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Cytoplasmic

inheritance

M. K. Tadjudin
Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu
Kesehatan
Universitas Islam Negeri
Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta

Genetics

Mendelian
Genetics

Non-Mendelian
Genetics

Cytoplasmic
inheritance

Dominance

Co-dominance

Polygenic
inheritance

Epistasis

Epigenetics

Cytoplasmic
inheritance
Inheritance via genes found in
cytoplasmic organelles
Extra-chromosomal inheritance
controlled by non-nuclear
genomes

Who is your mama


?

The transmission of cytoplasm


differs between sex cells:
Male contribution: Sperm or
pollen transfer little or no
cytoplasm to the egg
Female contribution: Egg
contributes almost all of the
cytoplasm to the zygote

What is in the cytoplasm


that could contain DNA?

Mitochondria
Chloroplasts

Endosymbiotic
hypothesis
Free living prokaryotes
ancestors of chloroplasts
and mitochondria invaded
plant and animal cells but
provide useful function and
so a symbiotic relationship
developed over time

Organelle
inheritance

Organelles (Chloroplasts and


mitochondria) have circular
chromosomes
A zygote inherits its organelles from the
cytoplasm of the egg Maternal
inheritance
The pattern of inheritance is not
associated with meiosis or mitosis
because the organelles are in the
cytoplasm not the nucleus

Extranuclear
inheritance
Transmission of genes that
occur outside the nucleus
Found in most eukaryotes and
is commonly known to occur in
cytoplasmic organelles such as
mitochondria and chloroplasts
or from cellular parasites like
viruses or bacteria

Types of Extranuclear Inheritance


(1)
VEGETATIVE SEGREGATION
Results from random replication and
partitioning of cytoplasmic organelles
as with chloroplasts and mitochondria
during mitotic cell divisions and results
in daughter cells that contain a random
sample of the parent cells organelles
e.g. mitochondria of asexually
replicating yeast cells

Types of Extranuclear Inheritance


(2)
UNIPARENTAL INHERITANCE
Occurs in extranuclear genes when only one parent contributes
organellar DNA to the offspring e.g. uniparental gene transmission
is the maternal inheritance of human mitochondria. at fertilization
via the egg
The fathers mitochondrial genes are not transmitted to the
offspring via the sperm. Very rare cases which require further
investigation have been reported of paternal mitochondrial
inheritance in humans, in which the fathers mitochondrial genome
is found in offspring
Chloroplast genes can also inherit uniparentally during sexual
reproduction. They are historically thought to inherit maternally,
but paternal inheritance in many species is increasingly being
identified. The mechanisms of uniparental inheritance from species
to species differ greatly and are quite complicated. For instance,
chloroplasts have been found to exhibit maternal, paternal and
biparental modes even within the same species

Types of Extranuclear Inheritance


(3)
Biparental inheritance
Occurs in extranuclear genes when both parents
contribute organellar DNA to the offspring
It may be less common than uniparental
extranuclear inheritance, and usually occurs in a
permissible species only a fraction of the time
An example of biparental mitochondrial
inheritance is in the yeast, [Saccharomyces
cerevisiae]. When two haploid cells of opposite
mating type fuse they can both contribute
mitochondria to the resulting diploid offspring

Perinatal Inheritance of
Parasites
Extranuclear transmission of viral genomes
and symbiotic bacteria is also possible
An example of viral genome transmission
is perinatal transmission
This occurs from mother to fetus during
the perinatal period, which begins before
birth and ends about 1 month after birth
During this time viral material may be
passed from mother to child in the
bloodstream or breastmilk
This is of particular concern with mothers
carrying HIV or Hepatitis C viruses

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