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Kimia Fisik/Physical Chemistry (2 SKS)

Tony Bird, Kimia Fisik Untuk Universitas


Dogra & Dogra, Kimia Fisik dan Soal-soal

Materi: Sifat Gas, Cairan, Padatan, Kes


Tugas/Kuis 30%
UTS
35 %
UAS
35%

KIMIA FISIK : WUJUD


ZAT

Perbedaan Umum Ketiga Wujud Zat


GAS
Atom, Ion dan
molekul gas
bergerak bebas.
Bertabrakan dan
menumbuk dinding
wadah.
Jarak lintasan jauh
lebih besar dari
diameter partikel gas
Energi gerak
translasi, vibrasi,
rotasi
Energi tarik menarik
relatif lemah drpd e.
translasi

PADATAN
Partikelnya tidak
dapat bergerak
bebas, terpaku pada
tempatnya sambil
bervibrasi energi
vibrasi
Jarak partikel
berdekatan
Padatan yang
berbentuk kristal
partikel tersusun
rapih secara
geometrik punya
pola tertentu

CAIRAN
Keadaannya
diantara gas dan
padatan
Partikel dapat
bergerak,
bertabrakan dan
menumbuk dinding
wadah
Memiliki energi
translasi dan energi
vibrasi
Punya energi
translasi FLUIDA

Beberapa Sifat Materi


SIFAT
Bentuk

PADATAN
Tertentu

Sesuai
wadah

Sesuai
wadah

Volume

Tertentu

Tertentu

Bergantung
tekanan

Fluiditas

Kaku

Mengalir

Mengalir

Kerapatan

Umumnya
lebih kecil
dari
cairannya

Lebih rapat Relatif kecil


dari gas

Kompresibi Sangat kecil


litas

CAIRAN

Sangat
kecil

GAS

Sangat
besar

Perubahan Wujud

meleleh/
mencair
PADATAN

menguap
CAIRAN

membeku

menyublim

GAS
mengembun

Sifat Umum Gas

Physical Characteristics of Gases

Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers.

Gases are the most compressible state of matter.

Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the


same container.

Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids.

Tiga variabel gas yang dapat diukur adalah


tekanan, volume, dan suhu.

Tekanan adalah gaya per satuan luas,


biasanya dinyatakan dalam satuan torr
(mmHg), atau atmosfir.

Untuk gas ideal, volume gas selalu sama


dengan
volume
wadahnya,
karena
gas
tersebar di setiap penjuru ruang. Simbolnya V,
satuannya Liter atau miliLiter.

Suhu gas dilambangkan T, satuannya Kelvin.

Tekanan
Barometer adalah suatu alat untuk mengukur
tekanan atmosfer. Barometer sederhana adalah
barometer Torricelli.

Pressure =

Force
Area

(force = mass x acceleration)

Units of Pressure
1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
1 atm = 101,325 Pa
Barometer

Gambar Barometer Torricelli.

Dalam SI, unit tekanan adalah Pascal (Pa).


1 atm = 101.325 Pa (N/m2)= 760 torr (mmHg)

Manometer
Manometer digunakan untuk mengukur
tekanan dalamsuatu bejana atau ruang
tertutup.

Hukum-hukum dasar bagi gas


ideal
1. Hukum Boyle: Pada suhu konstan, volume
sejumlah gas berbanding terbalik dengan
tekanannya.

V 1/P

Boyles Law

P 1/V
P x V = constant
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Constant temperature
Constant amount of gas

A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at a


pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas (in
mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant temperature to
154 mL?

P x V = constant
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
P1 = 726 mmHg

P2 = ?

V1 = 946 mL

V2 = 154 mL

P1 x V1
726 mmHg x 946 mL
P2 =
=
154 mL
V2

= 4460 mmHg

2. Hukum Charles
Pada tekanan tetap, volume sejumlah gas
tertentu berbanding lurus dengan suhu (K) .

VT

A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20 L at 125 0C.


At what temperature will the gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L
if the pressure remains constant?

V1 /T1 = V2 /T2
V1 = 3.20 L

V2 = 1.54 L

T1 = 398.15 K

T2 = ?

T1 = 125 (0C) + 273.15 (K) = 398.15 K


V2 x T1
T2 =
=
V1

1.54 L x 398.15 K
3.20 L

= 192 K

3. Hukum Gay-Lussac
Pada volume tetap, tekanan sejumlah gas
tertentu berbanding lurus dengan suhu (K).

PT

Argon is an inert gas used in lightbulbs to retard the


vaporization of the filament. A certain lightbulb containing
argon at 1.20 atm and 18 0C is heated to 85 0C at constant
volume. What is the final pressure of argon in the lightbulb
(in atm)?

P1
P2
=
T1
T2
P2 = P1 x

P1 = 1.20 atm
T1 = 291 K

P2 = ?
T2 = 358 K

T2
= 1.20 atm x 358 K = 1.48 atm
291 K
T1

4. Hukum Kombinasi Gas


( Hukum Boyle Gay Lussac)
Perbandingan PV/T konstan untuk sejumlah
gas tertentu.
PV/T = konstan
P1V1/T 1= C
P2V2/T 2= C
Sehingga P1V1/T 1= P2V2/T

5. Hukum Avogadro
Pada tekanan dan temperatur tertentu, volume
tertentu akan mengandung jumlah mol gas
yang sama.
V~n
Dari hukum Boyle, Charles dan Avogadro dapat
terlihat bahwa volume merupakan fungsi dari
jumlah mol, tekanan dan temperatur. Dengan
menggunakan matematika yang sederhana
dapat diturunkan hubungan sebagai berikut :
P . V = n . R. T
Persamaan ini dikenal dengan nama Persamaan
Keadaan bagi Gas Ideal.

6. Ideal Gas Equation


1
Boyles law: V (at
constant n and T)
P
Charles law: V T(at constant n and P)
Avogadros law: V n(at constant P and T)
nT
V
P
V = constant x

nT
=R
P

nT
P
PV = nRT

R is the gas constant

Satuan
Jika P = atm
P = Pa
V=L
V = m3
n = mol
n = mol
R = 0,082 L.atm.K-1.mol-1
R = 8,314 J.K1.mol-1
T=K
T=K

What is the volume (in liters) occupied by 49.8 g of HCl at


STP?
T = 0 0C = 273.15 K

PV = nRT
nRT
V=
P

P = 1 atm
1 mol HCl
n = 49.8 g x
= 1.37 mol
36.45 g HCl

1.37 mol x 0.0821


V=
V = 30.6 L

Latm
x
molK

1 atm

273.15 K

KUIS 1 kerjakan 2 dari 3 soal berikut


1.Gas neon memiliki volume 120 cm3 berada pada 673 mmHg
dan 50o C, Berapa volume barunya jika tekanan dan jumlah
gas dipertahankan konstan tetapi suhu dinaikkan sampai 100o
C.
2.Rumus empiris senyawa organik adalah CH. Bila 0,45 dm3
uap ini pada 400 C dan tekanan 1 atm beratnya 1,365 g.
Tentukan rumus molekul senyawa tersebut (R = 0,082 L atm
mol-1K-1)
3. A sample of natural gas contains 6.55 moles of CH4, 0.437
moles of C2H6, and 0.098 moles of C3H8. If the total pressure
of the gases is 1.54 atm, what is the partial pressure of
propane (C3H8)?

Density (d) Calculations


PMr
m
d=
=
V
RT

m is the mass of the gas in g


Mr is the molar mass of the gas

Molar Mass (M ) of a Gaseous Substance


dRT
Mr =
P

d is the density of the gas in g/L

A 2.10-L vessel contains 4.65 g of a gas at 1.00 atm and


27.0 0C. What is the molar mass of the gas?

dRT
Mr =
P
2.21

Mr =

g
L

Mr = 54.6 g/mol

4.65 g
m
=
= 2.21
d=
V 2.10 L
Latm
x 0.0821molK
x 300.15 K

1 atm

g
L

Gas Stoichiometry

What is the volume of CO2 produced at 37 0C and 1.00 atm


when 5.60 g of glucose are used up in the reaction:
C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g)
g C6H12O6
5.60 g C6H12O6

V=

6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

mol C6H12O6
x

nRT
=
P

1 mol C6H12O6
180 g C6H12O6

mol CO2
x

V CO2

6 mol CO2
= 0.187 mol CO2
1 mol C6H12O6

Latm
x 310.15 K
molK
1.00 atm

0.187 mol x 0.0821

= 4.76 L

7. Hukum Dalton
Apabila dua gas yang tidak saling berantaraksi
dicampur, pada volume dan temperatur
tertentu, maka tekanan total = penjumlahan
tekanan parsial masing-masing gas.
Dari hubungan ini maka tekanan parsial gas
dapat dihitung melalui hubungan berikut.
Pi = Xi . Pt
Dimana Xi = fraksi mol zat I
Total fraksi = 1

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures

V and T
are
constant

P1

P2

Ptotal = P1 + P2

Consider a case in which two gases, A and B, are in a container of


volume V.

nART
PA =
V

nA is the number of moles of A

nBRT
PB =
V

nB is the number of moles of B

nA
XA =
nA + nB

PT = PA + PB
PA = XA PT

nB
XB =
nA + nB

PB = XB PT

Pi = Xi PT

mole fraction (Xi) =

ni
nT

A sample of natural gas contains 8.24 moles of CH4, 0.421


moles of C2H6, and 0.116 moles of C3H8. If the total
pressure of the gases is 1.37 atm, what is the partial pressure
of propane (C3H8)?

Pi = Xi PT

PT = 1.37 atm

Xpropane =

0.116
8.24 + 0.421 + 0.116

Ppropane = 0.0132 x 1.37 atm

= 0.0132

= 0.0181 atm

Bottle full of oxygen gas


and water vapor

2KClO3 (s)

2KCl (s) + 3O2 (g)

PT = PO 2+ PH O2

Chemistry in Action:
Scuba Diving and the Gas Laws

Depth (ft)

Pressure
(atm)

33

66

8. Hukum Efusi Graham


Efusi : peristiwa
berpindahnya
partikel gas dari
konsentrasi besar ke
vacuum melalui
celah sempit
Kecepatan efusi gas
berbanding terbalik
dengan akar
densitasnya, d pada
P dan T konstan.
Kecepatan efusi (A)
Kecepatan efusi (B)

dB
dA

= (MB/MA)

Gas diffusion is the gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with


molecules of another by virtue of their kinetic properties.
r1
r2

Mr2
Mr1

NH4Cl

NH3
17 g/mol

HCl
36 g/mol

Gas effusion is the is the process by which gas under pressure


escapes from one compartment of a container to another by passing
through a small opening.
r1
r2

t2
t1

Mr2
Mr1

Nickel forms a gaseous compound of the formula Ni(CO)x


What is the value of x given that under the same conditions
methane (CH4) effuses 3.3 times faster than the compound?
r1 = 3.3 x r2
M1 = 16 g/mol

M2 =

r1 2

(r )
2

x M1 = (3.3)2 x 16 = 174.2

58.7 + x 28 = 174.2

x = 4.1 ~ 4

9. Teori Kinetika Gas


Molekul gas ideal tidak mengenal adanya
molekul lain disekitarnya, kecuali bila
bertumbukkan, sebab masing-masing akan
berlaku secara bebas, dan memberikan
tekanan yang sama, seolah-olah gas
tersebut menempati ruang tersebut
sendirian.

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases


1. A gas is composed of molecules that are separated from each
other by distances far greater than their own dimensions. The
molecules can be considered to be points; that is, they possess
mass but have negligible volume.
2. Gas molecules are in constant motion in random directions, and
they frequently collide with one another. Collisions among
molecules are perfectly elastic.
3. Gas molecules exert neither attractive nor repulsive forces on one
another.
4. The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the
temperature of the gas in kelvins. Any two gases at the same
temperature will have the same average kinetic energy
KE = mu2

Kinetic theory of gases and


Compressibility of Gases
Boyles Law
P collision rate with wall
Collision rate number density
Number density 1/V
P 1/V

Charles Law
P collision rate with wall
Collision rate average kinetic energy of gas molecules
Average kinetic energy T
PT

Kinetic theory of gases and


Avogadros Law
P collision rate with wall
Collision rate number density
Number density n
Pn

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures


Molecules do not attract or repel one another
P exerted by one type of molecule is unaffected by the
presence of another gas
Ptotal = Pi

The distribution of speeds


of three different gases
at the same temperature

The distribution of speeds


for nitrogen gas molecules
at three different temperatures

urms =

3RT
Mr

10. Deviations from Ideal Behavior/ Gas Nyata

1 mole of ideal gas


PV = nRT
PV = 1.0
n=
RT

Repulsive Forces

Attractive Forces

Effect of intermolecular forces on the pressure exerted by a gas.

Van der Waals equation


nonideal gas
2
an
( P + V2 )(V nb) = nRT

corrected
pressure

corrected
volume