has bound water in its lattice


structure This water is immobile and
does not represent
any EFFECTIVE porosity
However, the neutron tool responds to the
presence of hydrogen
Since there is a substantial amount of
water in
shales, the neutron tool reads
a high NPHI
Shaliness has an effect on the neutron tool
and this requires correction

Shale effect Responds to boundwater