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Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

By Guy Di Santo

26-30 March 2001

11TH Performance & Operations Conference - Puerto Vallarta

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Brake manufacturers data


Carbon brake wear is a very complex physical process

Tests and in-service experience identified two major

parameters affecting carbon brake life

number of brake applications


brake temperature
Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Brake manufacturers data


Messier-Bugatti

wear
rate

Indicated temperatureC

80
0

100

500

250
200

300

400

500

600

disk temperatureC
Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Brake manufacturers data


Honeywell - ALS

wear
rate

150

315

180

405

Indicated temperatureC

480

630
disk temperatureC

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Brake Manufacturers data


BF Goodrich

Wear
rate

80

165

250

335

100

200

300

400

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Indicated temperature (C)


420
500
500
600
Disk temperature (C)

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Preferred carbon braking techniques


Reducing the Number of Brake Applications
Do not ride the brakes
Single (two on A340) engine taxi
Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly
Use of autobrake at landing
Optimizing Brake Temperature
Operate the brakes outside high wear areas

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

10

Optimizing brake temperature


Messier - Bugatti
Honeywell-ALS

BF Goodrich

Wear
rate

80

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

150

250
11

315

500

Indicated temperatureC

Optimizing brake temperature

Temperature (C)

Brake Temperature Management during taxi


700
Taxi in

600

Disk
temperature

500
landing

Indicated
temperature

Taxi out

400

Taxi in

300

Taxi out

200
parking

100
1st flight

0
0

50

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

2nd flight

100

150

200
250
Time (minutes)
12

3rd flight

300

350

400

Optimizing brake temperature


Brake Temperature Management during taxi
Taxi out

Taxi in

Messier - Bugatti
Honeywell-ALS

BF Goodrich
Wear
rate

80

150

250

315
Brake hot
warning

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

13

500

Indicated temperatureC

Optimizing brake temperature


Brake Temperature Management during taxi
Brake Manufacturers recommendations
Taxi in:
in Keep the brakes hot
Taxi out:
out
Messier-Bugatti: Below 80C
Honeywell-ALS: Below 150C
BF Goodrich: warm or hot
ABS: Optimum indicated temperature is 150C

Brake temperature management is not easy


up to 150C difference between brakes in normal operation
A good tool: the brake cooling fans
Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

14

Optimizing brake temperature


Hot brakes: Setting the limits
Taxi out:
out Airbus does not promote any procedure that

would intentionally increase brake temperature before


takeoff
ensure max energy is sustained at RTO
If no brake fans, on short turnaround, taxi out with hot brakes
is acceptable (Brake Hot warning extinguished at the gate and
prior to takeoff)
Taxi in:
in Thermal oxidation accelerated at high temperature
brakes should not be repeatedly operated above 500C
brake fans increase oxidation if brakes are not thermally
stabilized
Brake hot warning at landing is not an abnormal condition

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

15

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

16

Airbus recommendations
Autobrake at landing

On short or evenly contaminated runways: LO or MED


In other cases, left at captains discretion
Particularly recommended when significant need of brake
application is foreseen
Reduces the number of brake applications to one
Increases brake temperature to adequate values for taxi in

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

17

Airbus recommendations
Engine thrust reversers
For safety reasons, select full reverse thrust after main

L/G touches down


If restricted by airport regulations, select idle reverse

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

18

Airbus recommendations
Brake cooling fans (if installed)
Taxi out:
Fans ON when temperature >100C (arc on ECAM)
Before takeoff:
If temperature >150C (Fans ON), delay takeoff (except ABS)
Fans OFF if temperature <150C
Taxi in:
Normal operation:
Fans selection delayed for 5 minutes or at the gate
Short turnaround or temperature likely to exceed 500C
Select Fans (forget oxidation)
Parking:
Fans OFF if temperature < 100C (no arc on ECAM)
Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

19

Airbus recommendations
Parking brake
Brake temperature > 300C (150C Fans ON)
Release parking brake at the gate after chocks are in place
Brake temperature > 500C (350C Fans ON)
Avoid parking brake application, unless operationally
necessary

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

20

Contents
Brake manufacturers data
Preferred carbon braking techniques
Optimizing brake temperature
Airbus recommendations
Conclusion

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

21

Conclusion
Airbus discussed with brake manufacturers to improve

carbon brake life


Brake manufacturers do not have all the same views
Recommendations for carbon brake saving should be
customized
Airbus amended certain procedures to take into account
in-service experience and brake manufacturers data
Keep the brakes hot for taxi in

Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes

22